Advertisement

Cascade and Stepwise Laser Spectroscopy of Alkali Atoms

  • W. Happer

Abstract

A little more than one hundred years ago atomic spectroscopy began at Heidelberg with the work of Bunsen and Kirchnoff on the beautiful colors of flames seeded with salts of sodium and potassium. Intrigued by certain peculiar lines in the spectra of Durkheim mineral water, Bunsen evaporated forty tons of water to isolate the first small samples of rubidium and cesium salts. Remarkably, the properties of those same alkali atoms continue to fascinate us today, and I am going to talk about the surprising results of some recent experimental investigations of the fine structure and hyperfine structure of alkali atoms. Most of this work has been done by two talented young men, Rajendra Gupta of Columbia University and Sune Svanberg of Göteborg University. They have been assisted by a number of able students whom I will mention later.

Keywords

Hyperfine Structure Alkali Atom Magnetic Resonance Signal Level Crossing Cascade Experiment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, National Standard Reference Data System, National Bureau of Standards 35, 1971 Washington.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. Risberg, Ark. Fys. 9, 483 (1955).Google Scholar
  3. B. Isberg, Ark. Fys. 35, 551 (1968).Google Scholar
  4. Y. G. Toresson, Ark. Fys. 17, 179 (1960).Google Scholar
  5. 3.
    D. R. Beck and H. Odabasi, Ann. Phys. (New York) 67, 274 (1971)Google Scholar
  6. M. Phillips, Phys. Rev. 44, 644 (1933).ADSMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 4.
    I. I. Rabi, J. R. Zacharias, S. Millman and P. Kusch, Phys. Rev. 53, 318 (1938).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. I. I. Rabi, J. R. Zacharias, S. Millman and P. Kusch, Phys. Rev. 53, 495 (1938).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. I. I. Rabi, J. R. Zacharias, S. Millman and P. Kusch, Phys. Rev. 55, 526 (1939).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. G. H. Fuller and V. W. Cohen, Nucl. Data, Sect. A, 5, 433 (1969).Google Scholar
  11. 5.
    G. zu Putlitz, Ergeb. Exakten Naturwiss. 37, 105 (1965).Google Scholar
  12. 6.
    H. Kopfermann, Nuclear Moments, p. 101 ( Academic Press, New York, 1958 ).Google Scholar
  13. 7.
    Y. Archambault, J. P. Descoubes, M. Priou, A. Omont and J. C. Pébay-Peyroula, J. Phys. Radium, 21, 677 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 8.
    J. Brossel and A. Kastler, Compt. Rend. 229, 1213 (1949).Google Scholar
  15. 9.
    R. L. Smith and T. G. Eck, Phys. Rev. A2, 2179 (1970).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 10.
    R. Gupta, S. Chang, C. Tai and W. Happer, Phys. Rev. Letters 29, 695 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. R. Gupta, W. Happer, L. K. Lam and S. Svanberg, Phys. Rev. 8, 2792 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 11.
    C. Tai, Thesis, Columbia University, 1974 (unpublished).Google Scholar
  19. 12.
    W. Hanle, Z. Physik 30, 93 (1924).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 13.
    R. Gupta, S. Chang and W. Happer, Phys. Rev. 6, 529 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 14.
    A. Ellet and N. P. Heydenburg, Phys. Rev. 46, 583 (1934).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. N. P. Heydenburg, Phys. Rev. 46, 802 (1934).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 15.
    R. Prepost, V. W. Hughes and K. Ziock, Phys. Rev. Letters 6, 19 (1961).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 16.
    M. Pavlovic and F. Laloë, J. Phys. (Paris) 31, 173 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 17.
    K. C. Brog, H. Wieder and T. Eck, Phys. Rev. 153, 91 (1967).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. G. C. Ritter, Can. J. Phys. 43, 770 (1965).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. R. C. Isler, S. Marcus and R. Novick, Phys. Rev. 187, 76 (1969).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 18.
    D. A. Goodings, Phys. Rev. 123, 1706 (1961).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 19.
    J. S. M. Harvey, Proc. Roy. Soc. 285, 581 (1965).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 20.
    K. H. Liao, L. K. Lam, R. Gupta and W. Happer, Phys. Rev. Letters 32, 1340 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 21.
    I. Lindgren (private communication).Google Scholar
  32. 22.
    S. Svanberg, P. Tsekeris and W. Happer, Phys. Rev. Letters 30, 817 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. S. Svanberg, Proc. of the Laser Spectroscopy Conference at Vail, Colorado, 1973 Plenum, New York (1974)Google Scholar
  34. 23.
    P. Tsekeris and S. Svanberg (to be published).Google Scholar
  35. 24.
    A. Gallagher and A. Lurio, Phys. Rev. 136A, 87 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 25.
    T. W. Hänsch et al., Phys. Rev. Letters 30, 1336 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 26.
    M. D. Levenson and N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. Letters 32, 645 (1974).Google Scholar
  38. 27.
    W. Hogervorst and S. Svanberg, Phys. Lett. 48 A, 89 (1974) and Z. Physik (to be published).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Happer
    • 1
  1. 1.Columbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations