Advertisement

Acute Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome

  • Milton M. Gross
  • Eastlyn Lewis
  • John Hastey

Abstract

Delirium tremens and related clinical states have been part of the human condition since antiquity (Zilboorg and Henry, 1941). However little was known and less was written about them until the end of the eighteenth century, when the diagnosis and treatment of this group of illnesses were delineated for the first time (Lettsom, 1787; Pearson, 1801, 1813; Sutton, 1813). This was followed by a series of confirmatory observations, some of which also contributed new data on prognostic factors (Armstrong, 1813; Klapp, 1817; Channing, 1819; Snowden, 1820; Hayward, 1822; Staughton, 1822; Coates, 1827; Wright, 1830; Carter, 1830; Jackson, 1830; Ware, 1838). The subsequent sustained proliferation of publications on these clinical states have increased our knowledge and attest to the continuing interest and importance of this field of study.

Keywords

Heavy Drinking Slow Wave Sleep Withdrawal Syndrome Alcohol Withdrawal Auditory Hallucination 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, R. P., Wagman, A., Faillace, L. A., and McIntosh, M., 1971. Electro-Encephalographic (EEG) sleep recovery following prolonged alcohol intoxication in alcoholics, J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 153 (6): 424–433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alpert, M., Angrist, B., Diamond, F., and Gershon, S., 1970. Comparison of Ditran intoxication and acute alcohol psychoses, in: Origins and Mechanisms of Hallucinations (W. Keup, ed.) pp. 245–259. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Alpert, M. and Silvers, K. N., 1970. Perceptual characteristics distinguishing auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia and acute alcoholic psychoses, Amer. J. Psychiat. 127: 298–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Armstrong, J. and Sunderland, M. D., 1813. On the brain-fever produced by intoxication, Edinburgh Med. Surg. J. 9: 58–61.Google Scholar
  5. Aserinsky, E., 1953. Ocular motility during sleep and its application to the study of “rest- activity cycles and dreaming,” doctoral dissertation, University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  6. Aserinsky, E., Dement, W. C., and Kleitman, N., 1953. Regularly occurring periods of eye motility and concomitant phenomena during sleep. Science, 118: 273–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aserinsky, E., Dement, D., and Kleitman, N., 1957. The relation of eye movements during sleep to dream activity: An objective method for the study of dreaming, J. Exp. Psychol. 53: 339–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Begleiter, H., Gross, M. M., and Porjesz, B., 1973. Recovery function and clinical symptomatology in acute alcoholization and withdrawal, in: Alcohol Intoxication and Withdrawal: Experimental Studies. (M. M. Gross, ed.) Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Vol. 35, pp. 407–413. Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Benedetti, G., 1952. Die Alkoholhalluzinosen. Thieme, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  10. Bleuler, E., 1951. Textbook of Psychiatry, Dover, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Bonhoeffer, K., 1901. Die akuten Geisteskrankheiten der Gewohnheitstrinker, Gustav Fischer, Jena.Google Scholar
  12. Carrere, J., Nicaise, J., and Madre, F. C., 1957. Le delirium tremens guerirait-il mieux en höpital psychiatrique? Ann. Med. Psychol. 115: 132–137.Google Scholar
  13. Carter, J., 1830. Observations on mania a potu, Amer. J. Med. Sci. 6: 321–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Channing, W., 1819. Cases of delirium tremens or of a peculiar disease of drunkards, N. Engl. J. Med. Surg. 8: 15–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cisin, I. H. and Calahan, D., 1968. Comparison of abstainers and heavy drinkers in a national survey, Psychiat. Res. Rep. 24: 10–21.Google Scholar
  16. Coates, B. H., 1827. Observations on delirium tremens, or the disease improperly called mania a potu, and produced by the cessation of the habitual use of alcohol and other narcotic substances: With an attempt to set the treatment of that affection upon a stable basis. North Amer. Med. Surg. J. 4: 27–52, 205–236.Google Scholar
  17. Cohen, G., 1973. A role for tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids as false adrenergic neurotransmitters in alcoholism, in: Alcohol Intoxication and Withdrawal: Experimental Studies (M. M. Gross, ed.) Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology Vol. 35, pp. 33–44. Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cutshall, B. J., 1965. The Saunders-Sutton Syndrome: An analysis of delirium tremens. Quart. J. Stud. Ale. 26: 423–448.Google Scholar
  19. Dement, W. C. and Kleitman, N., 1957a. The relation of eye-movements during sleep to dream activity: An objective method for the study of dreaming, J. Exp. Psych. 53: 339–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dement, W. C. and Kleitman, N., 1957b. Cyclic variations of EEG during sleep and their relation to eye-movements, body motility and dreaming, EEG Clin. Neurol. 9: 673–690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Evarts, E. V., 1962. A neurophysiologic theory of hallucinations, in: Hallucinations (L. J. West, ed.) pp. 1–13, Grune & Stratton, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Feinberg, I., 1970. Hallucination, dreaming and REM sleep, in: Origins and Mechanisms of Hallucinations (W. Keup, ed.) pp. 125–132. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  23. Feinberg, I. and Evarts, E. V., 1969. Some implications of sleep research for psychiatry, in: Neurobiological Aspects of Psychopathology (J. Zubin and C. Shagass, eds.) pp. 334–396, Grune & Stratton, New York.Google Scholar
  24. Feinberg, I., Koresko, R. L., Heller, N., and Steinberg, H. R., 1965. Unusually high dream time in an hallucinating patient, Amer. J. Psychiat. 121: 1018.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Feinberg, I., Wender, P. N., Koresko, R. L., Gottlieb, F., and Piehuta, J. A., 1969. Differential effects of chlorpromazine and phenobarbital on EEG sleep patterns, J. Psychiat. Res. 1: 101–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Feuerlein, W., 1959. Zur prognose des alkoholdelirs. Der Nervenarzt, 30: 38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Feuerlein, W., 1967. Klinisch-statistische untersuchengen über die entstehungsbedingun- gen und die prognose des alkoholdelirs. Der Nervenarzt, 38: 206–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Feuerlein, W., 1972a. Abstinenzsymptome und alkoholpsychosen, Deut. Med. J. 23: 510–513.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Feuerlein, W., 1972b. Zur frage des alkohol-entzugssyndroms. Der Nervenarzt, 43: 247–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Figurelli, F. A., 1956. The promazine treatment of alcoholism, Ind. Med. Surg. 25: 376.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Fisher, C. and Dement, W., 1963. Studies on the psychopathology of sleep and dreams Afner. J. Psychiat. 119: 1160–1168.Google Scholar
  32. Giacobini, E. and Salum, I., 1961. The treatment of delirium tremens. Acta Psychiat. Scand. 37: 198–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Glatt, M. M., George, H. R., and Frisch, E. P., 1965. Controlled trial of chlormethiazole in the treatment of the alcoholic withdrawal phase, Brit. Med. J. 2: 401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Colbert, T. M., Sanz, C. J., Rose, H. D., and Leitschuh, T. H., 1967. Comparative evaluation of treatments of alcohol withdrawal syndromes, J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 201: 99–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Goldberg, L., 1972. The interaction of alcohol and other CNS-acting drugs in man and animal, Transactions of the Academy of Medicine of New Jersey, Vol. 1, Alcoholism, Modern Concepts of Cause and Therapy, pp. 6–46.Google Scholar
  36. Goldman, H. I., 1958. Outpatient treatment of postalcoholic syndrome. Response of two hundred forty-three alcoholics to promazine hydrochloride given orally, J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 167: 2069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Goldstein, D. B., 1972. Relationship of alcohol dose to intensity of withdrawal signs in mice, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 180: 203–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Greenberg, R. and Pearlman, C., 1967. Delirium tremens and dreaming, Amer. J. Psychiat. 124: 133–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gresham, S. C., Webb, W. B., and Williams, R. L., 1963. Alcohol and caffeine: Effect on inferred visual dreaming. Science. 140: 1226–1227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gross, M. M., 1967. Management of acute withdrawal states. Quart. J. Stud. Ale. 28(4): 655–666.Google Scholar
