Principal Diseases of Major Crops in Pakistan with Reference to Genetic Resistance
Varietal resistance is reported for the major diseases of wheat, rice, sugarcane, and cotton crops prevalent in Pakistan. In wheat, a number of varieties/lines exhibit resistance to rusts (leaf and stem), loose smut, flag smut, complete bunt, partial bunt, and earcockle diseases. Of the commercial varieties, Blue Silver, Lyallpur-73, PARI-73, and Sandal exhibit different degrees of resistance to rusts, whereas Mexipak-65 and Khushal are resistant to loose smut. Similarly, varieties Lyp-73 and Nayab are resistant to flag smut; Blue Silver, Mexipak, and Potohar are resistant to complete bunt; and Tarnab-69 to partial bunt. In rice, a newly evolved and promising strain, PK-178, exhibits high resistance to blast disease, whereas Basmati-370 shows resistance to Helminthosporium leaf spot; seven varieties/lines exhibit resistance to kernel smut. In sugarcane, varieties/lines exhibit resistance to kernel smut. In sugarcane, varieties/lines exhibit resistance to smut and red rot diseases. In the irradiated material, two varieties exhibit resistance to red rot disease, suggesting mutation has been induced. In cotton, none of the hirsutum types available in the country is resistant to bacterial blight disease, while all the approved arboreum (local) types are resistant to the disease. No genetic resistance has been observed so far against the root rot disease of cotton.
KeywordsLeaf Rust Stem Rust Commercial Variety Blast Disease Physiological Race
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