Infectious Diseases

  • Jerome E. Kurent
  • John L. Sever


The first association between intrauterine viral infection and human congenital malformations was described more than 30 years ago (Gregg, 1941). Since then, additional intrauterine and neonatal infections of humans and experimental animals have proved to be etiologically related to a variety of malformations and lesions.


Newcastle Disease Virus Rubella Virus Intrauterine Infection Neural Tube Closure Cerebellar Hypoplasia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Altschuler, G., 1973, Toxoplasmosis as a cause of hydranencephaly, Am. J. Dis. Child. 125: 251.Google Scholar
  2. Becker, L. E., Narayan, O., and Johnson, R. T., 1974, Comparative studies of viral infections of the developing forebrain. I. Pathogenesis of rat virus and bluetongue vaccine virus infection in neonatal hamsters, J. Neuropathol. Exp. Nerol. 33: 519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beverley, J. K. A., 1959, Congenital transmission of toxoplasmosis through successive generations of mice, Nature 183: 1348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beverley, J. K. A., 1973, Toxoplasmosis, Br. Med. J. 2: 475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blattner, R. J., 1974, The role of viruses in congenital defects, Am. J. Dis. Child. 128: 781.Google Scholar
  6. BOe, O., Diderichsen, J., and Matre, R., 1973, Isolation of Mycoplasma hominis from cerebrospinal fluid, Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 5: 285.Google Scholar
  7. Boiron, M., Tanzer, J., Thomas, M., and Hanope, A., 1966, Early diffuse chromosome alterations in monkey kidney cells infected in vitro with herpes simplex virus, Nature 209: 737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boughton, C. R., 1970, Toxoplasmosis, Med. J. Aust. 2: 418.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, T. T., DeLahunta, A., Scott, F. W., Kahrs, R. F., McEntee, K., and Gillespie, J. H., 1973, Virus induced congenital anomalies of the bovine fetus. II. Histopathology of cerebellar degeneration (hypoplasia) induced by the virus of bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease, Cornell Vet. 63: 561.Google Scholar
  10. Catalano, L. W., and Sever, J. L., 1971, The role of viruses as causes of congenital defects, Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 25: 255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cole, G. A., Gilden, D. H., Monjan, A. A., and Nathanson, N., 1971, Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: Pathogenesis of acute central nervous system disease, Fed. Proc. 30: 1831.Google Scholar
  12. Cooper, L. Z., Ziring, P. R., and Ockerse, A. B., 1969, Rubella: Clinical manifestations and management, Am. J. Dis. Child. 118: 18.Google Scholar
  13. Dekaban, A., O’Rourke, J., and Corman, T., 1958, Abnormalities in offspring related to maternal rubella during pregnancy, Neurology 8: 387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Desmonts, G., and Couvreur, J., 1974, Congenital toxoplasmosis, N. Engl. J. Med. 290: 1110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Doege, T. C., and Kim, K. S. W., 1967, Studies of rubella and its prevention with immune globulin, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 200: 584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. East, J., Parrott, D. M. V., and Seamer, J., 1964, The ability of mice thymectomized at birth to survive infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, Virology 22: 160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Eichenwald, H. F., 1960. A study of congenital toxoplasmosis with particular reference on clinical manifestations, sequelae, and therapy, in: Human Toxoplasmosis ( J. C. Sum, ed.), pp. 41–49, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  18. Emerson, J. L., and Delez, A. L., 1965, Cerebellar hypoplasia, hypomyelinogenesis, and congenital tremor of pigs associated with prenatal hog cholera vaccination of sows, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 147: 47.Google Scholar
