Advertisement

Neuropoisons pp 159-168 | Cite as

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning and Saxitoxin

  • Edward J. Schantz

Abstract

During the past 200 years or more, medical records from various parts of the world have reported sporadic outbreaks of poisoning in humans following the ingestion of shellfish. This type of poisoning, termed shellfish or mussel poisoning, results in death or a temporary incapacitating illness that lasts a day or two. The symptoms begin with a numbness in the lips, tongue, and fingertips, and they may be apparent within a few minutes after eating poisoned shellfish. This is followed by a feeling of numbness in the legs, arms, and neck, with general muscular incoordination. A feeling of lightness, as though floating on air, is often described by the afflicted persons. Other associated symptoms may be listed as dizziness, weakness, drowsiness, incoherence, headache, and the like. The mental symptoms vary, but most patients appear calm and remain conscious during the illness. As the illness progresses, respiratory distress and muscular paralysis become more and more severe, and death results from respiratory paralysis within 2–12 hr, depending upon the magnitude of the dose. If one survives 24 hr the prognosis is good, and there appears to be no lasting effect from the ordeal.

Keywords

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Shellfish Poisoning Aromatic Nitrocompounds Effective Antidote Mouse Unit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bendien, W. H. and H. Sommer (1941), Proc. Soc. Exp.Biol. Med., 48:715–717.Google Scholar
  2. Bond, R. M. and J. C. Medcoff (1958), Canad. Med. Assoc. J., 79:19–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Brieger, L. (1889), Pathol. Anal. U. Physiol., 112:549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Halstead, B. W. (1965), Poisonous and venomous marine animals of the world, vol. 1, Invertebrates, pp. 1–278. U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  5. Koch, H. J. (1939), La cause des empoisonnements paralytiques provoque par les moules. Assoc. Franc. Avan. Sci. Paris, 63rd Session, p. 654–655.Google Scholar
  6. Magnusson, H. W. and C. J. Carlson (1951), Technological studies on the Alaska butter clam—review of problem of occurrence of a toxin. Tech. Rept. No. 2, Fisheries Expt. Comm. Alaska, Fishery Products Lab., Ketchikan, Alaska.Google Scholar
  7. McFarren, E. F., E. J. Schantz, J. E. Campbell, and K. H. Lewis (1958), J. Assoc. Office Agr. Chem., 42:399.Google Scholar
  8. McFarren, E. J. (1959), J. Assoc. Office Agr. Chem., 42:263–271.Google Scholar
  9. Meyer, K. F. (1953), New Engl. J. Med., 249: 848–852.Google Scholar
  10. Mold, J. D., J. P. Bowden, D. W. Stanger, J. E. Maurer, J. M. Lynch, R. S. Wyler, E. J. Schantz, and B. Riegel (1957), J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 79:5235–5238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Muller, H. (1939), J. Pharmacol. Exp. Therapy, 53:67.Google Scholar
  12. Needier, A. B. (1949), J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada, 7:490–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Prakash, A. (1963), Fish. Res. Bd. Canada, 20:983–996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Prakash, A. (1967), Fish. Res. Bd. Canada, 24:1589–1606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Prakash, A. and F. J. R. Taylor (1966), J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada, 23:1265–1270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Rapoport, H., M. S. Brown, R. Oesterlin, W. Schuett (1964), Saxitoxin, 147th National Meeting, Amer. Chem. Soc., Philadelphia, Penna.Google Scholar
  17. Riegel, B., D. W. Stanger, D. M. Wikholm, J. D. Mold, and H. Sommer (1949a), J. Biol. Chem., 177:7–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Riegel, B., D. W. Stanger, D. M. Wikholm, J. D. Mold, and H. Sommer (1949b), J. Biol. Chem., 177:1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Rusel, F. E. (1967), Fed. Proc., 26:1206–1224.Google Scholar
  20. Salkowski, E. (1885), Virchows Arch.-Pathol. Anal. Physiol., 102:578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Schantz, E. J., J. D. Mold, D. W. Stanger, J. Shavel, F. J. Riel, J. P. Bowden, J. M. Lynch, R. S. Wyler, B. Riegel, and H. Sommer (1957), J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 79:5230–5235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Schantz, E. J., McFarren, E. F., Schafer, M. L., and Lewis, K. H. (1958), J. Office Agr. Chem., 41:160–177.Google Scholar
  23. Schantz, E. J. (1960), Anal. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 90:843–855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Schantz, E. J., J. D. Mold, W. L. Howard, J. P. Bowden, D. W. Stanger, J. M. Lynch, O. P. Wintersteiner, J. D. Dutcher, D. R. Walters, and B. Riegel (1961), Can. J. Chem., 39:2117–2123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Schantz, E. J. and H. W. Magnusson (1964), J. Protozol., 11:239–242.Google Scholar
  26. Schantz, E. J., J. M. Lynch, G. Vayvada, K. Matsumoto, and H. Rapoport (1966), Biochem., 5:1191–1195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Schantz, E. J. (1968), Agr. Food Chem., 17:413–416.Google Scholar
  28. Sommer, H., W. F. Whedon, C. A. Kofoid, and R. Strohler (1937), A. M. A. Arch. Pathol., 24:537–559.Google Scholar
  29. Sommer, H. and K. F. Meyer (1937), A. M. A. Arch. Pathol., 24:560–570.Google Scholar
  30. Sommer, H., R. P. Monnier, B. Riegel, D. W. Stanger, J. D. Mold, D. M. Wikholm, and E. S. Kiralis (1948a), J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 70:1015–1018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sommer, H., B. Riegel, D. W. Stanger, J. D. Mold, D. M. Wikholm, and M. B. Mc-Caughey (1948b), J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 70:1019–1021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Thompson, L. (1916), “To The American Indian,” Cummins Print Shop, Eureka, Calif., p. 28.Google Scholar
  33. U.S. Public Health Service (1959), “Manual of recommended practice for sanitary control of the shellfish industry,” Part I, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  34. Wolff, M. (1886), Virchows Arch. Pathol. Anal. Physiol., 103:187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward J. Schantz
    • 1
  1. 1.Biological Sciences LaboratoriesFrederickUSA

Personalised recommendations