  41. Gross, M. M., Halpert, E., and Sabot, L., 1963a. Some comment on Bleuler’s concept of acute alcoholic hallucinosis. Quart. J. Stud. Ale. 24: 54–60.Google Scholar
  42. Gross, M. M., Halpert, E., Sabot, L., and Polizoes, P., 1963b. Hearing disturbances and auditory hallucinations in the acute alcoholic psychoses. I: Tinnitus: Incidence and Significance, J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 137 (5): 455–465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gross, M. M., Tobin, M., Kissin, B., Halpert, E., and Sabot, L., 1964. Evoked responses to clicks in delirium tremens: A Preliminary Report, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 112: 543–546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gross, M. M., Goodenough, D. R., Tobin, M., Halpert, E., Lepore, D., Perlstein, A., Sirota, M., Dibianceo, J., Fuller, R., and Kishner, I., 1966. Sleep disturbances and hallucinations in the acute alcoholic psychoses, J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 142(6): 493–514.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gross, M. M. and Goodenough, D. R., 1968a. Sleep disturbances in the acute alcoholic psychoses, Psychiatric Research Reports No. 24 of the American Psychiatric Association, pp. 132–147.Google Scholar
  46. Gross, M. M., Halpert, E., and Sabot, L., 1968b. Toward a revised classification of the acute alcoholic psychoses, J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 145: 500–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gross, M. M. and Goodenough, D. R., 1970a. Observations and formulations regarding REM and other disturbances of sleep in the acute alcoholic psychoses and related states, Psicofisiologia del Sonno e del Sogna (Psychophysiology of Sleep and Dreaming) International Symposium in Rome, September 11–12, 1967, pp. 193–198, Vita et Pensie, Milan.Google Scholar
  48. Gross, M. M., Rosenblatt, S. M., Lewis, E., Malenowski, B., and Broman, M., 1970b. Hallucinations and clouding of sensorium in acute alcohol withdrawal syndromes— Dependent and independent relationships including evidence for cultural hallucinogenic mechanisms, in: Origins and Mechanisms of Hallucinations (W. Keup, ed.) pp. 227–236. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  49. Gross, M. M., Rosenblatt, S. M., Chartoff, S., Hermann, A., Schachter, M., Sheinkin, D., and Broman, M., 1971a. Evaluation of acute alcoholic psychoses and related states. The daily clinical course rating scale. Quart. J. Stud. Ale. 32(3): 611–619.Google Scholar
  50. Gross, M. M., Rosenblatt, S. M., Lewis, E., Malenowski, B., and Broman, M., 1971b. Hallucinations and clouding of sensorium in alcohol withdrawal; Some demographic and cultural relationships. Quart. J. Stud. Ale. 32(4): 1061–1069.Google Scholar
  51. Gross, M. M., Rosenblatt, S. M., Malenowski, B., Broman, M., and Lewis, E., 1971c. A factor analytic study of the clinical phenomena in the acute alcohol withdrawal syndromes, Alkohologia 2(1): 1–7.Google Scholar
  52. Gross, M. M., Rosenblatt, S. M., Lewis, E., Chartoff, S., and Malenowski, B., 1972a. Acute alcoholic psychoses and related syndromes—Psychosocial and clinical characteristics and their implications, Brit. J. Addict. 67: 15–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gross, M. M., Rosenblatt, S. M., Malenowski, B., Broman, M., and Lewis, E., 1972b. Classification of acute alcohol withdrawal syndromes. Quart. J. Stud. Ale. 33(2): 400–407.Google Scholar