  19. Florman, A. L., Gershon, A. A., Blackett, P. R., and Nahmias, A. J., 1973, Intrauterine infection with herpes simplex virus—resultant congenital malformations, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 225: 129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fuccillo, D. A., and Sever, J. L., 1973, Viral teratology, Bacteriol. Rev. 37: 19.Google Scholar
  21. Gillespie, J. H., Bartholomew, P. R., Thompson, R. G., and McEntee, K., 1967, The isolation of noncytopathic virus diarrhea virus from two aborted bovine fetuses, Cornell Vet. 57: 564.Google Scholar
  22. Gledhill, A. W., 1967, Protective effect of anti-lymphocyte serum on murine lymphocyte choriomeningitis, Nature 214: 178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gregg, N., 1941, Congenital cataracts following German measles in the mother, Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. Aust. 3: 35.Google Scholar
  24. Hamburger, V., and Habel, K., 1947, Teratogenic and lethal effects of influenza A and mumps viruses on early chick embryos, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 66: 608.Google Scholar
  25. Hanshaw, J. B., 1966a, Congenital and acquired cytomegalovirus infection, Pediatr. Clin. North Am. 13: 279.Google Scholar
  26. Hanshaw, J. B., 1966b, Cytomegalovirus complement fixing antibody in microcephaly, N. Engl. J. Med. 275: 476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hanshaw, J. E., 1971, Congenital cytomegalovirus infection. A fifteen year perspective, J. Infect. Dis. 123: 555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hartmann, M., and Brunnemann, H., 1972, Chromosome abberations in cytomegalovirusinfected human diploid cell culture, Acta Virol. 16: 176.Google Scholar
  29. Hildebrandt, R. J., Sever, J. L., Margileth, A. M., and Callaghan, C. A., 1967, Cytomegalovirus in the normal pregnant woman, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 98: 1125.Google Scholar
  30. Hirsch, J. J., Murphy, F. A., Russe, H. P., and Hicklin, M. D., 1967, Effects of thymocyte serum on lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection in mice, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 125: 980.Google Scholar
  31. Holder, W. R., and Knox, J. M., 1972, Syphilis in pregnancy, Med. Clin. North Am. 58: 1151.Google Scholar
  32. Hotchin, J., and Cinits, P., 1958, Lymphocytic choriomeningitis infection of mice as a model for the study of latent virus infection, Can. J. Microbiol. 4: 149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hotchin, J., and Collins, D., 1964, Glomerulonephritis and late onset disease of mice following neonatal virus infection, Nature 203: 1357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hotchin, J., and Weigard, H. 1961, The effect of pre-treatment with x-rays on the pathogenesis of lymphocytic choriomeningitis in mice. I. Host survival, virus multiplication and leukocytosis, J. Immunol. 87: 675.Google Scholar
  35. Howell, P. G., Verwoerd, D. W., 1971, Bluetongue virus, Virol. Monogr. 9: 35.Google Scholar
  36. Hume, O. S., 1972, Toxoplasmosis and pregnancy, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 114: 703.Google Scholar
  37. Jensen, R., Kennedy, P., Ramsey, F., McKercher, D., Collier, J. C., and Fox, F. H., 1968, Report of the ad hoc committee on terminology for the symposium on immunity to the bovine respiratory disease complex, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 152: 940.Google Scholar
  38. Johnson, K. P., and Byington, D. P., 1972, Hog cholera virus: Multiple malformations produced by persistent tolerant infection of fetal swine, Teratology 5: 259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Johnson, K. P., and Johnson, R. T., 1972, Granular ependymitis. Occurrence in myxovirus infected rodents and prevalence in man, Am. J. Pathol. 67: 511.Google Scholar
  40. Johnson, K. P., Ferguson, L. C., Byington, D. P., and Redman, D. R., 1970, Multiple fetal malformations due to persistent viral infection. I. Abortion, intrauterine death, and gross abnormalities in fetal swine infected with hog cholera vaccine virus, Lab. Invest. 30: 608.Google Scholar
  41. Johnson, K. P., Klasnja, R., and Johnson, R. T., 1971, Neural tube defects of chick embryos: An indirect result of influenza A virus infection, J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 30: 68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Johnson, R. T., 1972, Effects of viral infection on the developing nervous system, N. Engl. J. Med. 287: 599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Johnson, R. T., and Johnson, K. P., 1968, Hydrocephalus following viral infection: The pathology of aqueductal stenosis developing after experimental mumps virus infection, J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 27: 591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Johnson, R. T., and Mims, C., 1967, Pathogenesis of viral infections of the nervous system, N. Engl. J. Med. 278: 23–30, 84–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Johnson, R. T., Johnson, K. P., and Edmonds, C. J., 1967, Virus-induced hydrocephalus: Development of aqueductal stenosis in hamsters after mumps infection, Science 157: 1006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kahrs, R. F., Scott, F. W., and deLahunta, A., 1970a, Bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease, abortion, and congenital cerebellar hypoplasia in a dairy herd, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 156: 851.Google Scholar
  47. Kahrs, R. F., Scott, F. W., and deLahunta, A., 1970b, Congenital cerebellar hypoplasia and ocular defects in calves following bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease infection in pregnant cattle, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 156: 1443.Google Scholar
  48. Kenrick, K. E., Slinn, R. F., Dorman, D. C., and Menser, M. A., 1965, Immunoglobulin and rubella virus antibodies in adults with congenital rubella, Lancet 1: 548.Google Scholar
  49. Kilham, L., and Margolis, G., 1964, Cerebellar ataxia in hamsters inoculated with rat virus. Science 143: 1047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kilham, L., and Margolis, G., 1965, Cerebellar disease in cats induced by inoculation of rat virus, Science 148: 244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kilham, L., and Margolis, G., 1966, Viral etiology of spontaneous ataxia of cats, Am. J. Pathol. 48: 991.Google Scholar
  52. Kilham, L., and Margolis, G., 1967, Congenital infections of cats and ferrets by feline panleucopenia virus manifested by cerebellar hypoplasia, Lab. Invest.. 17: 465.Google Scholar
  53. Kilham, L., and Margolis, G., 1969, Hydrocephalus in hamsters, ferrets, rats, and mice following inoculations with reovirus type 1. I. Virologie studies, Lab Invest. 21: 183.Google Scholar
  54. Kilham, L., and Margolis, G., 1970, Pathogenicity of minute virus of mice (MVM) for rats, mice, and hamsters, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 133: 1447.Google Scholar
  55. Kilham, L., Margolis, G., and Colby, E. D., 1971, Cerebellar ataxia and its congenital transmission in cats by feline panleukopenia virus, J. Am. Vet. Assoc. 158: 888.Google Scholar
  56. Kohn, D. F., Chou, S. M., and Kirk, B. E., 1975, Mycoplasma induced hych -ephalus in newborn rats. Presented at the 51st Meeting of the American Association of Neuropathologists, New York, New York.Google Scholar
  57. Korones, S. B., Ainger, L. E., Monif, G. R. G., Roane, J., Sever, J. L., and Fuste, R., 1965, Congenital rubella syndrome: New clinical aspects with recovery of virus from affected infants, J. Pediatr. 67: 166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kumar, M. L., Nankervis, G. A., and Gold, E., 1973, Inapparent congenital cytomegalovirus infection: A follow-up study. N. Engl. J. Med. 288: 1370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kurent, J. E., and Sever, J. L., 1975, Pathogenesis of intrauterine infections of the brain, in: Biology of Brain Dysfunction, Vol. 3 ( G. E. Gaull, ed.), pp. 307–341, Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Larsen, J. H., 1969, The effect of immunosuppressive therapy on murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis infection, Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 77: 433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Levitt, N. H., London, W. T., Kent, S. G., and Sever, J. L., 1973, In utero induction of cataracts and hydrocephalus in rhesus monkeys using Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Miami.Google Scholar
  62. London, W. T., Kent, S. G., and Sever, J. L., 1973, Influenza virus—A teratogen in rhesus monkeys. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Federation of the American Society for Experimental Biology, Atlantic City, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  63. Lundstrom, R., 1962, Rubella during pregnancy: A follow-up study of children born after an epidemic of rubella in Sweden, 1951, with additional information on prophylaxis and treatment of natural rubella. Acta Paediatr. 81:(Suppl)133:1.Google Scholar
  64. MacKenzie, J. S., and Houghton, M., 1974, Influenza infections during pregnancy: Association with congenital malformations and with subsequent neoplasms in children, and potential hazards of live virus vaccines, Bacterial. Rev. 38: 356.Google Scholar
  65. Margolis, G., and Kilham, L., 1968, In pursuit of an ataxic hamster or virus induced cerebellar hypoplasia, in: The Central Nervous System, Some Experimental Models of Neurological Diseases, International Academy of Pathology Monograph No. 9, pp. 157–183, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  66. Margolis, G., and Kilham, L., 1969a, Hydrocephalus in hamsters, ferrets, rats, and mice following inoculations with reovirus type 1. II. Pathologic studies, Lab. Invest. 21: 189.Google Scholar
  67. Margolis, G., and Kilham, L., 1969b, Experimental virus induced hydrocephalus. Relation to pathogenesis of the Arnold-Chiari malformation, J. Neurosurg. 31: 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Margolis, G., and Kilham, L., 1970, Cerebellar ontogenetic patterns: Key to a virus code, in: The Cerebellum in Health and Disease ( W. S. Fields and W. D. Willis, Jr., eds.), pp. 353–379, Warren H. Green, St. Louis, Missouri.Google Scholar
  69. Medearis, D. N., 1957, Cytomegalic inclusion disease. An analysis of the clinical features based on the literature and six additional cases, Pediatrics 19: 467.Google Scholar
  70. Menser, M. A., Harley, J. D., Hertzberg, R., Dorman, O. C., and Murphy, A. M., 1967, Persistence of virus in lens for three years after prenatal rubella, Lancet 2: 387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Michaels, R. H., and Mellin, G. W., 1960, Prospective experience with maternal rubella and the associated congenital malformations, Pediatrics 26: 200.Google Scholar
  72. Michols, W. W., 1966, The role of viruses in the etiology of chromosomal abnormalities, Ann. Hum. Genet. 18: 81.Google Scholar
  73. Mims, C. A., 1968, Pathogenesis of viral infections of the fetus, Prog. Med. Virol. 10: 194.Google Scholar
  74. Monif, G. R. G., Sever, J. L., Schiff, G. M., and Traub, R. G., 1965, Isolation of rubella from products of conception, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 91: 1143.Google Scholar
  75. Monjan, A., Gilden, D. H., Cole, G. A., and Nathanson, N., 1971, Cerebellar hypoplasia in neonatal rats caused by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, Science 171: 194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Montgomery, J. R., South, M. A., Rawls, W. E., Melnick, J. L., Olson, G. B., Dent, P. B., and Good, R. A., 1967, Viral inhibition lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin, Science 157: 1068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Nahmias, A. J., and Dowdle, W. R., 1968, Antigenic and biologic differences in herpesvirus hominis, Prog. Med. Virol. 10: 110.Google Scholar
  78. Nahmias, A. J., Dowdle, W. R., Josey, W. E., Naib, Z. M., Painter, C. M., and Luce, C., 1969, Newborn infection with herpesvirus hominis types 1 and 2, J. Pediatr. 75: 1194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Narayan, O., and Johnson, R. T., 1972, Effects of viral infection on nervous system development. I. Pathogenesis of bluetongue virus infection in mice, Am. J. Pathol. 68: 1.Google Scholar
  80. Narayan, O., McFarland, H. F., and Johnson, R. T., 1972, Effects of viral infection on nervous system development. II. Attempts to modify bluetongue virus-induced malformations with cyclophosphamide and antithymocyte serum, Am. J. Pathol. 68: 15.Google Scholar
