Regulation of Neuronal Enzymes in Cell Culture

  • Roger N. Rosenberg
Part of the Current Topics in Neurobiology book series (CTNB)


In 1907, Ross G. Harrison published a report, “Observations on the Living Developing Nerve Fiber,” the first published account of the maintenance and growth of neural tissue in vitro. He explanted a small portion of neural tube from a frog embryo and demonstrated the development of an axis cylinder from perikaryon over clotted lymph. The great importance of this experiment was that (1) it indicated that neuronal morphological differentiation could be continued and studied for prolonged periods in vitro and (2) it provided unambiguous data to support the Cajal neuron doctrine, as the evolving naked fibers in his cultures were processes of neuronal units and not syncytial in origin. Since Harrison’s paper, a voluminous body of literature has accumulated documenting the development of explants in vitro from central and peripheral nervous systems. This has been comprehensively reviewed by Murray (1965) and includes the following topics: cellular morphology and movements, neurite outgrowth, neurophysiological properties, neurosecretion, effect of drugs and nerve growth factor, the electron microscopic appearance of long-term cultured neurons, maintenance of and new synapse formation in vitro, myelination in vitro, axoplasmic flow, and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and neuritis studied in vitro. The quantitative biochemical characterization of neuronal differentiation in vitro has been developed more recently and is the subject of this chapter.


Neuroblastoma Cell Glioblastoma Cell AChE Activity Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Synapse Formation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Amano, T., Richelson, E., and Nirenberg, M. 1972. Neurotransmitter synthesis by neuroblastoma clones. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 69:258–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Augusti-Tocco, G., and Sato, G. 1969. Establishment of functional clonal lines of neurons from mouse neuroblastoma. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 64:311–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blume, A., Gilbert, F., Wilson, S., Farber, J., Rosenberg, R., and Nirenberg, M. 1970. Regulation of acetylcholinesterase in neuroblastoma cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 67; 786–792.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Clark, R., and Perkins, J. 1971. Regulation of adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate concentration in cultured human Astrocytoma cells by catecholamines and histamine. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 68:2757–2760.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Galambos, R. 1961. A glia-neural theory of brain function. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 47: 129–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gilman, A., and Nirenberg, M. 1971. Effect of catecholamines on the adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate concentrations of clonal satellite cells of neurons. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 68:2165–2168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Harrison, R. G. 1907. Observations on the living developing nerve fiber. Anat. Rec. 1: 116–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Henn, F., and Hamberger, A. 1971. Glial cell function: Uptake of transmitter substances. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 68:2686–2690.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lowry, O. H., Rosebrough, N., Farr, A., and Randall, R. 1951. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 193:265–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Murray, M. R. 1965. Nervous tissues in vitro, pp. 373–455. In E. N. Willmer (ed.). The Biology of Cells and Tissues in Culture, Vol. II. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Nelson, P., Ruffner, W., and Nirenberg, M. 1969. Neuronal tumor cells with excitable membranes grown in vitro. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 64:1004–1010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Newburgh, R. W., and Rosenberg, R. N. 1972. Effect of norepinephrine on glucose metabolism in glioblastoma and neuroblastoma cells in cell culture. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 69:1677–1680.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Nirenberg, M., Jones, O. W., Leder, P., Clark, B. F. C., Sly, W. S., and Pestka, S. 1963. On the coding of genetic information. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant Biol. 28: 549–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Nirenberg, M., Caskey, T., Marshall, R., Brimacombe, R., Kellogg, D., Doctor, B., Hatfield, D., Levin, J., Rottman, F., Pestka, S., Wilkox, M., and Anderson, F. 1966. The RNA code and protein synthesis. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 31:11–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Rakic, P., and Sidman, R. 1968. Supravital DNA synthesis in the developing human and mouse brain. J. Neuropathol. Exptl. Neurol. 27:246–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Rosenberg, R. N., Vandeventer, L., DeFrancesco, L., and Friedkin, M. 1971. Regulation of the synthesis of choline-O-acetyltransferase and thymidylate synthetase in mouse neuroblastoma in cell culture. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 68:1436–1440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Schrier, B. W., Rosenberg, R. N., Thompson, E., and Farber, J. 1970. Enzyme markers in mouse brain cell culture. Fed. Proc. 29:480.Google Scholar
  18. Schrier, B. K., Wilson, S. H., and Nirenberg, M. Assay of enzymes of transmitter metabolism of neuroblastoma and other cultured cells from the nervous system. Meth. Enzymol. (in press).Google Scholar
  19. Schubert, O., Humphreys, S., Baroni, C., and Cohn, M. 1969. In vitro differentiation of a mouse neuroblastoma. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 64:316–323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Seeds, N. W. 1971. Biochemical differentiation in reaggregating brain cell culture. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 68:1858–1861.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Seeds, N. W., and Gilman, A. 1971. Norepinephrine stimulated increase of cyclic-AMP levels in developing mouse brain cell cultures. Science 174:292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Seeds, N. W., and Vatter, A. E. 1971. Synaptogenesis in reaggregating brain cell culture. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 68:3219–3222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Seeds, N. W., Gilman, A., Amano, T., and Nirenberg, M. 1970. Regulation of axonformation by clonal lines of a neural tumor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 66:160–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wilson, S. H., Schrier, B. K., Farber, J. L., Thompson, E. J., Rosenberg, R. N., Blume, A. J., and Nirenberg, M. W. 1972. Markers for gene expression in cultured cells from the nervous system. J. Biol. Chem. 247:3159–3169.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roger N. Rosenberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neurosciences and Pediatrics and University HospitalUniversity of California at San Diego School of MedicineLa JollaUSA

Personalised recommendations