Advertisement

Augmentation of Natural Enemies for Control of Insect Pests of Man and Animals in the United States

  • D. E. Weidhaas
  • P. B. Morgan
Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 11)

Abstract

Although biological control in its broadest sense encompasses the use of methods or organisms to reduce the density of insects, we are here concerned only with the biological control produced by the use of predators and parasites. Also, the present paper does not presume to review biological control of all the many pest species of insects and arthropods that are of concern in the field of medical and veterinary entomology. Our purpose is simply to note general review articles that will lead the reader to the general literature on biological control of insects and arthropods affecting man and animals and then to review in more detail the background concerning the parasites and predators that are being considered for use in augmentation systems.

Keywords

Biological Control Mosquito Larva Poultry Manure Augmentation System Musca Domestica 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References Cited

  1. Abies, J. R. and M. Shephard. 1974a. Hymenopterous parasitoids associated with poultry manure. Environ. Entomol. 3: 884–886.Google Scholar
  2. Ables, J. R. and M. Shephard. 1974b. Responses and competition of the parasitoids Spalangia endius and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) at different densities of house fly pupae. Can. Entomol. 106: 825–830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abies, J. R. and M. Shephard. 1976. Seasonal abundance and activity of indigenous Hymenopterous parasitoids attacking the house fly (Diptera: Muscidae). Can, Entomol. 108: 841–844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bay, E. C. 1967. Mosquito control by fish: a present day appraisal. WHO Chron. 21: 415–423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bay, E. C., C. O. Berg, H. C. Chapman, and E. F. Legner. 1976. Biological control of medical and veterinary pests, p. 457– 474 In C. B. Huffaker and P. S. Messenger, ed. Theory and Practice of Biological Control. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Beard, R. L. 1964. Parasites of muscoid flies. Bull. WHO 31: 491–493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Burton, R. P. and E. C. Turner, Jr. 1968. Laboratory propagation of Muscidifurax raptor on face fly pupae. J. Econ. Entomol. 61: 1380–1383.Google Scholar
  8. Chapman, H. C. 1974. Biological control of mosquito larvae. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 19: 33–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chapman, H. C., J. J. Petersen, and T. Fukuda. 1972. Predators and pathogens for mosquito control. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 21: 777–781.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Chapman, H. C., J. J. Petersen, D. B. Woodard and T. Fukuda. 1971. Current status of biological control of mosquitoes. Proc. Gulf Coast Conf. Mosq. Supp. Wildl. Manage. 2: 2–3.Google Scholar
  11. Combs, R. L., Jr., and C. E. Hoelscher. 1969. Hymenopterous pupal parasitoids found associated with the horn fly in northeast Mississippi. J. Econ. Entomol. 62: 1234–1235.Google Scholar
  12. Crandall, H. A. 1939. The biology of Pachycrepoideus dubius Ashmead (Hymenoptera), a pteromalid parasite of Piophila casei Linne. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 32: 632–654.Google Scholar
  13. Depner, K. R. 1968. Hymenopterous parasites of the horn fly, Haematobia irritons (Diptera; Muscidae) in Alberta. Can. Entomol. 100: 1057–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Edwards, R. L. 1955. The host-finding and oviposition behavior of Mormoniella vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a parasite of muscoid flies. Behavior 7: 88–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gerberich, J. B. and M. Laird. 1968. Bibliography of papers related to the control of mosquitoes by the use of fish (an annotated bibliography for the years (1901–1966). FAO Fisheries Tech. Paper No. 75. FAO United Nations, Rome. 1–70.Google Scholar
  16. Gerling, D., and E. F. Legner. 1968. Developmental history and reproduction of Spalangia cameroni, parasite of synanthropic flies. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 61: 1436–1443.Google Scholar
  17. Girault, A. A. and G. E. Sanders. 1910. The chalcidoid parasites of the common house or typhoid fly (Musca domestioa L.) and its allies. Psyche 17: 9–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hair, J. A., and E. C. Turner, Jr. 1965. Attempted propagation of Nasonia vitripennis on the face fly. J. Econ. Entomol. 58: 159–60.Google Scholar
  19. Hayes, C. G. and E. C. Turner, Jr. 1971. Field and laboratory evaluation of parasitism of the face fly in Virginia. J. Econ. Entomol. 64: 443–448.Google Scholar