  81. Olafson, P., MacCallum, A. D., and Fox, F. H., 1946, An apparently new transmissible disease of cattle, Cornell Vet. 36: 205.Google Scholar
  82. Oldstone, M. B. A., and Dixon, F., 1969, Pathogenesis of chronic disease associated with persistent lymphocytic choriomeningitis viral infection. I. Relationship of antibody production to disease in neonatally infected mice, J. Exp. Med. 129: 483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Oldstone, M. B. A., and Dixon, F., 1970, Pathogenesis of chronic disease associated with persistent lymphocytic choriomeningitis viral infection. II. Relationship of the anti-lymphocytic choriomeningitis immune response to tissue injury in chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis disease, J. Exp. Med. 131: 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Olson, G. B., South, M. A., and Good, R. A., 1967, Phytohemagglutinin unresponsiveness of lymphocytes from babies with congenital rubella, Nature 214: 695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Osburn, B. I.; Silverstein, A. M., Prendergast, R. A., Johnson, R. T., and Parshall, C. J., 1971a, Experimental viral-induced congenital encephalopathies. I. Pathology of hydranencephaly and porencephaly caused by bluetongue vaccine virus, Lab. Invest. 25: 197.Google Scholar
  86. Osburn, B. I., Johnson, R. T., Silverstein, A. M., Prendergast, R. A., Jochim, M. J., and Levy, S. E., 1971b, Experimental viral-induced congenital encephalopathies. II. The pathogenesis of bluetongue virus infections in fetal lambs, Lab. Invest. 25: 206.Google Scholar
  87. Peterson, D. R., Tronca, E., and Bonin, P., 1972, Human toxoplasmosis prevalence and exposure to cats, Am. J. Epidemiol. 96: 215.Google Scholar
  88. Plotkin, S. A., 1975, Routes of fetal infection and mechanisms of fetal damage, Am. J. Dis. Child. 129: 444.Google Scholar
  89. Plotkin, S. A., and Vaheri, A., 1967, Human fibroblasts infected with rubella virus produce a growth inhibitor, Science 156: 659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Plotkin, S. A., Boue, A., and Boue, J. E., 1965, The in vitro growth of rubella virus in human embryo cells, Am. J. Epidemiol. 81: 71.Google Scholar
  91. Remington, J. S., Jacobs, L., and Melton, M. L., 1961, Congenital transmission of toxoplasmosis from mother, J. Infect. Dis. 108: 163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Reynolds, D. W., Stagno, S., Stubbs, K. G., Dahle, A. J., Livingston, M. M., Saxon, S. S., and Alford, C. A., 1974, N. Engl. J. Med. 290: 291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Richards, W. P. C., and Cordy, D. R., 1967, Bluetongue virus infections pathologic responses of nervous systems in sheep and mice, Science 156: 530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Robertson, G. G., Williamson, A. P., and Blattner, R. J., 1955, A study of abnormalities in early chick embryos inoculated with newcastle disease virus, J. Exp. Zool. 129: 5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sanger, V. L., and Cole, C. R., 1955, Toxoplasmosis. VI. Isolation of toxoplasma from milk, placentas, and newborn pigs of asymptomatic carrier sows, Am. J. Vet. Assoc. 16: 536.Google Scholar
  96. Scott, F. W., Kahrs, R. F., deLahunta, A., Brown, T. T., McEntee, K., and Gillespie, J. H., 1973, Virus induced congenital anomalies of the bovine fetus. I. Cerebellar degeneration (hypoplasia) ocular lesions and fetal mummification following experimental infection with bovine viral diarrhea mucosal disease virus, Cornell Vet. 63: 536.Google Scholar
  97. Sever, J. L., 1971, Virus infections and malformations, Fed. Proc. 30: 114.Google Scholar
  98. Sever, J. L., and White, L. R., 1968, Intrauterine viral infections, Annu. Rev. Med. 19: 471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Shope, R. E., 1968, Comments on bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 152: 769.Google Scholar
