Environmental Chemicals

  • James G. Wilson


The varieties of chemical substances which man has introduced into his environment since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution can no longer be reasonably classified, much less individually cataloged. There are no reliable records on rates at which new chemicals were introduced year by year, but there is every reason to believe that it has increased tremendously in recent years, perhaps approaching an exponential rate. It is roughly estimated that today the new compounds synthesized each year, or produced inadvertently in industry or as a result of reactions within the environment, may number a few thousand. Possibly 10% of these may persist in more than negligible amounts as environmental contaminants, but of this number very few have been proven to exist in toxic amounts under ordinary conditions of exposure to man. Most of those implicated in overt toxicity have involved high-level exposure to industrial workers prior to recognition of their toxic potential. To date only one chemical agent in the nature of an environmental contaminant or pollutant has been established as embryotoxic in man, namely, methyl mercury which causes both prenatal and postnatal toxicity in the form of Minamata disease (see Section VI).


Methyl Mercury Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate Methyl Parathion Teratogenic Effect Monosodium Glutamate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abramovich, A., and DeVoto, F. C. H., 1968, Anomalous maxillofacial patterns produced by maternal lathyrism in rat foetuses, Arch. Oral Biol. 13: 823–826.Google Scholar
  2. Agnew, W. F., Fauvre, F. M., and Pudenz, R. H., 1968, Tellurium hydrocephalus: Distribution of 127tellurium between maternal fetal and neonatal tissues of the rat, Exp. Neurol. 21: 120–132.Google Scholar
  3. Agnew, W. F., Snyder, D., Yuen, T. G. H., and Cheng, J. T., 1973, Tellurium hydrocephalus: Accumulation and metabolic activity of tellurium in the choroid plexus, Teratology 7:A-11.Google Scholar
  4. Amin-Zaki, L., Elhassani, S., Majeed, M. A., Clarkson, T. W., Doherty, R. A., and Greenwood, M., 1974, Intrauterine methylmercury poisoning in Iraq, Pediatrics 54: 587–595.Google Scholar
  5. An Der Lan, H., 1964, Toxikologische Probleme moderner Pflanzenschutzmittel, Umschau Wiss. Tech. 21: 649–652.Google Scholar
  6. Angle, C. R., and McIntire, M. S., 1964, Lead poisoning during pregnancy, Am. J. Dis. Child. 108: 436–439.Google Scholar
  7. Anon., 1975, Michigan’s new poison, The New Republic, April 26.Google Scholar
  8. Barr, M., 1973, The teratogenicity of cadmium chloride in two stocks of Wistar rats, Teratology 7: 237–242.Google Scholar
  9. Beattie, A. D., Moore, M. R., Goldberg, A., Finlayson, M. J. W., Mackit, v.. M., Graham, J. F., Main, J. C., McLaren, D. A., Murdock, R. M., and Stewart, G. T., 1975, Role of chronic low-level lead exposure in the aetiology of mental retardation, Lancet 1: 589–592.Google Scholar
  10. Beaudoin, A. R., 1974, Teratogenicity of sodium arsenate in rats, Teratology 10: 153–158.Google Scholar
  11. Becker, B. A., and Gibson, J. E., 1970, Teratogenicity of cyclohexylamine in mammals, Toxicol. App. Pharmacol. 17: 551–552.Google Scholar
  12. Bennett, R. W., Persaud, T. V. N., and Moore, K. L., 1974, Teratological studies with aluminum in the rat, Teratology 9:A-14.Google Scholar
  13. Binns, W., and Balls, L., 1971, Nonteratogenic effects of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,4,5-T propylene glycol butai esters herbicides in sheep, Teratology 4: 245.Google Scholar
  14. Binns, W., James, L. F., Shupe, J. L., and Everett, G., 1963, A congenital cyclopian-type malformation in lambs induced by maternal ingestion of a range plant Veratrum californicum, Am. J. Vet. Res. 24: 1164–1175.Google Scholar
  15. Binns, W., Ceuto, C., Eliason, B. C., Heggestad, H. E., Hepting, G. H., Sand, P. F., Stephes, R. F., and Tschirley, F. H., 1970, Investigation of spray project near Globe, Arizona, Investigation conducted February, 1970, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.Google Scholar
  16. Bornmann, G., and Loeser, A., 1973, Über eine waschaktive Substanz auf Basis Dodecylbenzolsulfonat, Fette, Seifen, Anstrichm. 65: 818.Google Scholar
  17. Budreau, C. H., and Singh, R. P., 1973, Teratogenicity and embryotoxicity of demeton and fenthion in CF#1 mouse embryos, Toxicol. Appt. Pharmacol. 24: 324–332.Google Scholar
  18. Buehler, E. V., Newmann, E. A., and King, W. F., 1971, Two-year feeding and reproduction study in rats with linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 18: 83–91.Google Scholar
  19. Butler, N. R., and Goldstein, H., 1973, Smoking in pregnancy and subsequent child development, Br. Med. J. 4: 573–575.Google Scholar
  20. Butler, N. R., Goldstein, H., and Ross, E. M., 1972, Cigarette smoking in pregnancy: Its influence on birth weight and perinatal mortality, Br. Med. J. 2: 127–130.Google Scholar
  21. Butt, E. M., and Simonsen, D. G., 1950, Mercury and lead storage in human tissues, Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 20: 716.Google Scholar
  22. Cantarow, A., and Trumper, M., 1944, Lead Poisoning, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  23. Cervenka, J., and Thorn, H. L., 1974, Chromosomes and spray adhesives, N. Engl. J. Med. 290: 543–545.Google Scholar
  24. Charlesworth, F. A., 1975, Studies on the teratogenicity of alkylbenzenesulfonates, Bibra Bulletin 14: 330–333.Google Scholar
