Economic and Social Considerations for the Utilization of Augmentation of Natural Enemies

  • N. H. Starler
  • R. L. Ridgway
Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 11)


Augmentation of natural enemies is a tool which can be part of integrated pest management programs that include classical biological techniques (the importation of natural enemies), cultural techniques to create favorable environments for natural enemies, genetic modification of pests, pest-resistant strains of plants, pheromones, microbial agents, growth regulators, and the use of chemical pesticides to control outbreaks.


Biological Control Natural Enemy Pest Control Integrate Pest Management Social Consideration 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. H. Starler
    • 1
    • 2
  • R. L. Ridgway
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Economic Research Service and Agricultural Research ServiceU. S. Department of AgricultureUSA
  2. 2.Economic Research Service and Agricultural Research ServiceU. S. Department of AgricultureBeltsvilleUSA

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