  100. Siegl, G., Hallauer, C., Novak, A., and Kronauer, 1971, Parvoviruses as contaminants of permanent human cell lines. II. Physiochemical properties of the isolated viruses, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 35: 91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Siegel, M., 1973, Congenital malformations following chickenpox, measles, mumps, and hepatitis, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 226: 1521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Silverstein, A. M., 1962, Congenital syphilis and the timing of immunogenesis in the human fetus, Nature 194: 196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Silverstein, A. M., 1964, Ontogeny of the immune response, Science 144: 1423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Singer, D. B., Rudolph, A. J., Rosenberg, H. S., Rawls, W. E., and Boniuk, M., 1967, Pathology of the congenital rubella syndrome, J. Pediatr. 71: 665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Soothill, J. F., Hayes, K., and Dudgeon, J. A., 1966, Immunoglobulin in congenital rubella, Lancet 1: 1385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. South, M. A., Tompkins, W. A. F., Morris, R., and Rawls, W. E., 1969, Congenital malformations of the central nervous system associated with genital (type 2) herpes virus, J. Pediatr. 75: 13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Srabstein, J. C., Morris, N., Larke, R. P. B., de Sa, D. J., Castelino, B. B., and Sum, E., 1974, Is there a congenital varicella syndrome? J. Pediatr. 84: 239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Starr, J. G., Bard, R. D., Jr., and Gold, E., 1970, Inapparent congenital cytomegalovirus infection, Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics in early infancy, N. Engl. J. Med. 282: 1075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Swan, C., Tosterin, A. L., Moore, B., Mayo, H., and Black, B. H. B., 1943, Congenital defects in infants following infectious diseases during pregnancy, with special reference to relationship between German measles and cataract, deaf-mutism, heart disease and microcephaly, and to period of pregnancy in which occurrence of rubella is followed by congenital abnormalities, Med. J. Aust. 2: 201.Google Scholar
  110. Swope, R. E., and Luedke, A., 1956, A mucosal disease in cattle in Pennsylvania, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 129: 111.Google Scholar
  111. Toolan, H. W., 1960, Experimental production of mongoloid hamsters, Science 131: 1446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Townsend, J. J., Baringer, J. R., Wolinsky, J. S., Malamud, N., Mednick, J. P., Panitch, H. S., Scott, R. A. T., Oshioro, L. S., and Cremer, N. E., 1975, Progressive rubella panencephalitis: Late onset after congenital rubella. N. Engl. J. Med. 292: 990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Ward, G. M., 1971, Bovine cerebellar hypoplasia apparently caused by BVD-MD virus. A case report, Cornell Vet. 61: 179.Google Scholar
  114. Weil, M. L., Itabashi, H. H., Cremer, N. E., Oshiro, L. S., Lennette, E. H., and Carnay, L., 1975, Chronic progressive panencephalitis due to rubella virus simulating SSPE, N. Engl. J. Med. 292: 994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wenger, F., 1967, Necrosis cerebral masiva del feto en casos de encefalitis equina Venezulano, Invest. Clin. 21: 13.Google Scholar
  116. Williamson, A. P., Blattner, R. J., and Robertson, G. G., 1965, The relationship of viral antigen to virus-induced defects in chick embryos: Newcastle disease virus, Dev. Biol. 12: 498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wilson, J. G., 1973, Environment and Birth Defects, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  118. Winn, K., Becker, L. E., and Herndon, R. M., 1974, Comparative studies of rat virus and bluetongue vaccine virus infections. II. Electron microscopic studies of rat virus and bluetongue virus vaccine virus infections, J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 33: 530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Young, S., and Gordy, D. R., 1964, An ovine fetal encephalopathy caused by bluetongue vaccine virus, J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 23: 635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jerome E. Kurent
    • 1
  • John L. Sever
    • 1
  1. 1.Infectious Diseases Branch, National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and StrokeNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA

Personalised recommendations