Interactions and Multiple Causes

  • F. Clarke Fraser


The truth of Donne’s famous adage is nowhere better illustrated than in the field of teratology. No mother, embryo, gene, or teratogen is “an island unto himself,” and the literature is replete with examples of interactions between two or more of these that influence the frequency of malformations.


Cleft Palate Teratogenic Effect Maternal Weight Cleave Palate Iodoacetic Acid 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Clarke Fraser
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiologyMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Department of Medical GeneticsThe Montreal Children’s HospitalMontrealCanada

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