Microenvironmental Factors in Severe Protein-Calorie Malnutrition

  • Joaquin Cravioto
  • Elsa R. DeLicardie
Part of the Basic Life Sciences book series (BLSC, volume 7)


Protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) is a disease complex occurring primarily among the poor in preindustrial societies where the social system, consciously or unconsciously, creates malnourished children, generation after generation, through a series of social misfortunes, among which are limited access to goods and services, limited social mobility, and restricted opportunities for social stimuli at crucial points in life (1).


Income Kwashiorkor Marasmus 


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  1. 1.
    Cravioto, J., and DeLicardie, E. R., 1973, The effect of malnutrition on the individual, in: Nutrition, national development, and planning, A. Berg, N. S. Scrimshaw, and D. L. Call (eds.), M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, pp. 3–21.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Béhar, M., Ascoli, W., and Scrimshaw, N. S., 1958, An investigation into the causes of death in children in four rural communities in Guatemala, Bull. W. H. O. 19: 1093.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Caldwell, B. M., 1967, Descriptive evaluations of child development and of developmental settings, Pediatrics 40: 46.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cravioto, J., Birch, H. G., DeLicardie, E. R., and Rosales, L., 1967, The ecology of infant weight gain in a preindustrial society, Acta Paediatr. Scand. 56: 71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joaquin Cravioto
    • 1
  • Elsa R. DeLicardie
    • 1
  1. 1.Divisiòn de Investigaciòn ScientìficaInstituciòn Mexicana de Asistencia a la Niñez (IMAN)Mexico, D.F.Mexico

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