Effects of the Inhalation of Cigarette Smoke on Swimming Endurance and Avoidance Behavior in the Rat

  • K. Bättig
  • P. Driscoll
Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 5)


Psychopharmacological and neuropharmacological studies suggest that nicotine is necessary for the acquisition and maintenance of smoking behavior in man (Driscoll and Bättig, 1973). Most pharmacological studies in animals, with few exceptions (Jarvik, 1967), have involved the injection of nicotine or the introduction of smoke into the respiratory tract of anesthetised animals, rather than the active inhalation of cigarette smoke by awake animals. This is in part due to the fact that directly inhaled smoke exposes an animal to a wide variety of substances which can be expected to interfere with or otherwise influence the effects of nicotine, and partly due to the difficulties inherent in controlling smoking behavior in animals. The gas phase of smoke contains, for example, a high concentration of CO (carbon monoxide), which has been shown in animals to produce high levels of carboxyhemoglobin and to reduce performance in different testing situations (Malorny, 1972). The vapor phase of the smoke contains a great number of substances which exert an irritating effect on the respiratory tract (Rylander, 1972) and which may inhibit work performance.


Conditioned Stimulus Vapor Phase Particulate Phase Avoidance Behavior Extinction Procedure 
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Copyright information

© University of Rochester 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Bättig
    • 1
  • P. Driscoll
    • 2
  1. 1.ETH, Abt. für VerhaltensbiologieInstitut für VerhaltenswissenschaftZürichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Veterinär-Physiologie InstitutUniv. ZürichZürichSwitzerland

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