Vaporization of Chemicals

  • W. F. Spencer
  • M. M. Cliath
Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 6)


Vaporization from soil, plant, and water surfaces and atmospheric transport are important in the dissipation and movement of many chemicals. For some time, it has been recognized that highly volatile pesticides are lost from treated surfaces mainly by vaporization. However, only recently has it been established that appreciable quantities of even the so-called nonvolative pesticides, such as the organochlorine insecticides, move into the atmosphere by vaporization. Regardless of inherent volatility, the same physical and chemical principles govern rates of vaporization and movement of chemicals from treated surfaces.


Vapor Pressure Soil Surface Soil Water Content Vaporization Rate Surface Deposit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Acree, F., Jr., M. Beroza, and M.C. Bowman. 1963. Codistillation of DDT with water. J. Agric. Food Chem. 11: 278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bailey, G.W., and J.L. White. 1964. Review of adsorption and desorption of organic pesticides by soil colloids with implications concerning pesticide bioactivity. J. Agric. Food Chem. 21: 324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bailey, G.W., and J.L. White. 1970. Factors influencing the adsorption, desorption, and movement of pesticides in soil. Res. Rev. 32: 29.Google Scholar
  4. Bowman, M.C., F. Acree, Jr., C.H. Schmidt, and M. Beroza. 1959. Fate of DDT in larvicide suspensions. J. Econ. Entomol. 52: 1038.Google Scholar
  5. Bowman, M.C., M.S. Schechter, and R.L. Carter. 1965. Behavior of chlorinated insecticides in a broad spectrum of soil types. J. Agric. Food Chem. 13: 360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Caro, J.H., A.W. Taylor, and E.R. Lemon. 1971. Measurement of pesticide concentrations in air overlying a treated field. International Symp. on Identification and Measurement of Environmental Pollutants, Ottawa, Canada, pp. 72.Google Scholar
  7. Cliath, M.M., and W.F. Spencer. 1972. Dissipation of pesticides from soil by volatilization of degradation products. I. Lindane and DDT. Environ. Sci. Tech. 6: 910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Deming, J.M. 1963. Determination of volatility losses of C14-CDAA from soil samples. Weeds 11: 91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ebeling, W. 1963. Analysis of the basic processes involved in the deposition, degradation, persistence, and effectiveness of pesticides. Res. Rev. 3: 35.Google Scholar
  10. Fang, S.C., P. Theisen, and V.H. Freed. 1961. Effects of water evaporation, temperature, and rates of application on the retention of ethyl-N,N-di-n-propylthiocarbamate in various soils. Weeds 9: 569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Farmer, W.J., K. Igue, and W.F. Spencer. 1973. Effect of bulkGoogle Scholar
  12. density on the diffusion and volatilization of dieldrin from soil. J. Environ. Qual. 2:107.Google Scholar
  13. Farmer, W.J., K. Igue, W.F. Spencer, and J.P. Martin. 1972. Volatility of organochlorine insecticides from soil. I. Effect of concentration, temperature, air flow rate, and vapor pressure. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 36: 443.Google Scholar
  14. Fleck, E.E. 1944. Rate of evaporation of DDT. J. Econ. Entomol. 37: 853.Google Scholar
  15. Gray, R.A., and A.J. Weierich. 1965. Factors affecting the vapor loss of EPTC from soils. Weeds 13: 141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Guenzi, W.D., and W.E. Beard. 1970. Volatilization of lindane and DDT from soils, Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 34: 443.Google Scholar
  17. Gunther, F.A. 1969. Insecticide residues in California citrus fruits and products. Res. Rev. 28: 1.Google Scholar
  18. Hamaker, J.W. 1972. Diffusion and volatilization. In Organic Chemicals in the Soil Environment, Dekker, New York, pp. 341.Google Scholar
  19. Harris, C.R., and E.P. Lichtenstein. 1961. Factors affecting the volatilization of insecticidal residues from soils. J. Econ. Entomol. 54: 1038.Google Scholar
  20. Hartley, G.S. 1969. Evaporation of pesticides. In Pesticidal Formulations Research, Physical and Colloidal Chemical Aspects. Adv. Chem. Series 86: 115.Google Scholar
  21. Igue, K., W.J. Farmer, W.F. Spencer, and J.P. Martin. 1972. Volatility of organochlorine insecticides from soil. II. Effect of relative humidity and soil water content on dieldrin volatility. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 36: 447.Google Scholar
  22. Jeppson, L.R., and F.A. Gunther. 1970. Acaricide residues on citrus foliage and fruits and their biological significance. Res. Rev. 33: 101.Google Scholar
  23. Kearney, P.C., T.J. Sheets, and J.W. Smith. 1964. Volatility of seven s-triazines. Weeds 12: 83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Letey, J., and W.J. Farmer. 1974. Movement of pesticides in soil. In Pesticides and Their Effects on Soil and Water. Amer. Soc. Agron., Madison, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  25. Mayer, R., W.J. Farmer, and J. Letey. 1974, in press. Models for predicting pesticide volatilization of soil-applied pesticides. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc.Google Scholar
  26. Parmele, L.H., E.R. Lemon, and A.W. Taylor. 1972. Micrometeorological measurement of pesticide vapor flux from bare soil and corn under field conditions. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 1: 433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Parochetti, J.V., and G.F. Warren. 1966. Vapor losses of IPC and CIPC. Weeds 14: 281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Spencer, W.F. 1970. Distribution of pesticides between soil, water, and air. In Pesticides in the Soil: Ecology, Degradation, and Movement. Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, pp. 120Google Scholar
  29. Spencer, W,F., and M.M. Cliath. 1969. Vapor density of dieldrin. Environ. Sci. Tech. 3: 670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Spencer, W.F., and M.M. Cliath. 1970. Desorption of lindane from soil as related to vapor density. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 34: 574.Google Scholar
  31. Spencer, W.F., and M.M. Cliath. 1972. Volatility of DDT and related compounds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 20: 645.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Spencer, W.F., and M.M. Cliath. 1973. Pesticide volatilization as related to water loss from soil. J. Environ. Qual. 2: 284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Spencer, W.F., and M.M. Cliath. 1973. Pesticide volatilization as related to water loss from soil. J. Environ. Qual. 2: 284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Spencer, W.F., and M.M. Cliath. Unpublished data.Google Scholar
  35. Spencer, W.F., M.M. Cliath, and W.J. Farmer: 1969. Vapor density of soil-applied dieldrin as related to soil-water content, temperature, and dieldrin concentration. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 33: 509.Google Scholar
  36. Spencer, W.F., M.M. Cliath, W.J. Farmer, and R.A. Shepherd. 1974. Volatility of DDT residues in soil as affected by flooding and organic matter applications. J. Environ. Qual. 3: 126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Spencer, W.F., W.J. Farmer, and M.M. Cliath. 1973. Pesticide volatilization. Res. Rev. 49: 1.Google Scholar
  38. White, J.L., and M. M. Mortland. 1970. Pesticide retention by clay minerals. In Pesticides in the Soil: Ecology, Degradation, and Movement. Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, pp. 95.Google Scholar
  39. Willis, G.H., J.F. Parr, R.I. Papendick, and S. Smith. 1969. A system for monitoring atmospheric concentrations of field-applied pesticides. Pest. Monit. J. 3: 172.Google Scholar
  40. Willis, G.H., J.F. Parr, and S. Smith. 1971. Volatilization of soil-applied DDT and DDD from flooded and nonflooded plots. Pest. Monit. J. 4: 204.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. F. Spencer
    • 1
  • M. M. Cliath
    • 1
  1. 1.USDA, Agricultural Research ServiceUniversity of CaliforniaRiversideUSA

Personalised recommendations