Relation of Animal Studies to the Problem in Man

  • F. Clarke Fraser


By “the problem” in man we refer to the fact that some 3–7% of human babies are born with malformation serious enough to require treatment. Etiologically these can be broken down into five categories: those caused by a mutant gene (roughly 5%), those in which there is evidence for a multifactorial basis (roughly 20%), those associated with a chromosomal aberration, either autosomal (2%) or sex-chromosomal (8%), those caused by an identifiable environmental agent (roughly 5%), and those in which no cause has been identified (roughly 60%).


Club Foot Cleft Palate Cleave Palate Face Shape Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Clarke Fraser
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiologyMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Department of Medical GeneticsThe Montreal Children’s HospitalMontrealCanada

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