Advertisement

The Theoretical Basis for Augmentation of Natural Enemies

  • E. F. Knipling
Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 11)

Abstract

Entomophagous parasites and predators developing on their own play a major role in regulating the abundance of insect pests. The total complex of parasites and predators in a pest ecosystem may involve many species, each varying in importance at different times and places. However, even a single well adapted species is capable of reducing the steady density of a pest population. This is clearly indicated by the success that has been achieved by the introduction and establishment of a wide range of parasites and predators for the control of alien pests. DeBach (1971), Clausen (1956), Sailer (1972), and other authorities list several hundred parasites and predators that have given partial to excellent control of insect pests after their introduction and establishment.

Keywords

Host Generation Host Population Gypsy Moth Parasite Population Host Density 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Beroza, 11., C. S. Hood, D. Trefrey, D. E. Leonard, E. F. Knipling, W. W. Klassen and L. J. Stevens. 1974. Large field trial microencapsulated sex pheromones to prevent mating of the gypsy moth. J. Econ. Entomol. 67: 659–664.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bryan, D. E., C. G. Jackson, and A. Stoner. 1969. Rearing cotton insect parasites in the laboratory. U.S. Dept. Agric. Prod. Res. Rpt. 109. 13 p.Google Scholar
  3. Burgess, A. F., and S. S. Crossman. 1929. Imported insect enemies of the gypsy moth and the brown-tail moth. U.S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull. 86: 116–113.Google Scholar
  4. Burnett, T. 1959. Experimental host-parasite populations. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 4: 235–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cameron, E. A. 1973. Disparlure: a potential tool for gypsy moth population manipulation. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Am. 19: 15–17.Google Scholar
  6. Clausen, C. P. 1956. Biological control of insect pests in the continental United States. U.S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull. 1139. 151 p.Google Scholar
  7. DeBach, P. (ed.). 1964. Biological control of insect pest and weeds. Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York. 844 p.Google Scholar
  8. DeBach, P. 1971. The use of imported natural enemies in insect pest management ecology, p. 211–233. In Proc. Tall Timbers Conf. Ecol. Animal Control by Habitat Management. No. 33.Google Scholar
  9. Doane, С. C. 1971. A high rate of parasitization by Brachymeria intermedia (Hymenoptera: Chalcidae) on the gypsy moth. Annu. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 64: 753–754.Google Scholar
  10. Dowden, P. B. 1935. Brachymeria intermedia (Nees) a primary para¬site and В. compsiturae (Cwfd.) a secondary parasite of the gypsy moth. J. Agric. Res. 50: 495–523.Google Scholar
  11. Grimble, D. G. 1975. Dispersal of released Brachymeria intermedia. State Univ. of N.Y. Applied Forestry Research Institute Research Note No. 16. 4 p.Google Scholar
  12. Holling, C. S. 1966. The functional response of invertebrate pred¬ators to prey density. Mem. Entomol. Soc. Can. (48): 3–86.Google Scholar
  13. Howard, L. 0., and W. F. Fiske. 1911. The importation into the United States of the parasite of the gypsy moth and the brown- tail moth. U.S. Dept. Agric. Entomol. Bull. 91, 344.Google Scholar
  14. Huffaker, С. B. (Ed.). 1971. Biological control (Proceedings of an AAAS Symposium on Biological Control, held at Boston, Mass., Dec. 30–31, 1969. Plenum Press, New York and London, 511 p.Google Scholar
  15. Jackson, C. G., D. E. Bryan, and R. Patana. 1969. Laboratory studies of Eucelatoria armigera a tachinid parasite of Heliothis spp. J. Econ. Entomol. 62: 907–910.Google Scholar
  16. Jaynes, N. A., and E. K. Bynum. 1941. Experiments with Trichogramma minutum Riley as a control of the sugarcane borer in Louisiana. U.S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull. 743. 43 p.Google Scholar
  17. Knipling, E. F. 1971. Use of population models to appraise the role of larval parasites in suppressing Eetiothis populations. U.S. Dept. Agr. ARS Tech. Bull. 1434, 36 p.Google Scholar
  18. Knipling, E. F. 1972. Simulated population models to appraise the potential for suppressing sugarcane borer populations by strategic releases of the parasite Lixophaga diatraeae. Environ. Entomol. 1: 1–6.Google Scholar
  19. Knipling, E. F. 1977. The basic principles of insect population suppression and management. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. (in press).Google Scholar
  20. Knipling, E. F., and J. E. Gilmore. 1971. Population density relationships between hymenopterous parasites and their aphid hosts—a theoretical study. U.S. Dept. Agric. ARS Tech. Bull. 1423, 34.Google Scholar
  21. Knipling, E. F., and J. U. ïlcGuire. 1963. Population models to appraise the limitations and potentialities of Triohogramma in managing host insect populations. U.S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. 1337, 44.Google Scholar
  22. Leonard, D. E. 1967. Parasitism of gypsy moth in Connecticut by Brachymeria intermedia. J. Econ. Entomol. 60: 600–601.Google Scholar
  23. Lewis, W. J., A. N. Sparks, R. L. Jones, and D. J. Barras. 1972. Efficiency of Cardiochiles nigrioeps as a parasite of Heliothis virescens on cotton. Environ. Entomol. 1: 463–471.Google Scholar
  24. Lewis, W. J., R. L. Jones, D. A. Nordlund, and A. N. Sparks. 1975. Kairomones and their use for management of entomophagous insects: I. Evaluation for increasing rates of parasitization by Triohogramma spp. in the field. J. Chem. Ecol. 1: 343–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lewis, W. J., D. A. Nordlund, H. R. Gross, Jr., W. D. Perkins, E. F. Knipling and J. Voegle. 1976. Production and performance of Trichogramma reared on eggs of Heliothis zea and other hosts. Environmental Entomol. 5: 449–452.Google Scholar
  26. Nicholson, A. J., and V. A. Bailey. 1935. The balance of animal populations. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, Part I: 551–593.Google Scholar
  27. Sailer, R. I. 1972. A look at USDA’s biological control of insect pests: 1888 to present. Agric. Sci. Rev. First Quarter 1972, p. 15–27.Google Scholar
  28. Smith, II. S. 1935. The role of biotic factors in the determination of population densities. J. Econ. Entomol. 23: 373–398.Google Scholar
  29. Solomon, 11. E. 1957. Dynamics of insect populations. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 2: 121–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Stevens, L. M., Steinhauer, A. L., and Coulson, J. R. 1975. Suppression of Hexican bean beetle on soybeans with annual inoculative releases of Vediobius foveotatus. Environ. Entomol. 4: 947–957.Google Scholar
  31. Varley, G. C., and Gradwell, G. R. 1970. Recent advances in insect population dynamics. Rev. Entomol. 15: 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. F. Knipling
    • 1
  1. 1.U.S. Department of AgricultureAgricultural Research ServiceBeltsvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations