Advertisement

Hidden Regulatory Processes in Early Social Relationships

  • Myron A. Hofer
Part of the Perspectives in Ethology book series (PEIE, volume 3)

Abstract

Hidden within the visible features of early social relationships are a number of processes that we do not yet understand very well. These processes act not only to govern the interaction between parent and infant but also to regulate the physiological and behavioral characteristics of the infants during early development. The nature of these processes can be revealed by analytic experiments with laboratory animals, working with individual components of the mother—infant interaction and using partial or complete mother—infant separations. The results of these studies point to a reconsideration of how infants respond to the experience of separation from their mothers and suggest a means of approaching the study of postnatal hereditary influences.

Keywords

Maternal Behavior Tactile Stimulation Maternal Separation Vestibular Stimulation Maternal Deprivation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ackerman, S. H., Hofer, M. A., and Weiner, H. (1975). Age at maternal separation and gastric erosion susceptibility in the rat. Psychosom. Med. 37:180–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ader, R. (1969). Early experiences accelerate maturation of the 24 hour adrenocortical rhythm. Science 163:1225–1226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ader, R., and Deitchman, R. (1970). Effects of prenatal maternal handling on the maturation of rhythmic processes. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 71:492–496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Astic, L., and Jouvet-Mounier, D. (1968). Effets du sevrage en fonction de l’âge sur 1e cycle veille-sommeil chez 1e cobaye. J. Physiol. (Paris) 60:389.Google Scholar
  5. Bowlby, J. (1969, 1973). Attachment and Loss, Vol. 1, Attachment (1969), Vol. 2, Separation (1973), Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Brackbill, Y. (1971). Effects of continuous stimulation on arousal levels in infants. Child Dev. 42:17–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brazelton, T. B., Tronick, E., Adamson, L., Als, H., and Wise, S. (1975). Early mother-infant reciprocity. In Parent-Infant Interaction, CIBA Foundation Symposium 33, Elsevier, New York, pp. 137–149.Google Scholar
  8. Bronson, F. H. (1974). Pheromonal influences on reproductive activities in rodents. In Birch, M. C. (ed.), Pheromones, Elsevier, New York, pp. 344–365.Google Scholar
  9. Campbell, B. A., and Mabry, P. D. (1973). The role of catecholamines in behavioral arousal during ontogenesis. Psychopharmacologia 31:253–264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Campbell, B. A., Lytle, L. D., and Fibinger, H. C. (1969). Ontogeny of adrenergic arousal and cholinergic inhibitory mechanisms in the rat. Science 166:637–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carlier, E., Nowaczyk, T., Valatx, J. L., and Juvanez, P. A. (1974). Étude du sommeil du raton nouveau-ne isolé de sa mère; effets de l’alpha-methyl-dopa. Psychopharmacologia 37:205–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Condon, W. S., and Sander, L. W. (1974). Neonate movement is synchronized with adult speech: Interactional participation and language acquisition. Science 183:99–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fairfield, J. (1948). Effects of cold on infant rats: Body temperatures, oxygen consumption, electrocardiograms. Am. J. Physiol. 155:355–365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Feldman, M. W., and Lewontin, R. C. (1975). The heritability hang up. Science 190:1163–1166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Flandera, V., and Novakova, V. (1974). Effect of mother on the development of aggressive behavior in rats. Dev. Psychobiol. 8:49–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fleming, A. S., and Rosenblatt, J. S. (1974). Olfactory regulation of maternal behavior in rats. II: Effects of peripherally induced anosmia and lesions of the lateral olfactory tract in pup-induced virgins. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 86:233–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gaensbauer, T. J., and Emde, R. N. (1973). Wakefulness and feeding in human newborns. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 28:894–897.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hall, W. G., Cramer, C. P., and Blass, E. M. (1975). Developmental changes in suckling of rat pups. Nature 258:318–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Harlow, H. F. (1958). The nature of love. Am. Psychol. 12:673–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hinde, R. A. (1975). Mothers’ and infants’ roles: Distinguishing the questions to be asked. In Parent-Infant Interaction, CIBA Foundation Symposium 33, Elsevier, New York, pp. 5–16.Google Scholar
  21. Hofer, M. A. (1970). Physiological response of infant rats to separation from their mothers. Science 168:871–873.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hofer, M. A. (1973a). The effects of brief maternal separations on behavior and heart rate of two week old rat pups. Physiol. Behav. 10:423–427.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hofer, M. A. (1973b). Maternal separation affects infant rats’ behavior. Behav. Biol. 9:629–633.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hofer, M. A. (1973c). The role of nutrition in the physiological and behavioral effects of early maternal separation on infant rats. Psychosom. Med. 35:350–359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Hofer, M. A. (1974). The role of early experience in the development of autonomic regulation. In DiCara, L. (ed.), The Limbic and Autonomic Nervous System: Advances in Research, Chap. 6, Plenum, New York, pp. 195–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hofer, M. A. (1975a). Studies on how early maternal separation produces behavioral change in young rats. Psychosom. Med. 37:245–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Hofer, M. A. (1975b). Survival and recovery of physiologic functions after early maternal separation in rats. Physiol. Behav. 15:475–480, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Hofer, M. A. (1976). The organization of sleep and wakefulness after maternal separation in young rats. Dev. Psychobiol. 9:189–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hofer, M. A., and Reiser, M. F. (1969). The development of cardiac rate regulation in preweanling rats. Psychosom. Med. 31:372–388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Hofer, M. A., and Weiner, H. (1971). The development and mechanisms of cardiorespiratory responses to maternal deprivation in rat pups. Psychosom. Med. 33:353–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Hofer, M. A., and Weiner, H. (1975). Physiological mechanisms for cardiac control by nutritional intake after early maternal separation in the young rat. Psychosom. Med. 37:8–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Hofer, M. A., Shair, H., and Singh, P. (1976). Evidence that maternal ventral skin substances promote suckling in infant rats. Physiol. and Behav. 17:131–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hoffman, H. S., and Solomon, R. L. (1974). An opponent-process theory of motivation. III: Some affective dynamics in imprinting. Learn. Motiv. 5:149–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Klopfer, P. H., and Gamble, J. (1966). Maternal “imprinting” in goats: The role of chemical senses. Z. Tierpsychol. 23:588–592.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Korner, A. F., and Thoman, E. B. (1970). Visual alertness in neonates as evoked by maternal care. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 10:67–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kravitz, H., and Boehm, J. J. (1971). The effects of institutionalization on development of stereotyped and social behaviors in mental defectives. Child Dev. 42:399–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kuffler, S., and Nichols, J. G. (1976). From Neuron to Brain, Sinauer Assoc, Sunderland, Mass.Google Scholar
  38. Leifer, A., Leiderman, P. H., Barnett, C., and Williams, J. (1972). Effects of mother-infant separation on maternal attachment behavior. Child Dev. 43:1203–1218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Leon, M. (1974). Maternal pheromone (Monograph). Physiol. Behav. 13:441–453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Leon, M. (1975). Dietary control of maternal pheromone in the lactating rat. Physiol. Behav. 14:311–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Leon, M., and Moltz, H. (1972). The development of the pheromonal bond in the albino rat. Physiol. Behav. 8:683–686.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Levin, R., and Stern, J. M. (1975). Maternal influences on ontogeny of suckling and feeding rhythms in the rat. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 89:711–721.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. MacFarlane, J. A. (1975). Olfaction in the development of social preferences in the human neonate. In Parent-Infant Interaction, CIBA Foundation Symposium 33, Elsevier, New York, pp. 103–113.Google Scholar