  54. Gross, M. M., Goodenough, D. R., Hastey, J. M., Rosenblatt, S. M., and Lewis, E., 1972c. Sleep disturbances in alcoholic intoxication and withdrawal, in: Recent Advances in Studies of Alcoholism (N. K. Mello and J. H. Mendelson, eds.) pp. 317–397, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  55. Gross, M. M. and Lewis, E., 1973. Observations on the prevalence of the signs and symptoms associated with withdrawal during continuous observation of experimental intoxication and withdrawal in humans, in: Alcohol Intoxication and Withdrawal: Experimental Studies. (M. M. Gross, ed.) Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Vol. 35, pp. 377–406. Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gross, M. M. and Lewis, E., 1973. Death in acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome (in preparation).Google Scholar
  57. Gross, M. M., Goodenough, D. R., Hastey, J., and Lewis, E., 1973a. Experimental study of sleep in chronic alcoholics before, during and after 4 days of heavy drinking with a non-drinking comparison, in: Alcoholism and the Central Nervous System (F. Seixas, ed.) Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 215: 254–265.Google Scholar
  58. Gross, M. M., Lewis, E., and Nagarajan, M., 1973b. An improved quantitative system for assessing the acute alcoholic psychoses and related states (TSA and SSA), in: Alcohol Intoxication and Withdrawal: Experimental Studies (M. M. Gross, ed.) Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Vol. 35, pp. 365–376. Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gruenwald, P., Hanlon, T. E., Wechsler, S., and Kurland, A. A., 1960. A comparative study of promazine and triflupromazine in the treatment of acute alcoholism, Dis. Nerv. Syst. 21: 32–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Günne, L. M., 1958. Mortalileten vid delirium tremens, Nord. Med. 60: 1021–1024.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Hart, W. T., 1961. A comparison of promazine and paraldehyde in 175 cases of alcohol withdrawal, Amer. J. Psychiat. 118: 323–327.Google Scholar
  62. Hayward, G., 1822. Some remarks on delirium vigilans; commonly called “delirium tremens, ”mania a potu,“ or ”mania a temulentia,” N. Engl. J. Med. Surg. 11: 235–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hendin, H., 1969. Black Suicide, Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  64. Himmelsbach, C. K., 1942. Clinical studies of drug addiction. Arch. Intern. Med. 69: 766–772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Isbell, H., Eraser, H., Wikler, A., Belleville, R., and Eisenman, A., 1955. An experimental study of the etiology of “rum fits” and delirium tremens, Quart. J. Stud. Ale. 16:1–33.Google Scholar
  66. Jackson, S., 1830. Observations on delirium tremens, Amer. J. Med. Soc. 7: 361–382.Google Scholar
  67. Jaffe, J. H. and Sharpless, S. K., 1968. Pharmacological denervation supersensitivity in the central nervous system: A theory of physical dependence, in: The Addictive States (A. Wikler, ed.) Vol. 96, Ch. XVII, pp. 226–243, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  68. Johnson, L. C., 1972. Sleep patterns in chronic alcoholics, in: Recent Advances in Studies of Alcoholism (N. K. Mello and J. H. Mendelson, eds.) pp. 288–316, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  69. Johnson, L. C., Burdick, J. A., and Smith, J., 1970. Sleep during alcohol intake and withdrawal in the chronic alcoholic, Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 22: 406–418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Johnson, R. M., 1961. The alcohol withdrawal syndromes, Quart. J. Stud. Ale., Suppl. 1: 66–76.Google Scholar
  71. Kaim, S. C. and Klett, C. J., 1972. Treatment of delirium tremens—A comparative evaluation of four drugs. Quart. J. Stud. Ale. 33: 1065–1072.Google Scholar
  72. Kaim, S. C., Klett, C. J., and Rothfeld, B., 1969. Treatment of the acute alcohol withdrawal state: A comparison of four drugs, Amer. J. Psyehiat. 125: 1640–1646.Google Scholar
  73. Kalant, H., 1973. Biological models of alcohol tolerance and physical dependence, in: Aleohol Intoxication and Withdrawal: Experimental Studies. (M. M. Gross, ed.) Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Vol. 35, pp. 3–14, Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kissin, B., Gross, M. M., and Schutz, I., 1973. Correlation of urinary biogenic amines with sleep stages in chronic alcoholization and withdrawal, in: Alcohol Intoxication and Withdrawal: Experimental Studies. (M. M. Gross, ed.) Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Vol. 35, pp. 281–290, Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Klapp, J., 1817. An attempt to point out a new and successful method of treating mania a temulentia. Eclectic Repertory, 7: 251–263.Google Scholar