  25. Chernoff, N., and Courtney, K. D., 1970, Maternal and fetal effects of NTA, NTA and cadmium, NTA and mercury, NTA and nutritional imbalance in mice and rats, in: Progress Report from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Dec. 1, 1970, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.Google Scholar
  26. Chernoff, N., Kavlock, R. J., Kathrein, J. R., Dunn, J. M., and Haseman, J. K., 1975, Prenatal effects of dieldrin and photodieldrin in mice and rats, Toxicol. App. Pharmacol. 31: 302–308.Google Scholar
  27. Chow, F. C., Hamar, D. W., and Udall, R. H., 1974, Mycotoxic effect on fetal development: Pine needle abortion in mice, J. Reprod. Fertil. 40: 203–204.Google Scholar
  28. Clavert, J., and Gabriel-Robez, O., 1974, The effects on mouse gestation and embryo development of an injection of viper venom (Vispera aspis), Acta Anat. 88: 11–21.Google Scholar
  29. Collins, T. F. X., and McLaughlin, J., 1972, Teratology studies on food colorings. I. Embryotoxicity of amaranth (FD & C Red No. 2) in rats, Food Cosmet. Toxicol. 10: 619–624.Google Scholar
  30. Collins, T. F. X., and McLaughlin, J., 1973, Teratology studies on food colorings. II. Embryotoxicity of R salt and metabolites of amaranth (FD amp; C Red No. 2) in rats, Food Cosmet. Toxicol. 11: 355–365.Google Scholar
  31. Collins, T. F. X., and Williams, C. H., 1971, Teratogenic studies with 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D in the hamster, Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 6: 559–567.Google Scholar
  32. Collins, T. F. X., Hansen, W. H., and Keeler, H. V., 1971, The effects of carbaryl (Sevin) on reproduction of the rat and gerbil, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 19: 202–216.Google Scholar
  33. Corbett, T. H., Beaudoin, A. R., and Cornell, R. G., 1975, Teratogenicity of polybrominated biphenyls, Teratology 11: 15A.Google Scholar
  34. Corliss, C. E., Fedinec, A. A., and Robertson, G. G., 1966, Teratogenic effect of tetanus toxin on the CNS of the early chick embryo, Anat. Rec. 154: 221–232.Google Scholar
  35. Courtney, K. D., and Moore, J. A., 1971, Teratology studies with 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 20: 396–403.Google Scholar
  36. Courtney, K. D., Gaylor, D. W., Hogan, M. D., Falk, H. L., Bates, R. R., and Mitchell, I., 1970, Teratogenic evaluation of 2,4,5-T, Science 168: 864–866.Google Scholar
  37. Crowe, M. W., and Swerczek, T. W., 1974, Congenital arthrogryposis in offspring of sows fed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), Am. J. Vet. Res. 35: 1071–1073.Google Scholar
  38. Cutting, R. T., Phuoc, T. H., Ballo, J. M., Benenson, M. W., and Evans, C. H., 1970, Congenital Malformations, Hydatidiform Moles, and Stillbirths in the Republic of Vietnam 1960–1969, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  39. Diechmann, W. B., MacDonald, W. E., Beasley, A. G., and Cubit, D., 1971, Subnormal reproduction in beagle dogs induced by DDT and aldrin, Ind. Med. Surg, 40: 10–20.Google Scholar
  40. DiPaolo, J..A., Elis, J., and Erwin, H. E., 1967, Teratogenic response by hamsters, rats, and mice to aflatoxin B1, Nature 215: 638–639.Google Scholar
  41. Dobbins, P. K., 1967, Organic phosphate insecticides as teratogens in the rat, J. Fla. Med. Assoc. 54: 452–456.Google Scholar
  42. Dougherty, W.J., Goldberg, L., and Coulston, F., 1971, The effect of carbaryl on reproduction in the monkey (Macaca mulatta), Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 19: 365.Google Scholar
  43. Dwornik, J. J., and Moore, K. L., 1967, Congenital anomalies produced in the rat by podophyllin, Anat. Rec. 157: 237.Google Scholar
  44. Earl, F. L., Miller, E., and Van Loon, E. J., 1973, Reproductive, teratogenic, and neonatal effects of some pesticides and related compounds in beagle dogs and miniature swine, in: Pesticides and the Environment: A Continuing Controversy, pp. 253–266, Inter-American Conference on Toxicol. and Occupational Medicine, Symposia Specialists, N. Miami.Google Scholar
  45. Edmonds, L. D., Selby, L. A., and Case, A. A., 1972, Poisoning and congenital malformations associated with consumption of poison hemlock by sows, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 160: 1319–1324.Google Scholar
  46. Emanuel, I., and Sever, L. E., 1973, Questions concerning the possible association of potatoes and neural-tube defects, and an alternative hypothesis relating to maternal growth and development, Teratology 8: 325–332.Google Scholar
  47. Fabro, S., Smith, R. L., and Williams, R. T., 1965, Embryotoxic activity of some pesticides and drugs related to phthalimide, Food Cosmet. Toxicol. 3: 587–590.Google Scholar
  48. Fedrick, J., Alberman, E. D., and Goldstein, H., 1971, Possible teratogenic effect of cigarette smoking, Nature 231: 529–530.Google Scholar
  49. Ferm, V. H., 1963a, Colchicine teratogenesis in hamster embryos, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 112: 775–778.Google Scholar
  50. Ferm, V. H., 1963b, Congenital malformations in hamster embryos after treatment with vinblastine and vincristine, Science 141: 426.Google Scholar
  51. Ferm, V., H., 1966, Congenital malformations induced by dimethyl sulphoxide in the golden hamster, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 16: 49–54.Google Scholar
  52. Ferm, V. H., 1972, The teratogenic effects of metals on mammalian embryos, in: Advances in Teratology ( D. H. M. Woollam, ed.), Vol. 5, pp. 51–75, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  53. Ferm, V. H., and Carpenter, S. J., 1967, Developmental malformations resulting from the administration of lead salts, Exp. Mol. Pathol. 7: 208–213.Google Scholar
  54. Ferm, V. H., and Carpenter, S. J., 1968, Malformations induced by sodium arsenate, J. Reprod. Fertil. 17: 199–201.Google Scholar
  55. Ferm, V. H., and Carpenter, S. J., 1970, Teratogenic and embryopathic effects of indium, germanium and gallium, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 16: 166–170.Google Scholar
  56. Ferm, V. H., and Hanlon, D. P., 1974, Toxicity of copper salts in hamster embryonic development, Biol. Reprod. 11: 97–101.Google Scholar
  57. Ferrando, R., and Huchet, B., 1968, Etude de l’activité éventuelle du cyclamate de soude sur le rat au cours de trois générations, Bull. Acad. Natl. Med. 152: 36–41.Google Scholar
  58. Filer, L. J., 1974, Monosodium glutamate metabolism in the fetus and newborn, in: Perinatal Pharmacology: Problems and Priorities ( J. Dancis and J. C. Hwang, eds.), pp. 177–193, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  59. Fish, S. A., 1966, Organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitors and fetal development, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 96: 1148–1154.Google Scholar
  60. Franke, K. W., and Tully, W. C., 1935, A new toxicant occurring naturally in certain samples of plant foodstuffs. V. Low hatchability due to deformities in chicks, Poult. Sci. 14: 273–279.Google Scholar
  61. Fujii, T., and Nishimura, H., 1972, Adverse effects of prolonged administration of caffeine on rat fetus, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 22: 449–457.Google Scholar
  62. Gaines, T. B., Holson, J. F., Nelson, C. J., and Schumacher, H. J., 1975, Analysis of strain differences in sensitivity and reproducibility of results in assessing 2,4,5-T teratogenicity in mice, Toxicol. Appt. Pharmacol. 33: 174–175 (abstract).Google Scholar
  63. Gale, T. F., 1974, Effects of chromium on the hamster embryo, Teratology 9:A-17.Google Scholar
  64. Gebhardt, D. O. E., 1968, The teratogenic action of propylene glycol (propanediol-1,2) and propanediol-1,3 in the chich embryo, Teratology 1: 153–162.Google Scholar
  65. Gibson, J. E., and Becker, B. A., 1970, Placental transfer, embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of thallium sulfate in normal and potassium deficient rats, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 16: 120–132.Google Scholar
  66. Good, E. E., and Ware, G. W., 1969, Effects of insecticides on reproduction in the laboratory mouse. IV. Endrin and dieldrin, Toxicol. Appt. Pharmacol. 14: 201–203.Google Scholar
  67. Goto, K., 1968, Effects of sodium fluoride on the fetuses and sucklings in Wistar strain albino rats, Proc. Congenital Anomalies Res. Assoc. Jpn. 8: 46.Google Scholar
  68. Gralla, E. J., and Mcllhenny, H. M., 1972, Studies in pregnant rats, rabbits and monkeys with lithium carbonate, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 21: 428–433.Google Scholar
  69. Grauwiler, J., and Schön, H., 1973, Teratological experiments with ergotamine in mice, rats, and rabbits, Teratology 7: 227–236.Google Scholar
  70. Green, C. R., and Christie, G. S., 1961, Malformations in foetal rats induced by the pyrrolizidine alkaloid, heliotrine, Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 42: 369–378.Google Scholar
  71. Hansen, L. G., Byerly, C. S., Metcalf, R. L., and Bevill, R. F., 1975, Effect of a polychlorinated biphenyl mixture on swine reproduction and tissue residues, Am. J. Vet. Res. 36: 23–26.Google Scholar
  72. Harada, Y., 1968, Congenital Minamata disease, in: Minamata Disease pp. 73–91, Kumamota University Study Group of Minamata Disease, Japan.Google Scholar
  73. Hardy, J. B., and Mellits, E. D., 1972, Does maternal smoking during pregnancy have a long-term effect on the child, Lancet 2: 1332–1336.Google Scholar
  74. Harris, S. B., Wilson, J. G., and Printz, R. H., 1972, Embryotoxicity of methyl mercuric chloride in golden hamsters, Teratology 6: 139–142.Google Scholar
  75. Hayes, A. W., Hood, R. D., and Lee, H. L, 1974, Teratogenic effects of ochratoxin A in mice, Teratology 9: 93–98.Google Scholar
  76. Hemsworth, B. N., 1968, Embryopathies in the rat due to alkane sulphonates, J. Reprod. Fertil. 17: 325–334.Google Scholar
  77. Hillman, D. A., and Fraser, F. C., 1969, Artificial sweeteners and fetal malformations: A rumored relationship, Pediatrics 44: 299–300.Google Scholar
  78. Hirono, I., Shibuya, C., and Hayashi, K., 1969, Induction of a cerebellar disorder with cycasin in newborn mice and hamsters, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 131: 593–598.Google Scholar
  79. Holmberg, R. E., and Ferm, V. H., 1969, Interrelationships of selenium, cadmium, and arsenic in mammalian teratogenesis, Arch. Environ. Health 18: 873–877.Google Scholar
  80. Holson, J. F., Gaines, T. B., Schumacher, H. J., Nelson, C. J., and Gaylor, D. W., 1974, Teratogenic evaluation of the food coloring agent red dye #2 administered orally to rats, Teratology 9:A-20—A-21.Google Scholar
  81. Hood, R. D., and Pike, C. T., 1972, BAL alleviation of arsenate-induced teratogenesis in mice, Teratology 6: 235–238.Google Scholar
  82. Hood, R. D., Innes, J. E., and Hayes, A. W., 1973, Effects of rubratoxin B on prenatal development in mice, Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 10: 200–207.Google Scholar
  83. Hook, E., Hatcher, N. H., Brunson, P. S., Stanecky, O. J., Fisher, L., Feck, G., and Greenwald, P., 1974a, Negative outcome of a blind assessment of the association between spray adhesives exposure and human chromosome breakage, Nature 249: 165–166.Google Scholar
  84. Hook, E. B., Selvin, S., Garfinkel, J., and Greenberg, M., 1974b, Maternal smoking during gestation and infant morphologic variation: Preliminary report concerning birth weight and incidence of transverse palmar creases, in: Congenital Defects New Directions in Research ( D. T. Janerich, R. G. Skalko and I. H. Porter, eds.), pp. 171–184, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  85. Iimori, M., Inoue, S., and Yano, K., 1973, Effect of detergent on pregnant mice by application on skin (preliminary report), Oil Chem. 22: 807.Google Scholar
  86. James, L. F., Shupe, J. L., Binns, W., and Keeler, R. F., 1967, Abortive and teratogenic effects of locoweed on sheep and cattle, Am. J. Vet. Res. 28: 1379–1388.Google Scholar
  87. James, L. F., Keeler, R. F., and Binns, W., 1969, Sequence in the abortive and teratogenic effects of locoweed fed to sheep, Am. J. Vet. Res. 30: 377–380.Google Scholar
  88. Jonejâ, M. G., and LeLiever, W. C., 1974, Effects of vinblastine and podophyllin on DBA mouse fetuses, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 27: 408–414.Google Scholar
  89. Jordan, R. L., and Borzelleca, J. F., 1975, Teratogenic studies with zinc omadine in swine, Anat. Rec. 181: 388.Google Scholar
  90. Juma, M. B., and Staples, R. E., 1967, Effect of maternal administration of dimethyl sulfoxide on the development of rat fetuses, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 125: 567–569.Google Scholar
  91. Kalow, W., and Marton, A., 1961, Second-generation toxicity of malathion in rats, Nature 192: 464–465.Google Scholar
  92. Keeler, R. F., Binns, W., James, L. F., and Shupe, J. L, 1969, Preliminary investigation of the relationship between bovine congenital lathyrism induced by aminoacetonitrile and the lupine induced crooked calf disease, Can. J. Comp. Med. 33: 89–92.Google Scholar
  93. Kennedy, G., Fancher, O. E., and Calandra, J. C., 1968, An investigation of the teratogenic potential of captan, folpet, and difolatan, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 13: 420–430.Google Scholar
  94. Kennedy, G. L., Fancher, O. E., and Calandra, J. C., 1975, Nonteratogenicity of captan in beagles, Teratology 11: 223–226.Google Scholar
  95. Keplinger, M. L., Wright, P. L., Plank, J. B., and Calandra, J. C., 1974, Teratogenic studies with FD & C Red no. 2 in rats and rabbits, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 28: 209–215.Google Scholar
  96. Khera, K. S., 1973, Teratogenic effects of methylmercury in the cat: Note on the use of this species as a model for teratogenicity studies, Teratology 8: 293–304.Google Scholar
  97. Khera, K. S., and Clegg, D. J., 1969, Perinatal toxicity of pesticides, Can. Med. Assoc. J. 100: 167–172.Google Scholar
  98. Khera, K. S., and McKinley, W. P., 1972, Pre-and postnatal studies on 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and their derivatives in rats, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 22: 14–28.Google Scholar
  99. Khera, K. S., and Whitta, L. L., 1968, Embryopathie effects of diquat and paraquat in rat, Ind. Med. Surg. 37: 553.Google Scholar
  100. Kimbrough, R. D., and Gaines, T. B., 1968, Effect of organic phosphorus compounds and aklylating agents on the rat fetus, Arch. Environ. Health 16: 805–808.Google Scholar
  101. Kimmel, C. A., 1975, Fetal gonad dysgenesis following EDTA administration, Teratology 11: 26A.Google Scholar
  102. King, C. T. G., Horigan, E. A., and Wilk, A. L., 1971, Screening of the herbicides 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D for cleft palate production, Teratology 4: 233.Google Scholar
  103. Klein, M. F., and Beall, J. R., 1972, Griseofulvin: A teratogenic study, Science 175: 1483–1484.Google Scholar
  104. Kucera, J., 1968, Exposure to fat solvents: A possible cause of sacral agenesis in man, J. Pediatr. 72: 857–859.Google Scholar
  105. Kucera, J., Lenz, W., and Maier, W., 1965, Missbildungen der Beine und der kaudalen Wirbelsäule bei Kindern diabetischer Mütter, Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 90: 901.Google Scholar
  106. Lederer, J., and Pottier-Arnould, A. M., 1969, Toxicité du cyclamate de sodium et de la saccharine pour la descendance des souris gestantes, Diabete 17: 103–106.Google Scholar
  107. Le Fevre, R., Coulston, F., and Goldberg, L., 1972, Action of a copolymer of mixed phenyl-methylcyclosiloxanes on reproduction in rats and rabbits, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 21: 29–44.Google Scholar
  108. Legator, M. S., Palmer, K. A., Green, S., and Petersen, K. W., 1969, Cytogenetic studies in rats of cydohexylamine, a metabolite of cyclamate, Science 165: 1139–1140.Google Scholar
  109. Leipold, H. W., Oehme, F. W., and Cook, J. E., 1973, Congenital arthrogryposis associated with ingestion of jimsonweed by pregnant sows, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 162: 1059–1060.Google Scholar
  110. Little, D. A., and Hamilton, R. I., 1971, Leucaena leucocephala and thyroid function of newborn lambs, Aust. Vet. J. 47: 457–458.Google Scholar
  111. Lowe, C. R., 1971, CNS malformations and the water supply, Teratology 4: 493.Google Scholar
  112. Lubs, M.-L. E., 1973, Racial differences in maternal smoking effects on the newborn infant, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 115: 66–76.Google Scholar
  113. Marx, J. L., 1972, Phthalic acid esters: biological impact uncertain, Science 178: 46–47.Google Scholar
