Natural Levels of Illumination and Irradiance

  • Lucien M. Biberman
Part of the Optical Physics and Engineering book series (OPEG, volume 1)


In nature, the range of illumination extends from 10,000 foot-candles, occurring at high noon in clear sunlight (the sun produces an illuminance of approximately 12,500 foot-candles above the earth’s atmosphere), down to 10−2 foot-candles at full moon, 10−4 for clear moonless night sky, and finally 10−5 for overcast night sky.


Spectral Distribution Lunar Surface Full Moon Natural Level Naval Research Laboratory 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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General References

  1. Dayton R. E. Brown, Natural Illumination Charts, Report No. 374–1, BuShips, Department of the Navy, September 1952.Google Scholar
  2. J. W. Chamberlain, Physics of the Aurora and Airglow, Academic Press, New York (1961).Google Scholar
  3. Lawrence Dunkelman, “Horizontal Attenuation of Ultraviolet and Visible Light by the Lower Atmosphere,” Naval Research Laboratory Report 4031, September 1952.Google Scholar
  4. Lawrence Dunkelman and R. Scolnik, “Solar Spectral Irradiance and Vertical Atmos-pheric Attenuation in the Visible and Ultraviolet,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49 (4), 356–367(April 1959 ).Google Scholar
  5. H. P. Gush and A. V. Jones, “Infrared Spectrum of the Night Sky From 1.0 to 2.0,” Atmos. Terrestr. Phys. 7, 285–291 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. D. M. Hunten, F. E. Roach, and J. W. Chamberlain, “A Photometric Unit for the Air-glow and Aurora,” J. Atmos. Terrestr. Phys. 8, 345–346 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  10. F. E. Roach, “The Nightglow,” Advan. in Electronics 18 (1) (1963).Google Scholar
  11. F. E. Roach, “The Light of the Night Sky: Astronomical, Interplanetary and Geophysical,” Space Sci. Rev. III (4) (November 1964).Google Scholar
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Special References

  1. 1.
    Lawrence Dunkelman and P. P. Hennes, “Ultraviolet Photography and Spectroscopy Using a Spectrally Selective Converter,” Japan. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 4, 511, 1965.Google Scholar
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    USAF Air Research and Development Command, Handbook of Geophysics, The Macmillan Co., New York, Rev. Ed. (1961).Google Scholar
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    Parry Moon, J. Franklin Inst. 230, 583 (1940).Google Scholar
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    J. W. T. Walsh, The Science of Daylight, London (1961).Google Scholar
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    R. Zirkind, “Coronal Light and Lunar Albedo,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. (February 1964).Google Scholar
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    F. E. Roach, “The Light of the Night Sky: Astronautical, Interplanetary, and Geophysical,” Space Sci. Rev. 3, 5–12 through 5–40 (1964).Google Scholar
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    A. H. Taylor and G. P. Kerr, “The Distribution of Energy in the Visible Spectrum of Daylight,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 3–8 (January 1941).Google Scholar
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    L. A. Jones and H. R. Condit, “Sunlight and Skylight as Determinants of Photographic Exposure,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38 (1948).Google Scholar
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    L. Dunkelman, J. Purcell and E. Hulbert, Naval Research Laboratory, NRL Report 525A, 31 December 1958.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. Fritz, “Absorption and Scattering of Solar Energy in Clouds of Large Water Drops,” Pt. II, J. Meteorol. 5 (1) (1958).Google Scholar
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    F. Moller, “The Influence of Aerosols on Atmospheric Radiation Fluxes,” New York University Dept. of Meteorology and Oceanography, Geophysical Sciences Laboratory Report No. 65–5, 1965.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lucien M. Biberman
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.IDAArlingtonUSA
  2. 2.University of Rhode IslandKingstonUSA

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