  76. Kryspin-Exner, K., 1966. Psychosen und Prozessverlauf e des Alkoholismus, Uberreiter, Wien.Google Scholar
  77. Laborit, H., Coirault, R., Manasio, R., Gaujard, R., Laborit, G., and Fabrizy, P., 1957. On a new type of surgical anesthetic and on the utilization of a depressed drug on the cerebral cortex (S.C.T.Z.), Presse Med. 65: 1051.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Lester, B. K., Rundell, O. H., Cowden, L. C., and Williams, H. L., 1973. Chronic alcholism, alcohol and sleep, in: Alcohol Intoxication and Withdrawal: Experimental Studies (M. M. Gross, ed.) Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Vol. 35, pp. 261–280, Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lettsom, J. C., 1787. Some remarks on the effects of lignum guassie amare, Mem. Med. Soc. 1: 151–165, London.Google Scholar
  80. Lundquist, G., 1961. Delirium tremens; A comparative study of pathogenesis, course, and prognosis with delirium tremens. Acta Psychiat. Scand. 36: 443–466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Marvin, T. R., 1970. Acute alcoholic withdrawal syndrome, Minn. Med. 53: 999–1003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. McQuarrie, D. G. and Fingle, E., 1958. Effects of single doses and chronic administration ethanol on experimental seizures in mice, J. Pharmacol. 124: 264–271.Google Scholar
  83. Mello, N. K., 1972. Behavioral studies of alcoholism, in: Biology of Alcoholism (B. Kissin and H. Begleiter, eds.) Vol. 2, pp. 219–291, Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Mello, N. K. and Mendelson, J. H., 1969. Alterations in states of consciousness associated with chronic ingestion of alcohol, in: Neurobiological Aspects of Psychopathology (J. Zubin and C. Shagass, eds.) pp. 183–229, Grune & Stratton, New York.Google Scholar
  85. Mello, N. K. and Mendelson, J. H., 1970a. Experimentally induced intoxication in alcoholics: A comparison between programmed and spontaneous drinking, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 173: 101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Mello, N. K. and Mendelson, J. H., 1970b. Behavioral studies of sleep patterns in alcoholics during intoxication and withdrawal, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 175: 94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Mendelson, J. H., 1964. Experimentally induced chronic intoxication and withdrawal in alcoholics. Quart. J. Stud. Ale. Suppl. 2: 1–126.Google Scholar
  88. Mendelson, J. H., 1970. Biologic concomitants of alcoholism, N. Engl. J. Med. 283: 24–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Mendelson, J. H., 1971. Biochemical mechanisms of alcohol addiction, in: Biology of Alcoholism (B. Kissin and H. Begleiter, eds.) Vol. 1, pp. 513–544, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  90. Mendelson, J. H. and Mello, N. K., In preparation.Google Scholar
  91. Mitchell, E. H., 1956. Treatment of acute alcoholism with promazine (Sparine), J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 161: 44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Morel, F., 1937. Hallucination et champ visuel. De la texture, de la forme, de la multiplicite, de movements que presentent les hallucinations visuelles due delirium tremens, Ann. Med. Psychol. 95: 742–757.Google Scholar
  93. Nagarajan, M., Gross, M. M., Kissin, B., and Best, S., 1973. Affective changes during 6 days of experimental alcoholization and subsequent withdrawal, in: Alcohol Intoxication and Withdrawal: Experimental Studies (M. M. Gross, ed.) Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology Vol. 35, pp. 351–364, Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Nathan, P. E., O’Brien, J. S., and Lowenstein, L. M., 1971. Operant studies of chronic alcoholism: Interaction of alcohol and alcoholics, in: Biological Aspects of Alcohol (P. J. Creaven and M. K. Roach, eds.) University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
  95. Nielsen, J., 1965. Delirium tremens in Copenhagen; part of a cross-national investigation of delirium tremens in the Nordic countries sponsored by the Nordic Committee for Alcohol Research, Acta Psychiat. Scand. 187, 41: 1–92.Google Scholar
  96. Pappalardo, P., 1953a. Esame qualitativo della funzione maculare ed alterazioni della percezione visiva negli alcoolisti. Acta Neurol. (Napoli) 8: 84–91.Google Scholar
  97. Pappalardo, P., 1953b. Motricita oculare e funzionalita vestibolare nella genesi de alterazioni percettive visive, in alcoolisti. Acta Neurol. (Napoli) 8: 409–422.Google Scholar
  98. Pearson, S. B., 1801. Observations on brain fever: Private printing.Google Scholar
  99. Pearson, S. B., 1813. Observations on brain fever; delirium tremens, Edinburgh Med. Surg. J. 9: 326–332.Google Scholar
  100. Peeke, H. V. S., Ellman, G. E., and Herz, M. M., 1973. Dose dependent alcohol effects on the aggressive behavior of the convict cichlid, Behav. Biol. 8: 115–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Rechtschaffen, A. and Kales, A., 1968. A Manual of Standardized Terminology, Techniques and Scoring System for Sleep Stages of Human Subjects, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Blindness, and Neurological Information Network, Bethesda, Maryland.Google Scholar
  102. Rose, H. B., Golbert, T. M., Sanz, C. J., and Leitschuh, T. H., 1970. Causes of fever in alcoholics in withdrawal, Amer. J. Med. Sci. 260: 112–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Rosenblatt, S. M., Gross, M. M., and Chartoff, S., 1969. Marital status and multiple psychiatric admissions for alcoholism. Quart. J. Stud. Ale. 30(2): 445–447.Google Scholar
  104. Rosenblatt, S. M., Gross, M. M., Malenowski, B., Broman, M., and Lewis, E., 1971a. Marital status and multiple psychiatric admissions for alcoholism: A cross validation, Quart. J. Stud. Ale. 32(4): 1092–1096.Google Scholar
  105. Rosenblatt, S. M., Gross, M. M., Broman, M., Lewis, E., and Malenowski, B., 1971b. Patients admitted for treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndromes—An epidemiological study, Quart. J. Stud. Ale. 32(1): 104–115.Google Scholar
  106. Rosenblatt, S. M., Gross, M. M., Malenowski, B., Broman, M., and Lewis, E., 1972. Factor analysis of the daily clinical course rating scale of the acute alcoholic psychoses. Quart. J. Stud. Ale. 33(4): 1060–1064.Google Scholar
  107. Roueche, B., 1960. The Neutral Spirit, Little, Brown, Boston.Google Scholar
  108. Sabot, L. M., Gross, M. M., and Halpert, E., 1968. A study of acute alcoholic psychoses in women, Brit. J. Addict. 63: 29–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Saravay, S. M. and Pardes, H., 1967. Auditory elementary hallucinations in alcohol withdrawal psychosis. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 16: 652–658.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Seevers, M. H. and Deneau, G. A., 1963. Physiological aspects of tolerance and physical dependence, in: Physiological Pharmacology (W. S. Root and F. G. Hofmann, eds.) pp. 565–640, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  111. Sereny, G. and Kalant, H., 1965. Comparative clinical evaluation of chlordiazepoxide (Librium) and promazine in treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, Brit. Med, J. 1: 92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sharpless, S. K., 1964. Reorganization of function in the nervous system—Use and disuse, Amer, Rev. Physiol, 26: 357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Snowden, L C., 1820. An inaugural essay on mania a potu, Phila. J. Med. Phys. Sci. 1: 191–197.Google Scholar
  114. Staughton, J. M., 1822. Observations on mania a potu, Phila. J. Med. Phys. Sci. 3: 238–247.Google Scholar
  115. Steck, H., 1954. Delirium tremens or potomania, in: Uber den Einfluss des Alkohols auf das Nervensystem und das Seelenlehen (The Influence of Alcohol on the Nervous System and the Spiritual Life) Part 2, pp. 732–740, Binno Schwabe, Basel.Google Scholar
  116. Stolba, R., 1941. Untersuchungen zur frage des alkoholischen entziehungsdelirs, Schweiz. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 48: 343–369.Google Scholar
  117. Sutton, T., 1813. Tracts on Delirium Tremens on Peritonitis and Other Inflammatory Affections, Thomas Underwood, London.Google Scholar
  118. Tavel, M. E., Davidson, W., and Batterton, T. D., 1961. A critical analysis of mortahty associated with delirium tremens; Review of 39 fatalities in a 9-year period, Amer. J. Med. Sci. 242: 18–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Taylor, J., Holmes, G., and Walshe, F. M. R., 1958. E. H. Jackson, Selected Writings, Vol. 2, Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  120. Thomas, D. W. and Freedman, D. X., 1964. Treatment of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome, J. Amer. Med. Ass. 188: 244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Victor, M., 1966. Treatment of alcoholic intoxication and the withdrawal syndrome, Psychosom. Med. 28(4): 636–650.Google Scholar
  122. Victor, M., 1968. The pathophysiology of alcoholic epilepsy, in: The Addictive States (A. Wikler, ed.) pp. 431–454, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  123. Victor, M., 1973. The role of hypomagnesemia and respiratory alkalosis in the genesis of alcohol withdrawal symptoms, in: Alcoholism and the Central Nervous System (F. Seixas, ed.) Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 215: 235–248.Google Scholar
  124. Victor, M. and Adams, R. D., 1953. Effects of alcohol on the nervous system, in: Metabolic and Toxic Diseases of the Nervous System (H. H. Merritt and C. C. Hare, eds.) pp. 526–573, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  125. Victor, M. and Brausch, J., 1967. The role of abstinence in the genesis of alcoholic epilepsy, Epilepsia, 8: 1–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Victor, M. and Hope, J. M., 1953. Auditory hallucinations in alcoholism, Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 70: 659–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Ware, J., 1838. On the treatment of delirium tremens, Boston Med. Surg. J. 18: 165–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Weiss, A. D., Victor, M., Mendelson, J. H., and Ladon, J., 1964. Electroencephalographic findings, in: Experimentally Induced Chronic Intoxication and Withdrawal in Alcoholics (J. H. Mendelson, ed.) Quart. J. Stud. Ale. Suppl. 2: 96–99.Google Scholar
  129. Wieser, S., 1962. Zur theorie und klinik der alkoholpsychosen, Vortrag Arbeitstagung über Alkoholismus 1.3.10, Wien.Google Scholar
  130. Williams, H. and Salamy, A., 1972. Alcohol and sleep, in: Biology of Alcoholism (B. Kissin and H. Begleiter, eds.) pp. 435–483, Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Wolff, D. and Gross, M. M., 1968. Temporal bone findings in alcoholics; Preliminary report on chronic alcoholics, Arch. Otolaryngol. (Chicago) 87: 350–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Wolfe, S. M. and Victor, M., 1969. The relationship of hypomagnesemia and alkalosis to alcohol withdrawal symptoms, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 162: 973–984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Wolfe, S. M. and Victor, M., 1972. The physiological basis of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome, in: Recent Advances in Studies of Alcoholism (K. Mello and J. H. Mendelson) pp. 188–199, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  134. Wolfe, S. M., Mendelson, J., Ogata, M., Victor, M., Marshall, W., and Mello, N., 1969. Respiratory alkalosis and alcohol withdrawal. Trans. Amer. Phy. 82: 344–352.Google Scholar
  135. Wollman, H., Smith, T. C., Stephan, G. W., Colton, E. T., III, Gleaton, G. E., and Alexander, S. C., 1968. Effects of respiratory and metabolic alkalosis on cerebral blood flow in man, J. Appl Physiol. 24: 60–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Wright, T. H., 1830. Observations on the treatment of delirium tremens, and on the use of the warm bath in that diesase, Amer. J. Med. Sol. 6: 17–33.Google Scholar
  137. Yules, R. B., Freedman, D. X., and Chandler, K. A., 1966. The effect of ethyl alcohol on man’s electroencephalographic sleep cycle, Electroencephalogy. Clin. Neurophysiol. 20: 109–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Zilboorg, E. and Henry, G. W., 1941. A History of Medical Psychology, Norton, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • Milton M. Gross
    • 1
  • Eastlyn Lewis
    • 1
  • John Hastey
    • 1
  1. 1.Downstate Medical CenterState University of New YorkBrooklynUSA

Personalised recommendations