Advertisement

Nature and Origins of Pollution of Aquatic Systems by Pesticides

  • Clive A. Edwards
Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 10)

Abstract

Pesticides reach aquatic systems by direct application, spray drift, aerial spraying, washing from the atmosphere by precipitation, erosion and run-off from agricultural land, by discharge of effluent from factories, and in sewage. The relative importance of these sources are discussed and evaluated; it is concluded that run-off from agricultural land is the main source of gradual pollution, with direct application to water and discharge of effluent into aquatic systems causing more serious, but localised contamination. The pesticides that cause most pollution are the organochlorine insecticides and certain herbicides. In water, pesticides become bound to organic matter in mud and sediment quite rapidly, only small amounts remaining in solution. There is a continuous interchange between sediments and water, influenced by water movement, turbulence and temperature. Pesticides are also taken up into the biota but the overall amounts stored in this way are small relative to the overall amounts in aquatic systems. Pesticide residues are largest in rivers, less in estuaries and least in the oceans.

Keywords

Aquatic System Bottom Sediment Suspended Particulate Matter Pesticide Residue Methyl Parathion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bradshaw, J.S., Loveridge, E.L., Rippee, K.P., Peterson, J.L., White, D.A., Barton, J.R. and Fuhriman, D.K. (1972) Seasonal variations in residues of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides in the water of the Utah Lake drainage system 1970–1971. Pest. Mon. J. 6, 166–170.Google Scholar
  2. Brown, E. and Nishioka, Y.A. (1967) Pesticides in Selected Western Streams. A contribution to the National Program. Pest. Mon. J. 1 (2), 38–41.Google Scholar
  3. Butler, P.A. (1968) Pesticides in the Estuary. Proc. March and Estuary Manage. Symp. 120–124.Google Scholar
  4. Carson, Rachel (1963) Silent Spring. Houghton-Mifflin Co. 368 pp.Google Scholar
  5. Chadwick, G.G. and Brocksen, R.W. (1969) Accumulation of dieldrin by fish food organisms. J. Wildlife Manage. 33, 693–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Edwards, C.A. (1966) Insecticide Residues in Soils. Residue Reviews 13, 83–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Edwards, C.A., Thompson, A.R., Beynon, K.I. and Edwards, M.J. (1970) Movement of dieldrin through soils. 1. From arable soils into ponds. Pestic. Sci. 1, 169–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Eichelberger, J.W. and Lichtenberg, J.J. (1971) Persistence of Pesticides in River Water. Env. Sci. Technol. 5, 541–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Faust, S.D. (1964) Pollution of the water environment by organic pesticides. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 5 (6), 677–686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Goldberg, E.D., Butler, P., Meire, P., Menzel, D., Paulik, G., Riseborough, R. and Stickel, L.F. (1971) Chlorinated hydrocarbons in the marine environment. Rept. Natl. Acad. Sci. Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  11. Greve, P.A. (1972) Potentially hazardous substances in surface waters. Sci. Total Env. 1, 173–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hartung, R. (1972) Accumulation of chemicals in the hydrosphere. In: Environmental Dynamics of Pesticides. Ed. R. Hague and V.H. Freed. Plenum Press N.Y. and London p. 185–198.Google Scholar
  13. Hill, D.W. and McCarty, P.C. (1967) Anaerobic degradation of selected hydrocarbon pesticides. J. Water Poll. Cont. Fed. 39, 1259–1277.Google Scholar
  14. Hindin, E., May, D.S. and Dunstan, G.H. (1966) Distribution of insecticides sparyed by airplane on an irrigated corn plot. In: Organic Pesticides in Environment. Amer. Chem. Soc. Adv. Chem. Ser. 60, 132–145.Google Scholar
  15. Kenaga, E.E. (1972) Partitioning and uptake of pesticides in biological systems. In Environmental Dynamics of Pesticides. Ed. R. Hague and V.H. Freed. Plenum Press N.Y. and London, 217–273.Google Scholar
  16. Lichtenberg, J.J., Eichelberger, J.W., Dressman, R. C. and Longbottom, J.E. (1970) Pesticides in surface waters of the United States - a five year summary 1964–1968. Pest Mon. J. 4 (2), 71.Google Scholar
  17. Lowden, G.F., Saunders, C.L. and Edwards, R.W. (1969) Organochlorine insecticides in water (Pt. 11). Water Treat. Exam. 18, 275.Google Scholar
  18. Macek, K.J. (1970) Biological magnification of pesticide residues in food chains. In: The Biological Impact of Pesticides in the Environment. Ed. Gillett, J.W., Env. Hlth. Ser. No. 1. Oregon State University, 17–21.Google Scholar
  19. Manigold, D.B. and Schulze, J.A. (1969) Pesticides in Selected Western Streams. A Progress Report. Pest. Mon. J. 3 (2) 124–135.Google Scholar
  20. Moriarty, F. (1973) Pesticides: Significance and Implications of Biological Accumulation. AGPP: MISC./l0 F.A.O. WS/E4902 14 pp.Google Scholar
  21. Muirhead-Thompson, R.C. (1971) Pesticides and Freshwater Fauna. Academic Press, London and New York. 248 pp.Google Scholar
  22. Nicholson, H.P. (1969) Occurrence and Significance of pesticide residues in water. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 59, (4–5), 77–85.Google Scholar
  23. Poff, R.J. and Degurse, P.E. (1970) Survey of Pesticides Residues in Great Lakes Fish. Wis. Dept. of Nat. Res. Manage. Dept. 34, 22.Google Scholar
  24. Premdas, F.H and Anderson, J.M. (1962) The uptake and detoxification of C14 labelled DDT in Atlantic salmon. J. Fish Res. Bd. Canada 30, 837.Google Scholar
  25. Reinert, R.E. (1972) The accumulation of dieldrin in an alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), Daphnia magna, and the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). J. Fish Res. Bd. Can. 29, 1413–1418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Riseborough, R.W., Huggett, R.J., Griffin, J.J. and Goldberg, E.D. (1968) Pesticides: transatlantic movements in the north-east trades. Science, N.Y. 159, 1233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rosenberg, D.M. (1975) Food Chain Concentration of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Pesticides in Invertebrate Communities: A Re-evaluation. Quaest Ent. 11 (1), 97–110.Google Scholar
  28. Terriere, L.C., Kiigemagi, U., Zwick, R.A. and Westigard, P.H. (1966) Persistence of pesticides in orchards and orchard soils. In: Organic Pesticides in the Environment. Amer. Chem. Soc. Adv. Chem. Ser. 60, 263–270.Google Scholar
  29. Thompson, A.R., Edwards, C.A., Edwards, M.J. and Beynon, K.I. (1970) Movement of Dieldrin in Soils. 11. In Soil Columns and Troughs. Pesticide Science 1, 174–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clive A. Edwards

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations