Suppose a macroscopic uniform electric field E with constant strength (due to free extraneous charges) is present in some aqueous solution of simple ions during the time interval −∞ < t < 0. Moreover, suppose that the field is switched off instantaneously at the time t = 0 and remains zero during the time interval 0 ≥ t > +∞ (also that no macroscopic field due to any bound or free charges exists in the liquid). At times t < 0 the electric field maintains a constant total dielectric polarization (dipole moment density) Ptot (≤0) within the liquid. This polarization consists of several contributions P i of different kinds which, after the field has been switched off, decay with different decay rates (Fig. 1). The origin, the approximate decay time C i (at 25°C), and the approximate magnitude P i (per unit electric field strength) of the polarization of the various types are as follows.
KeywordsDielectric Relaxation Hydration Water Small Cation Dielectric Relaxation Time Orientational Polarizability
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