  114. Masuda, F., Okamoto, K., and Inoue, K., 1973, Effects of linear alkyl benzene sulphonate applied on mouse skin during pregnancy of foetuses, J. Food Hyg. Soc. 14: 580.Google Scholar
  115. Matsumoto, H. G., Goyo, K., and Takevchi, T., 1965, Fetal minamata disease. A neuropathological study of two cases of intì•auterine intoxication by a methylmercury compound, J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 24: 563–574.Google Scholar
  116. McCarthy, J. F., Fancher, O. E., Kennedy, G. L., Keplinger, M. L., and Calandra, J. C., 1971, Reproduction and teratology studies with the insecticide carbofuran, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 19: 370.Google Scholar
  117. McClain, R. M., and Becker, B. A., 1972, Effects of organolead compounds on rat embryonic and fetal development, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 21: 265–274.Google Scholar
  118. McClain, R. M., and Becker, B. A., 1975, Teratogenicity, fetal toxicity, and placental transfer of lead nitrate in rats, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 31: 72–82.Google Scholar
  119. McClain, R. M., and Siekierka, J. J., 1975, The effects of various chelating agents on the teratogenicity of lead nitrate in rats, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 31: 434–442.Google Scholar
  120. McLaughlin, J., Reynaldo, E. F., Lamar, J. K., and Marliac, J.-P., 1969, Teratology studies in rabbits with captan, folpet, and thalidomide, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 14: 59.Google Scholar
  121. Menges, R. W., Selby, L. A., Marienfeld, C. J., Aue, W. A., and Greer, D. L., 1970, A tobacco-related epidemic of congenital limb deformities in swine, Environ. Res. 3: 285–302.Google Scholar
  122. Meselson, M. S., Westing, A. H., and Constable, J. D., 1970, Background material relevant to presentations at the 1970 annual meeting of the AAAS, Herbicide Assessment Commission of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, revised January 14, 1971.Google Scholar
  123. Mikami, Y., and Sakai, Y, 1973, Teratogenicity of some detergents, Acta Anat. Nippon. 48: 99.Google Scholar
  124. Mikami, Y., Nagai, H., Sakai, Y., Fukushima, S., and Nishino, T., 1969, Effects of a detergent upon the development of the mouse embryo, J. Congenital Anomolies 9: 230 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  125. Mikami, Y., Sakai, Y., and Miyamoto, I., 1973, Anomalies induced by ABS applied to the skin, Teratology 8: 98.Google Scholar
  126. Miller, R. W., 1971, Cola-colored babies. Chlorobiphenyl poisoning in Japan, Teratology 4: 211–212.Google Scholar
  127. Moore, J. A., 1973, Characterization and interpretation of kidney anomalies associated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), Teratology 7:A-24.Google Scholar
  128. Moore, J. A., and Courtney, K. K., 1971, Teratology studies with the trichlorophenoxyacid herbicides, 2,4,5-T and silvex, Teratology 4: 236.Google Scholar
  129. Morton, M. S., and Elwood, P. C., 1974, C.N.S. malformations and trace elements in water, Teratology 10: 318.Google Scholar
  130. Moxon, A. L., 1937, Alkali disease or selenium poisoning, S.D. Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. 311: 1–91.Google Scholar
  131. Murakami, U., Inouye, M., and Fujii, O., 1972, Brain lesions in the mouse fetus caused by maternal administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG), Teratology 6: 114.Google Scholar
  132. Murphy, J. C., Collins, T. F. X., Black, T. N., and Osterberg, R. E., 1975, Evaluation of the teratogenic potential of a spray adhesive in hamsters, Teratology 11: 243–246.Google Scholar
  133. Nagai, H., 1971, Doctoral thesis, Mie Municipal University, Mie, Japan.Google Scholar
  134. Nees, P. O., and Derse, P. M., 1965, Feeding and reproduction of rats fed calcium cyclamate, Nature 208: 81–82.Google Scholar
  135. Neubert, D., and Dillmann, I., 1972, Embryotoxic effects in mice treated with 2,4,5trichlorophenoxyacetic-acid and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmakol. 272: 243–264.Google Scholar
  136. Nishimura, H., and Nakai, N., 1958, Developmental anomalies in offspring of pregnant mice treated with nicotine, Science 127: 877–878.Google Scholar
  137. Nishimura, H., and Nakai, K., 1960, Congenital malformations in offspring of mice treated with caffeine, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 104: 140–142.Google Scholar
  138. Nishimura, H., and Takagaki, S., 1959, Developmental anomalies in mice induced by 2,3dimercaptopropanol (BAL), Anat. Rec. 135: 261–267.Google Scholar
  139. Nolen, G. A., Buehler, E. V., Geil, R. G., and Goldenthal, E. I., 1972a, The effects of trisodium nitrilotriacetate (Na3NTA) on cadmium and methyl-mercury toxicity and teratogenicity in rats, Teratology 5: 264.Google Scholar
  140. Nolen, G. A., Buehler, E. V., Geil, R. G., and Goldenthal, E. I., 1972b, Effects of trisodium nitrilotriacetate on cadmium and methyl mercury toxicity and teratogenicity in rats, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 23: 222–237.Google Scholar
  141. Nolen, G. A., Klusman, L. W., and Patrick, L. F., 1974, A teratology study of a mixture of tallow alkyl ethoxylated sulfate and linear alkane sulfonate in rats and rabbits, Teratology 10: 93–94.Google Scholar
  142. Nolen, G. A., Patrick, L. F., and Dierckman, T. A., 1975, A percutaneous teratology study of zinc pyrithione in rabbits, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 31: 430–433.Google Scholar
  143. Oakley, G. P., Nissim, J. E., Hanson, J. W., Boyce, J. M., and Roberts, M., 1974, Epidemiologic investigations of possible teratogenicity of spray adhesives, Teratology 9:A-31-A-32.Google Scholar
  144. Ogi, D., and Hamada, A., 1965, Case report on fetal death and malformation of extremities probably related to insecticide poisoning,/ Jpn. Obstet. Gynecol. Soc. 17: 569.Google Scholar
  145. O’Leary, J. A., Davies, J. E., and Feldman, M., 1970, Spontaneous abortion and human pesticide residues of DDT and DDE, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 108: 1291–1292.Google Scholar
  146. Olney, J. W., 1969, Brain lesions, obesity, and other disturbances in mice treated with monosodium glutamate, Science 164: 719–721.Google Scholar
  147. Olney, J. W., and Sharpe, L. G., 1969, Brain lesions in an infant rhesus monkey treated with monosodium glutamate, Science 166: 386–388.Google Scholar
  148. Omori, Y., Kuwamura, T., Tanaka, S., Kawashima, K., and Nakaura, S., 1968, Pharmacological studies on alkyl benzene sulfonate (2): Effects of oral administration during pregnancy on foetus and newborn in mice and rats, Food Hyg. Soc. 9: 473.Google Scholar
  149. Ornoy, A., and Altshuler, G., 1975, Placental mediated endotoxin rat embryopathy, Anat. Rec. 181: 441.Google Scholar
  150. Ottoboni, A., 1972, Effect of DDT on the reproductive life-span in the female rat, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 22: 497–502.Google Scholar
  151. Ottolenghi, A. D., Haseman, J. K., and Suggs, F., 1974, Teratogenic effects of aldrin, dieldrin, and endrin in hamsters and mice, Teratology 9: 11–16.Google Scholar
  152. Palazzolo, R. J., McHard, J. A., Hobbs, E. J., Fancher, O. E., and Calandra, J. C., 1972, Investigation of the toxicologic properties of a phenylmethylcyclosiloxane, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 21: 15–28.Google Scholar
  153. Palmer, A. K., Readshaw, M. A., and Neuff, A. M., 1975a, Assessment of the teratogenic potential of surfactants. I. LAS, AS and CLD, Toxicology 3: 91–106.Google Scholar
  154. Palmer, A. K., Readshaw, M. A., and Neuff, A. M., 1975b, Assessment of the teratogenic potential of surfactants. II. AOS, Toxicology 3: 107–113.Google Scholar
  155. Palmisano, P. A., Sneed, R. C., and Cassady, G., 1969, Untaxed whiskey and fetal lead exposure, J. Pediatr. 75: 869.Google Scholar
  156. Pearn, J. H., and Hegarty, M. P., 1970, Indospicine—the teratogenic factor fromindigofera spicata extract causing cleft palate, Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 51: 34–36.Google Scholar
  157. Penn, G. B., Ross, J. W., and Ashford, A., 1971, The effects of Arvin on pregnancy in the mouse and the rabbit, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 20: 460–473.Google Scholar
  158. Persaud, T. V. N., 1968, Teratogenic effects of hypoglycin-A, Nature 217: 471.Google Scholar
  159. Petrova-Vergieva, T., 1971, Anomalies induced by dithiocarbamic fungicides in rats, Teratology 4: 497–498.Google Scholar
  160. Poswillo, D. E., Sopher, D., and Mitchell, S., 1972, Experimental induction of foetal malformations with “blighted” potato: A preliminary report, Nature 239: 462–464.Google Scholar
  161. Rapport frâm en expert grupp, 1971, Fenoxisyror, granskuing av aktuell information, Giftnämnden, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  162. Report of the 2,3,5-T Advisory Committee, 1971, Submitted May 7, 1971, to William D. Ruckelshaus, Administrator, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  163. Reynolds, W. A., Lemkey-Johnston, N., Filer, L. J., and Pitkin, R. M., 1971, Monosodium glutamate: Absence of hypothalamic lesions after ingestion by newborn primates, Science 172: 1342–1344.Google Scholar
  164. Robens, J. F., 1969, Teratologic studies of carbaryl, diazinon, norea, disulfiram and thiram in small laboratory animals, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 15: 152–163.Google Scholar
  165. Robens, J. F., 1970, Teratogenic activity of several phthalimide derivatives in the golden hamster, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 16: 24–34.Google Scholar
  166. Robertson, D. S. F., 1970, Selenium—a possible teratogen?, Lancet 1: 518–519.Google Scholar
  167. Rooney, J. R., 1966, Contracted foals, Cornell Vet. 56: 172–187.Google Scholar
  168. Ruch, J. V., and Gabriel-Robez-Kremer, O., 1962, Action tératogène du venin de Naja sur l’embryon de poulet, C.R. Soc. Biol. 156: 1508–1509.Google Scholar
  169. Ruddick, J. A., Harwig, J., and Scott, P.M., 1974, Nonteratogenicity in rats of blighted potatoes and compounds contained in them, Teratology 9: 165–168.Google Scholar
  170. Rush, D., and Kass, E. H., 1972, Maternal smoking: a reassessment of the association with perinatal mortality, Am. J. Epidemiol. 96: 183–196.Google Scholar
  171. Rusnak, S. L., and Driscoll, S. G., 1965, Congenital spinal anomalies in infants of diabetic mothers, Pediatrics 35: 989.Google Scholar
  172. Salgo, M. P., and Oster, G., 1974, Fetal resorption induced by disulfiram in rats, J. Reprod. Fertil. 39: 375–377.Google Scholar
  173. Scharpf, L. G., Hill, I. D., Wright, P. L., Plant, J. B., Keplinger, M. L., and Calandra, J. C., 1972, Effects of sodium nitrilotriacetate on toxicity, teratogenicity and tissue distribution of cadmium, Nature 239: 231–234.Google Scholar
  174. Scharpf, L. G., Hill, I. D., Wright, P. L., and Keplinger, M. L., 1973, Teratological studies on methylmercury hydroxide and nitrilotriacetate sodium in rats, Nature 241: 461–463.Google Scholar
  175. Schroeder, H. A., and Mitchener, M., 1971, Toxic effects of trace elements on the reproduction of mice and rats, Arch. Environ. Health 23: 102–106.Google Scholar
  176. Schwetz, B. A., Sparschu, G. L., and Gehring, P. J., 1971, The effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and esters of 2,4-D on rat embryonal, foetal and neonatal growth and development, Food Cosmet. Toxicol. 9: 801–817.Google Scholar
  177. Schwetz, B. A., Keeler, P. A., and Gehring, P. J., 1974a, The effect of purified and commercial grade pentachlorophenol on rat embryonal and fetal development, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 28: 151–161.Google Scholar
  178. Schwetz, B. A., Keeler, P. A., and Gehring, P. J., 1974b, Effect of purified and commercial grade tetrachlorophenol on rat embryonal and fetal development, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 28: 146–150.Google Scholar
  179. Schwetz, B. A., Leong, B. K. J., and Gehring, P. J., 1974c, Embryo-and fetotoxicity of inhaled chloroform irt, rats, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 28: 442–451.Google Scholar
  180. Schwetz, B. A., Leong, B. K. J., and Gehring, P. J., 1974d, Embryo-and fetotoxicity of inhaled carbon tetrachloride, 1,1-dichloroethane and methyl ethyl ketone in rats, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 28: 452–464.Google Scholar
  181. Schwetz, B. A., Leong, B. K. J., and Gehring, P. J., 1975a, The effect of maternally inhaled trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, methyl chloroform, and methylene chloride on embryonal and fetal development in mice and rats, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 32: 84–96.Google Scholar
  182. Schwetz, B. A., Leong, B. K. J., and Staples, R. E., 1975b, Teratology studies on inhaled carbon monoxide and imbibed ethanol in laboratory animals, Teratology 11: 33A.Google Scholar
  183. Scott, F. W., de LaHunta, A., Schultz, R. D., Bistner, S. I., and Rus, R. C., 1975, Teratogenesis in cats associated with griseofulvin therapy, Teratology 11: 79–86.Google Scholar
  184. Selby, L. A., Menges, R. W., Houser, E. C., Flatt, R. E., and Case, A. A., 1971, Outbreak of swine malformations associated with the wild black cherry, Prunus serotina, Arch. Environ. Health 22: 198–201.Google Scholar
  185. Sever, J. L., 1973, Potatoes and birth defects: Summary, Teratology 8: 319–320.Google Scholar
  186. Shepard, T. H., 1972, Nitrilotriacetate (NTA) in detergents and human health, Teratology 6: 127–128.Google Scholar
  187. Sherman, H., Culik, R., and Jackson, R. A., 1975, Reproduction, teratogenic, and mutagenic studies with benomyl, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 32: 305–315.Google Scholar
  188. Shimizu, K., Mizutani, A., and Inoue, M., 1973, Electron microscopic studies on the hypothalamic lesions in the mouse fetus caused by monosodium glutamate, Teratology 8: 105.Google Scholar
  189. Shiota, K., Tanimura, T., Nishimura, H., Mizutani, T., and Matsumoto, M., 1973, Polychlorinated biphenyls and DDE in human fetal tissues: A preliminary report, Teratology 8: 105.Google Scholar
  190. Shiota, K., Tanimura, T., and Nishimura, H., 1974, Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on preand postnatal development in rats, Teratology 10: 97.Google Scholar
  191. Shoji, R., and Makino, S., 1966, Preliminary notes on the teratogenic and embryocidal effects of colchicine on mouse embryos, Proc. Jpn. Acad. 42: 822–827.Google Scholar
  192. Shtenberg, A. I., and Gavrilenko, Y. V., 1970, Influence of the food dye amaranth upon the reproductive function and development in tests on albino rats, Vopr. Pitan. 29: 66–73.Google Scholar
  193. Shupe, J. L., Binns, W., James, L. F., and Keeler, R. F., 1967, Lupine, a cause of crooked calf disease, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 151: 198–201.Google Scholar
  194. Sikov, M. R., Smith, V. H., and Mahlum, D. D., 1975, Embryotoxicity of the calcium and zinc salts of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) in Wistar rats, Teratology 11: 34A.Google Scholar
  195. Singh, A. R., Lawrence, W. H., and Autian, J., 1971, Teratogenicity of a group of phthalate esters in rats, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 19: 372.Google Scholar
  196. Slonitskaya, N. N., 1969, Teratogenic effects of griseofulvin forte on rat fetus, Antibiotiki 14: 44–48.Google Scholar
  197. Smalley, H. E., Curtis, J. M., and Earl, F. L., 1968, Teratogenic action of carbaryl in beagle dogs, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 13: 392–403.Google Scholar
  198. Snyder, R. D., 1971, Congenital mercury poisoning, N. Engl. J. Med. 284: 1014–1016.Google Scholar
  199. Sparschu, G. L., Dunn, F. L., Lisowe, R. W., and Rowe, V. K., 1971a, Effects of high levels of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid on fetal development in the rat, Food Cosmet. Toxicol. 9: 527–530.Google Scholar
  200. Sparschu, G. L., Dunn, F. L., and Rowe, V. K., 1971b, Study of the teratogenicity of 2,3,7,8tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the rat, Teratology 4: 247.Google Scholar
  201. Spyker, J. M., and Smithberg, M., 1972, Effects of methylmercury on prenatal development in mice, Teratology 5: 181–189.Google Scholar
  202. Staples, R. E., and Pecharo, M. M., 1973, Species specificity in DMSO teratology, Teratology 8: 238.Google Scholar
  203. Steffek, A. J., and Hendrickx, A. G., 1972, Lathyrogen-induced malformations in baboons: A preliminary report, Teratology 5: 171–179.Google Scholar
