My Perspectives on Particle Physics: Summary of Orbis Scientiae, 1976

  • Benjamin W. Lee
Part of the Studies in the Natural Sciences book series (SNS, volume 11)


When my old teacher and friend, Syd Meshkov, called me some weeks ago to ask if I would summarize the conference, I happened to be rereading a letter Vicki Weisskopf received from his teacher at the time of the discovery of parity violation -- another era of excitement and rapid progress in particle physics. It was fascinating reading, because the writer was musing on many of the problems that we are trying to unravel and understand even today. But I am not here to elaborate on Pauli’s insight; what inspired me to accept this challenging task was the last sentence in this historical document,1 which was

“Viele Fragen, keine Antworten.”

This is, in the summer talk I don’t have to answer any profound questions, but I need only summarize questions raised in the conference! This is what gave me the courage to accept the challenge.


Gauge Theory Magnetic Monopole Charm Production Heavy Lepton Quark Confinement 
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  1. 1.
    See, W. Pauli, Collected Scientific Papers, edited by R. Kronig and V. Weisskopf, (Interscience Publishers, New York, 1964), pp xiii xvi.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. P. Feynman, in Neutrino-1974, edited by C. Baltay ( American Institute of Physics, New York, 1974 ), pp 299–319.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    See P. Nath’s and B. Zumino’s contributions to the Proceedings of the Conference on Gauge Theories and Modern Field Theory at Northeastern University, September, 1975 (to be published by the MIT Press).Google Scholar
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    For public pronouncement, C. N. Yang. “Some Concepts in Current Elementary Particle Physics,” in The Physicist’s Conception of Nature, edited by J. Mehra ( D. Reidel Publishing Co., Dordrecht, Holland, 1973 ), pp 447–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    See the summary of Leon Lederman in the forthcoming Proceedings of the Photon/Lepton Symposium at SLAC, 1975.Google Scholar
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  7. 7.
    H. Deden, et al., Phys. Lett., 58B, 361 (1975); J. von Krogh, at the Irvine Conference, December 5 (1975); G. Blietszhau, et al., TCL/Int. 758, CERN preprint; J. von Krogh, et al., Wisconsin preprint. I wish to thank J. von Krogh and members of the WisconsinBerkeley-CERN-Hawaii collaboration for making available to me their data prior to publication.Google Scholar
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    I. Karliner, “The effect of Heavy Lepton on Charmed Particles Decays”, IAS preprint (1975).Google Scholar
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    I. Karliner and B. W. Lee, private discussion.Google Scholar
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    See in this connection, J. Kandaswam, J. Schecter and M. Singer, “Possible Enhancement of the Leptonic Decays of Charmed Pseudoscalars,” Syracuse preprint (1975).Google Scholar
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    See Peter Minkowski’s talk in these Proceedings, and the discussion in a later section.Google Scholar
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    My recent readings on this subject include: G. Farrar, Phys. Rev. D4, 212 (1971); M. K. Gaillard, Nuovo Cimento 6A, 559 (1971). For a more complete bibliography see the papers A. Zee cited.Google Scholar
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    This is a tribute to M. K. Gaillard. I thank her for intense discussions on this point during the SLAC Photon/Lepton Symposium in 1975. See also footnote 20 below, especially the note added in proof.Google Scholar
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    J. Ellis, M. K. Gaillard, and D. V. Nanopoulos, Nuclear Physics B100, 313 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 21.
    I believe the following points were first made in the literature by M. K. Gaillard, “Charm,” in The Proceedings of the Xth Rencontre de Moriond, edited by J. Tran Thanh Van, (CRNS publication, 1975); see also A. Pais and S. B. Treiman, Phys. Rev. Lett., 35, 1556 (1975); talks of L. Wolfenstein and C. Llewellyn-Smith at the SLAC Photon/Lepton Symposium, 1975.Google Scholar
  23. 22.
    The characteristic x and y distributions of the dimuon events in the charm scheme were emphasized in B. W. Lee, “Dimuon Events,” in the forthcoming Proceedings of the Conference on Gauge Theory and Modern Field Theory (to be published by the MIT Press).Google Scholar
  24. 23.
    See the talk of B. Roe in the forthcoming Proceedings of the Photon/Lepton Symposium at SLAC, 1975.Google Scholar
  25. 24.
    F. GUrsey, “Color Quarks and Octonions,” in The Johns Hopkins University Workshop on Current Problems in High Energy Particle Theory, 1974. G. Domokos and S. Kövesi-Domokos, (eds.) pp 15–42 (Physics Department, The Johns Hopkins University).Google Scholar
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    H. Fritzsch, M. Gell-Mann and P. Minkowski, Phys. Lett., 59B, 256 (1975).Google Scholar
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    H. Georgi, H. R. Quinn and S. Weinberg, Phys. Rev. Lett., 33, 451 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    T. Appelquist and J. Carazzone, Phys. Rev. 11, 2856 (1975).Google Scholar
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    J. Ellis, M. K. Gaillard and D. V. Nanopoulos, “A Phenomenological Profile of the Higgs Boson,” CERN preprint (1975).Google Scholar
  31. 30.
    S. Weinberg, “Mass of the Higgs Boson,” Harvard preprint.Google Scholar
  32. 31.
    D. Cline, in a luncheon conversation.Google Scholar
  33. 32.
    M. K. Gaillard, private communication.Google Scholar
  34. 33.
    T. T. Wu and C. N. Yang, “Concept of Nonintegrable Phase Factors and Global Formulation of Gauge Fields” and “Some Remarks about Unquantized Non-Abelian Gauge Fields,” to be published; C. N. Yang, Phys. Rev. Lett., 33, 445 (1974).Google Scholar
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    A. A. Migdal, “Gauge transitions in Gauge and Spin Lattice Systems,” L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics preprint (1974).Google Scholar
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    A. M. Polyakov, Phys. Lett. 59B, 79 (1975).Google Scholar
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    See for example, B. W. Lee “Chiral Dynamics,” ( Gordon and Breach, New York, 1972 ).Google Scholar
  38. 37.
    E. Brézin and J. Zinn-Justin, “Renormalication of the Nonlinear σ-model in 2 + ε Dimension - Application to Heisenberg Ferromagnets,” a private note.Google Scholar
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    The best reference may be K. Wilson’s lectures in the forthcoming Proceedings of the Erice Summer School, 1975.Google Scholar
  40. 39.
    Voltaire, in Candide, ou 1’Optimisme.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benjamin W. Lee
    • 1
  1. 1.Fermi National Accelerator LaboratoryBataviaUSA

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