Metabolic and Endocrine Aberrations in Alcoholism
Ethanol has direct effects on metabolic and endocrine activity and a wide variety of indirect effects. The direct effects come from both ethanol and the first oxidation product, acetaldehyde, which act on brain and nerve tissue (Israel, 1970). These two substances have a direct effect on the hypothalamus with resulting changes in endocrine activity; a direct effect on the cerebral cortex producing changes in behavior, activity, and emotional state; and direct metabolic effects on the electron transport system. The first two steps of ethanol oxidation each reduce nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to NADH2. The product formed at the end of the second oxidation step is acetate, which is the crossroads of energy metabolism, where carbohydrate and fat oxidation meet and join oxaloacetate to renew the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
KeywordsEthanol Oxidation Ethanol Metabolism Alcohol Metabolism Uterine Activity Alcoholic Fatty Liver
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