  204. Stevens, L. H., Cope, I., Sutherland, R., Skelsey, S., Vinson, A., and Lancaster, P., 1973, Cigarette smoking and pregnancy outcome, in: 4th International Conference on Birth Defects ( A. G. Motulsky and F. J. G. Ebling, eds.), p. 55, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  205. Stone, D., Matalka, E., and Riordan, J., 1969, Hyperactivity in rats bred and raised on relatively low amounts of cyclamates, Nature 224: 1326–1328.Google Scholar
  206. Stone, D., Matalka, E., and Pulaski, B., 1971, Do artificial sweeteners ingested in pregnancy affect the offspring, Nature 231: 53.Google Scholar
  207. Strudel, G., and Gateau, G., 1973, Action tératogène du sulfate de nicotine sur l’embryon de poulet, Teratology 8: 239.Google Scholar
  208. Swenerton, H., and Hurley, L., 1971, Teratogenic effects of a chelating agent and their prevention by zinc, Science 173: 62–64.Google Scholar
  209. Szabo, K. T., 1970, Teratogenic effect of lithium carbonate in the fetal mouse, Nature 225: 73–75.Google Scholar
  210. Tanaka, R., 1966, The toxicity (FLD50) of detergents, Jpn. J. Public Health 13: 230.Google Scholar
  211. Tanimura, T., 1972, Effects on macaque embryos of drugs reported or suspected to be teratogenic to humans, in: The Use of Non-Human Primates in Research on Human Reproduction ( E. Diczfalusy and C. C. Standley, eds.), pp. 293–308, WHO Research and Training Center on Human Reproduction, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  212. Tanimura, T., Katsuya, T., and Nishimura, H., 1967, Embryotoxicity of acute exposure to methyl parathion in rats and mice, Arch. Environ. Health 15: 609–613.Google Scholar
  213. Thiersch, J. B., 1962a, Effects of lipopolysaccharides of gram negative bacilli in the rat litter in utero, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 109: 429–441.Google Scholar
  214. Thiersch, J. B., 1962b, Effects of acetamides and formamides on the rat litter in utero, J. Reprod. Fertil. 4: 219–220.Google Scholar
  215. Thompson, D. J., Emerson, J. L., and Sparschu, G. L., 1971, Study of the effects of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) on rat and rabbit fetal development, Teratology 4: 243.Google Scholar
  216. Thompson, D. J., Warner, S. D., and Robinson, V. B., 1974, Teratology studies on orally administered chloroform in the rat and rabbit, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 29: 348–357.Google Scholar
  217. Tjälve, H., 1972. A study of the distribution and teratogenicity of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) in mice, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 23: 216–221.Google Scholar
  218. Treon, J. F., and Cleveland, F. P., 1955, Toxicity of certain chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides for laboratory animals, with special reference to aldrin and dieldrin, J. Agric. Food Chem. 3: 402–408.Google Scholar
  219. Tusing, T. W., Paynter, O. E., and Opdyke, D. L., 1960, The chronic toxicity of sodium alkyl benzene sulphonate by food and water administration to rats, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2: 464.Google Scholar
  220. Tuchmann-Duplessis, H., and Mercier-Parot, L., 1956, Influence d’un corps de chelation, l’acide ethylenediaminetetraacétique sur la gestation et le développement foetal du rat, C.R. Acad. Sci. 243: 1064–1066.Google Scholar
  221. Tuchmann-Duplessis, H., and Mercier-Parot, L., 1964, Avortements et malformations sans l’effet d’un agent provoquant une hyperlipémie et une hypercholesterolémie, Bull. Acad. Natl. Med. 148: 392–398.Google Scholar
  222. Vogin, E. E., and Oser, B. L., 1969. Effects of a cyclamate:saccharin mixture on reproduction and organogenesis in rats and rabbits, Fed. Proc. 28: 743.Google Scholar
  223. Vondruska, J. F., Fancher, O. E., and Calandra, J. C., 1971, An investigation into the teratogenic potential of captan, folpet, and difolatan in nonhuman primates, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 18: 619–624.Google Scholar
  224. Watanabe, G., Yoshida, S., and Hirose, K., 1968, Teratogenic effect of benzol in pregnant mice, Proc. Congenital Anomolies Res. Assoc. Jpn., 8th Annual Meeting, Tokyo, p. 45.Google Scholar
  225. Weil, C. S., Woodside, M. D., Carpenter, C. P., and Smyth, H. F., 1972, Current status of tests of carbaryl for reproductive and teratogenic effect, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 21: 390–404.Google Scholar
  226. Weller, E. M., and Griggs, J. H., 1973, The covert embryopathie effect of noxious vapors, Teratology 7:A-30.Google Scholar
  227. Wilson, J. G., 1972, Abnormalities of intrauterine development in non-human primates, Acta Endocrinol. (Suppl.) 166: 261–292.Google Scholar
  228. Wright, T. L., Hoffman, L. H., and Davies, J., 1971, Teratogenic effects of lithium in rats, Teratology 4: 151–156.Google Scholar
  229. Yasuda, M., 1972, Teratologic evaluation of tsumacide (m-tolyl-N-methylcarbamate) in the rat, Botyu-Kagaku 37: 161–165.Google Scholar
  230. Yasuda, M., and Maeda, H., 1972, Teratogenic effects of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid ethylester (MCPEE) in rats, Toxicol. App. Pharmacol. 23: 326–333.Google Scholar
  231. Yasuda, Y., Kehara, T., and Nishimura, H., 1974, Embryotoxic effects of feeding bracken fern (Pleridium aquilinum) to pregnant mice, Toxicol. Appt. Pharmacol. 28: 264–268.Google Scholar
  232. Yerushalmy, J., 1973, Congenital heart disease and maternal smoking habits, Nature 242: 262.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • James G. Wilson
    • 1
  1. 1.Children’s Hospital Research FoundationCincinnatiUSA

Personalised recommendations