  20. Holmes, H. B. 1972. Genetic evidence for fewer progeny and a higher percent males when Nasonia vitripennis oviposits in previously parasitized hosts. Entomophaga 17: 79–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jenkins, D. W. 1964. Pathogens, parasites, and predators of medically important arthropods. Bull WHO 30. 150 p.Google Scholar
  22. Keiding, J. 1974. House flies (Musca domestica). In R. Pal and R. H. Wharton, ed. Control of Arthropods of Medical and Veterinary Importance. Plenum Press, New York and London. 138 p.Google Scholar
  23. Laird, M. 1970. Integrated control of mosquitoes. Am. Zool. 10: 573–578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Laird, M. 1971. Microbial control of arthropods of medical impor-tance. p. 347–406. In H. D. Burges, ed. Microbial Control of Insects and Mites. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  25. Legner, E. F. 1967a. The status of Nasonia vitripennis as a natural parasite of the house fly, Musca domestica. Can. Entomol. 99: 308–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Legner, E. F. 1967b. Behavior changes the reproduction of Spalangia cameroni S. Endius Muscidifurax raptor, and Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) at increasing fly host densities. Ann. Entomol. SC. Am. 60: 819–826.Google Scholar
  27. Legner, E. F. 1969. Adult emergence interval and reproduction in parasitic Hymenoptera influenced by host size and density. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 62: 220–226.Google Scholar
  28. Legner, E. F. 1972. Observations on hybridization and heterosis in parasitoids of synanthropic flies. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 65: 254–263.Google Scholar
  29. Legner, E. F., and H. W. Brydon. 1966. Suppression of dung-inhab- iting fly populations of pupal parasites. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 59: 638–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Legner, E. F., and E. I. Detrick. 1972. Inundation with parasitic insects to control filth breeding flies in California. Proc. 40th Annu. Conf. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc., January 31- February 2. p. 129–130.Google Scholar
  31. Legner, E. F., and E. I. Detrick. 1974. Effectiveness of supervised control practices in lowering population densities of synanthropic flies on poultry ranches. Entomophaga 19: 467–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Legner, E. F., and D. Gerling, 1967. Host feeding and oviposition on Musca domestica by Spalangia cameroniy Nasonia vitripennisy and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) influences their longevity and fecundity. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 60: 678–691.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Legner, E. F., and D. J. Greathead. 1969. Parasitism of pupae in east African populations of Musca domestica and Stomoxys cal- citrons. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 62: 128–133.Google Scholar
  34. Legner, E. F., and C. W. McCoy. 1966. The housefly, Musca domestica Linneaus, as an exotic species on the western hemisphere incites biological control studies. Can. Entomol. 98: 243–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Legner, E. F., and G. S. Olton. 1968. Activity of parasites from Diptera: Musca domestical Stomoxys calcitrans, and species of Fannia,, Muscina and Ophyra. 11. At sites in the eastern hemisphere and pacific area. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 61: 1306–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Legner, E. F., E. D. Bay, and C. W. McCoy. 1965. Parasitic natural regulatory agents attacking Musca domestica L. in Puerto Rico. J. Agric. Univ. PR 49: 368–76.Google Scholar
  37. Legner, E. F., E. C. Bay, and E. B. White. 1967. Activity of parasites from Diptera: Musca domestica, Stomoxys calcitrans3 Fannia caniculccris, and F. femoralis, at sites in the western hemisphere. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 60: 462–468.Google Scholar
  38. Lindquist, A. W. 1936. Parasites of horn fly and other flies breeding in dung. J. Econ. Entomol. 29: 1154–8.Google Scholar
  39. McCoy, C. W. 1965. Biological control studies of Musca domestica and Fannia sp. on southern California poultry ranches. Proc. 33rd Ann. Conf. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc. January, p. 40–2.Google Scholar
  40. Monty, J. 1972. A review of the stable fly problem in Mauritius. Rev. Agric. Sucriere Maurice 51: 13–29.Google Scholar
  41. Morgan, P. B. 1977. The parasitic wasp - A research update. Proc. 36th Ann. Fla. Poultry Institute, May. p. 10.Google Scholar
  42. Morgan, P. C., and R. S. Patterson. 1975a. Field parasitization of house flies by natural populations of Pachycrepoideus vin- demiae (Rondani), Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders, and Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis. Fla. Entomol. 58: 202.Google Scholar