  44. Mason, W. A., and Berkson, G. (1974). Effects of maternal mobility on the development of rocking and other behaviors in rhesus monkeys: A study with artificial mothers. Dev. Psychobiol. 8:197–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Plaut, M. (1970). Studies of undernutrition in the young rat: Methodological considerations. Dev. Psychobiol. 3:157–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Reite, M., Kaufman, I. C., Pauley, J. D., and Stynes, A. J. (1974). Depression in infant monkeys: Physiological correlates. Psychosom. Med. 36:363–367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Roffwarg, H. P., Muzio, J. N., and Dement, W. (1966). Ontogenic development of the human sleep-dream cycle. Science 152:604–619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rosenblatt, J. S. (1971). Suckling and home orientation in the kitten: A comparative developmental study. In Tobach, E. Aronson, L. and Shaw, E. (eds.), The Biopsychology of Development, Academic Press, New York, pp. 345–410.Google Scholar
  49. Rosenblatt, J. S. (1975). Prepartum and Postpartum regulation of maternal behavior in the rat. In Parent-Infant Interaction, CIBA Foundation Symposium 33, Elsevier, New York, pp. 17–31.Google Scholar
  50. Sander, L. W., Julia, H. L., Stechler, G., and Burns, P. (1972). Continuous 24 hour interactional monitoring of infants reared in two caretaking environments. Psychosom. Med. 34:270–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Schleidt, W. M. (1973). Tonic communication: Continual effects of discrete signs in animal communication systems. J. Theor. Biol. 42:359–386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Scott, J. P. (1962). Critical periods in behavioral development. Science 138:949–958.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Seegal, R. F., and Denenberg, U. H. (1974). Maternal experience prevents pup killing in mice induced by peripheral anosmia. Physiol. Behav. 13:339–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sharma, K. N., and Nasset, E. S. (1962). Electrical activity in mesenteric nerves after perfu-sion of gut lumen. Am. J. Physiol. 202:725–730.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Singh, P. J., and Tobach, E. (1975). Olfactory bulbectomy and nursing behavior in rat pups (Wistar DAB). Dev. Psychobiol. 8:151–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Singh, P. J., Tucker, A. M., and Hofer, M. A. (1976). Effects of nasal ZnSO4 irrigation and olfactory bulbectomy on rat pups. Physiol. Behav. 17:373–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Solomon, R. L., and Corbit, J. D. (1974). An opponent-process theory of motivation. I: Temporal dynamics of affect. Psychol. Rev. 81:119–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Spitz, R. A. (1945). Hospitalism: An enquiry into psychiatric conditions in early childhood. Psychoanal. Study Child 1:53–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Stern, D. A. (1974). Mother and infant at play: The dyadic interaction involving facial, vocal and gaze behavior. In Lewis, M. and Rosenblum, L. (eds.), Origins of Behavior: The Effect of the Infant on Its Caregiver, Vol. 1, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  60. Stone, E., Bonnet, K., and Hofer, M. A. (1976). Survival and development of maternally deprived rats: Role of body temperature. Psychosom. Med. 38:242–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Teicher, M. H., and Blass, E. M. (1976). Suckling in neonatal rats: Eliminated by nipple lavage; reinstated by pup saliva. Science 193:422–424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Terkel, J., and Rosenblatt, J. S. (1971). Aspects of non-hormonal behavior in the rat. Horm. Behav. 2:161–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Thoman, E. B., and Korner, A. F. (1971). Effects of vestibular stimulation on the behavior and development of infant rats. Dev. Psychol. 5:92–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Vandenberg, J. (1969). Male odor accelerates female sexual maturation in mice. Endocrinology 84:658–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Weiss, J. M., Glazer, H. I., Pottorecky, L. A., Brick, J., and Miller, N. E. (1975). Effects of chronic exposure to Stressors on avoidance-escape behavior and on brain norepinephrine. Psychosom. Med. 37:522–534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Wenzel, B. M., and Zeigler, H. P. (eds.). (1977). Tonic Functions of Sensory Systems, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 290, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Myron A. Hofer
    • 1
  1. 1.Albert Einstein College of MedicineMontefiore Hospital and Medical CenterBronxUSA

Personalised recommendations