Therapeutic Systems for Controlled Administration of Drugs: A New Application of Membrane Science
In recent years, increasing attention has been given to the medical and health problems associated with the administration of pharmacologically active substances (drugs and biologicals) to humans and animals for the treatment of acute and chronic diseases, in the face of growing awareness that these substances are frequently toxic if present in too high concentration, or for too long a time-period in body tissues, and often therapeutically ineffective if present at too low a level or too short a time in the affected body site. It is both paradoxical and apprehending that, despite the phenomenal progress made by the pharmaceutical industry over the past three decades in development of novel and powerful compounds for the treatment and care of a host of diseases that man is heir to, the methods of administering these products to the patient — principally by injection, or by oral ingestion, as pills, capsules, or elixirs — remain virtually unchanged from those practiced a century ago. It has only been with the recent evolution of the disciplines of pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and bioengineering (whose origins lie in the sciences of biology, physical chemistry, mass transport, fluid mechanics, and system dynamics) that the inadequacies of traditional modes of drug-administration have been adequately recognized, and the immense safety- and efficacy-benefits of controlled drug-administration fully appreciated.
KeywordsDelivery System Body Tissue Therapeutic System Control Administration Total Drug Content
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