  43. Morgan, P. C., and R. S. Patterson. 1975b. Possibilities of controlling stable flies and other muscoid flies with parasitic wasps. Proc. 46th Ann. Mtg. Fla. Anti-Mosq. Assoc., April 13 through 16. p. 29–35.Google Scholar
  44. Morgan, P. C., and R. S. Patterson. 1977. Facilities for culturing microhymenopteran pupal parasitoids of muscoid flies. In USDA Tech. Bull. (In Press).Google Scholar
  45. Morgan, P. C., A. Benton and R. S. Patterson. 1976a. The potential use of parasites to control flies in the Caribbean area. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair. p. 43.Google Scholar
  46. Morgan, P. C., R. S. Patterson, and G. C. LaBrecque. 1976b. Host- parasitoid relationship of the house fly, Musca domestica l., and the protelean parasitoid Spalangia endius Walker. J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 49: 483–88.Google Scholar
  47. Morgan, P. C., R. S. Patterson, and G. C. LaBrecque. 1976c. Controlling house flies at a dairy installation by releasing a protelean parasitoid Spalangia endius Walker. J. GA Entomol. Soc. 11: 39–43.Google Scholar
  48. Morgan, P. C., R. S. Patterson, G. C. LaBrecque, D. E. Weidhaas, A. Benton, and T. Whitfield. 1975a. Rearing and release of the house fly pupal parasite Spalangia endius Walker. Environ. Entomol. 4: 609–611.Google Scholar
  49. Morgan, P. C., R. S. Patterson, G. C. LaBrecque, D. E. Weidhaas, and A. Benton. 1975b. Suppression of a field population of house flies with Spalangia endius. Science (USA) 189: 388–389.Google Scholar
  50. Morgan, P. C., G. C. LaBrecque, and R. S. Patterson. 1977. Mass culturing the microhymenopteran parasite, Spalangia endius Walker. J. Med. Entomol. (In Press).Google Scholar
  51. Mourier, H. 1972. Release of native pupal parasitoids of house- flies on Danish farms. Vidensk. Medd. Dan. Naturhist. Foren. 135: 129–137.Google Scholar
  52. Nagel, W. P. and D. Pimentai. 1963. Some ecological attributes of a Pteromalid parasite and its housefly host. Can. Entomol. 95: 208–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Nstvik, E. 1954. Biological studies of Paohyorepoideus dubius Ashmead (Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae), a pupal parasite of various Diptera. Oikos 5: 196–204.Google Scholar
  54. Olton, G. S. and EU F. Legner. 1974. Biology of Taohinaephagus zealandious (Hymenoptera: Encytridae) parasitoid of synan- trophic Diptera. Can. Entomol. 106: 785–800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Olton, G. S. and E. F. Legner. 1975. Winter inoculative releases of parasitoids to reduce houseflies in poultry manure. J. Econ. Entomol. 68: 35–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Peck, 0. 1974. Chalcidoid (Hymenoptera) parasites of the horn fly, Haematobia irritons (Diptera: Muscidae), in Alberta and elsewhere in Canada. Can. Entomol. 106: 473–477.Google Scholar
  57. Petersen, J. J. and 0. R. Willis. 1972. Procedures for the mass rearing of a mermithid parasite of mosquitoes. Mosq. News 32: 226–230.Google Scholar
  58. Pinkus, H. 1913. The life history and habits of Spalangia musoi- darum Richardson, a parasite of the stable fly. Psyche 20: 148–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Turner, E. C., Jr., R. P. Burton, and R. R. Gerhardt. 1968. Natural parasitism of dung-breeding Diptera: a comparison between native hosts and an introduced host, the face fly. J. Econ. Entomol. 61: 1012–1015.Google Scholar
  60. Weidhaas, D. E., D. G. Haile, P. B. Morgan, and G. C. LaBrecque. 1977. A model to simualte control of house flies with a pupal parasite, Spalangia endius. Environ. Entomol. (In Press).Google Scholar
  61. Whiting, A. R. 1967. The biology of the parasitic wasp Mormoniella vitirLpennis (=Nasonia brevioornis) (Walker). Q. Rev. Biol. 42: 333–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wylie, H. G. 1965. Discrimination between parasitized and unparasitized house fly pupae by females of Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Can. Entomol. 97: 279–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wylie, H. G. 1967. Some effects of host size on Nasonia vitripennis and Musoidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Can. Entomol. 99: 742–748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wylie, H. G. 1971a. Observations on intraspecific larval competition in three hymenopterous parasites of fly puparia. Can. Entomol. 103: 137–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wylie, H. G. 1971b. Oviposition restraint of Musoidifurax zaraptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on parasitized housefly pupae. Can. Entomol. 103: 1537–1544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. E. Weidhaas
    • 1
  • P. B. Morgan
    • 1
  1. 1.Insects Affecting Man Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research ServiceU.S. Department of AgricultureGainesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations