Regulation of Neuronal Enzymes in Cell Culture
In 1907, Ross G. Harrison published a report, “Observations on the Living Developing Nerve Fiber,” the first published account of the maintenance and growth of neural tissue in vitro. He explanted a small portion of neural tube from a frog embryo and demonstrated the development of an axis cylinder from perikaryon over clotted lymph. The great importance of this experiment was that (1) it indicated that neuronal morphological differentiation could be continued and studied for prolonged periods in vitro and (2) it provided unambiguous data to support the Cajal neuron doctrine, as the evolving naked fibers in his cultures were processes of neuronal units and not syncytial in origin. Since Harrison’s paper, a voluminous body of literature has accumulated documenting the development of explants in vitro from central and peripheral nervous systems. This has been comprehensively reviewed by Murray (1965) and includes the following topics: cellular morphology and movements, neurite outgrowth, neurophysiological properties, neurosecretion, effect of drugs and nerve growth factor, the electron microscopic appearance of long-term cultured neurons, maintenance of and new synapse formation in vitro, myelination in vitro, axoplasmic flow, and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and neuritis studied in vitro. The quantitative biochemical characterization of neuronal differentiation in vitro has been developed more recently and is the subject of this chapter.
KeywordsNeuroblastoma Cell Glioblastoma Cell AChE Activity Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Synapse Formation
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