The Theoretical Basis for Augmentation of Natural Enemies

  • E. F. Knipling
Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 11)


Entomophagous parasites and predators developing on their own play a major role in regulating the abundance of insect pests. The total complex of parasites and predators in a pest ecosystem may involve many species, each varying in importance at different times and places. However, even a single well adapted species is capable of reducing the steady density of a pest population. This is clearly indicated by the success that has been achieved by the introduction and establishment of a wide range of parasites and predators for the control of alien pests. DeBach (1971), Clausen (1956), Sailer (1972), and other authorities list several hundred parasites and predators that have given partial to excellent control of insect pests after their introduction and establishment.


Host Generation Host Population Gypsy Moth Parasite Population Host Density 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. F. Knipling
    • 1
  1. 1.U.S. Department of AgricultureAgricultural Research ServiceBeltsvilleUSA

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