Advertisement

Release and Actions of Prostaglandins in Inflammation and Fever: Inhibition by Anti-Inflammatory and Antipyretic Drugs

  • A. L. Willis
  • P. Davison
  • P. W. Ramwell
  • W. E. Brocklehurst
  • B. Smith
Part of the Alza Conference Series book series (AEMB, volume 195B)

Abstract

When studying the pharmacological mediation of an inflammatory reaction, several difficulties are encountered. These lie in the multiplicity of factors involved and the complexity of their interactions. However, there are rigid criteria which ought to be satisfied before a substance can be definitely classified as a mediator of inflammation; these are listed below:
  1. (1)

    The putative mediator of inflammation should induce some or all of the signs of inflammation.

     
  2. (2)

    During the inflammatory reaction, the putative mediator should be released in amounts whose local concentrations in the tissue are capable of inducing these signs; ideally its appearance should correlate with development of the inflammatory reaction.

     
  3. (3)

    Release or actions of the putative mediator should be reduced by known anti-inflammatory drugs and, as a corollary, drugs which reduce the release or actions of the mediator should possess anti-inflammatory properties.

     

Keywords

Lysosomal Enzyme Sodium Salicylate Prostaglandin Production Rheumatoid arthritiS Prostaglandin Synthetase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ambache, N., 1961, Prolonged erythema produced by chromatographically purified irin, J. Physiol. (London) 160:3.Google Scholar
  2. Ambache, N., Brummer, M. C., Rose, S. G., and Whiting, J., 1966, Thin layer chromatography of spasmogenic unsaturated hydroxy acids from various tissues, J. Physiol. (London) 185:77.Google Scholar
  3. Ambache, N., Kavanagh, L., and Whiting, J., 1965, Effect of mechanical stimulation on rabbits’ eyes: release of active substances in anterior chamber perfusates, J. Physiol. (London) 176:378.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, A. J., 1970, Lysosomal enzyme activity in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis, Ann. Rheum. Dis. 29:307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson, A. J., Brocklehurst, W. E., and Willis, A. L., 1971, Evidence for the role of lysosomes in the formation of prostaglandins during carrageenin-induced inflammation in the rat. Pharm. Res. Commun. 2:13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anggard, E., and Jonsson, C. E., 1971, Efflux of prostaglandins in lymph from scalded tissue. Acta. Physiol. Scand. 81:440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arora, S., Lahiri, P. K., and Sanyal, R. K., 1970, The role of prostaglandin E(1) in inflammatory process in the rat. Int. Arch. Allergy, 39:186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bartels, J., Kunze, H., Vogt, W., and Wille, G., 1970, Prostaglandin liberation from and formation in trog intestine, Nuanyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch. Pharmak. Exp. Path. 206:199.Google Scholar
  9. Beitch, B. R., and Eakins, K. E., 1969, The effects of prostaglandins on the intraocular pressure of the rabbit, Br. J. Pharmac. 37:158.Google Scholar
  10. Bergstrom, S., Carlsson, L. A., Ekelund, L. G., and Oro, L., 1965, Cardiovascular and metabolic response to infusions of prostaglandin E(1) and to simultaneous infusions of noradrenaline and prostaglandin E(1) in man, Acta. Physiol. Scand. 64:332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bergstrom, S., Carlsson, L. A., and Weeks, J. P., 1968, The prostaglandins: A family of biologically active lipids, Pharmac. Rev. 20:1.Google Scholar
  12. Bergstrom, S., Danielsson, H., and Samuelsson, B., 1964, The enzymatic formation of prostaglandin E(2) from arachidonic acid, Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 90:207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bethel, R. A., and Eakins, K. E., 1971, Antagonism by polyphloretin phosphate of the intraocular pressure rise induced by prostaglandins and formaldehyde in the rabbit eye, Fed. Proc. 30:626.Google Scholar
  14. Bonta, I. L., and De Vos, C. J., 1965, Presence of a slow contraction inducing material in fluid collected from the rat paw edema induced by serotonin, Experientia, 21:34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brittain, R. T., 1966, The intracerebral effects of noradrenaline and its modification by drugs in the mouse, J. Pharm. Pharmac. 18:621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cashin, C. H., and Heading, C. E., 1968, The assay of antipyretic drugs in mice, using intracerebral injection of pyretogenins, Br. J. Pharmac. 34:148.Google Scholar
  17. Collier, H. O. J., 1971, Prostaglandins and aspirin, Nature (London) 232:17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Coppi, G., and Bonardi, G., 1968, Effect of two nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents on alkaline and acid phosphatases of inflamed tissue, J. Pharm. Pharmac. 20:661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Crunkhorn, P., and Willis, A. L., 1969, Actions and interactions of prostaglandins administered intradermally in rat and man, Br. J. Pharmac. 36:216.Google Scholar
  20. Crunkhorn, P., and Willis, A. L., 1971a, Cutaneous reactions to intradermal prostaglandins, Br. J. Pharmac. 41:49.Google Scholar
  21. Crunkhorn, P., and Willis, A. L., 1971b, Interaction between prostaglandins E and F given intradermally in the rat, Br. J. Pharmac. 41:507.Google Scholar
  22. DiRosa, M., Giroud, J. P., and Willoughby, D. A., 1971, Studies of the mediators of the acute inflammatory response induced in rats in different sites by carrageenin and turpentine, J. Path. 104:15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. DiRosa, M., and Willoughby, D. A., Screens for antiinflammatory drugs, J. Pharm. Pharmac. 23:297.Google Scholar
  24. Eisen, V., Greenbaum, L., and Lewis, G. P., 1968, Kinins and anti-inflammatory steroids, Br. J. Pharmac. 34:169.Google Scholar
  25. Elsbach, P., 1966, Phospholipid metabolism by phagocytic cells, I. A comparison of conversion of [32P]-lysolecithin to lecithin by homogenates of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes and alveolar macrophages, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 125:510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Elsbach, P., and Rizack, M. A., 1963, Acid lipase and phospholipase activity in homogenates of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes, Am. J. Physiol. 205:115.Google Scholar
  27. Feldberg, W., and Saxena, P. N., 1971, Fever produced in rabbits and cats by prostaglandin E(1) injected into the cerebral ventricles, J. Physiol. 215:23.Google Scholar
  28. Ferreira, S. H., Moncada, S., and Vane, J. R., 1971, Indomethacin and aspirin abolish prostaglandin release from spleen. Nature New Biology, 231:237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fowler, S., and De Duve, C., 1969, Digestive activity of lysosomes. III. The digestion of lipids by extracts of rat liver lysosomes, J. Biol. Chem. 244:471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Gardner, D. L., 1960, Production of arthritis in the rabbit by the local injection of the mucopolysaccharide carrageenin, Ann. Rheum. Dis. 19:369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Giroud, J. P., and Willoughby, D. A., 1970, The interrelations of complement and a prostaglandin-like substance in acute inflammation, J. Path. 101:241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Glenn, M. E., 1972, Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects of certain prostaglandins, in “Prostaglandins in Cellular Biology and the Inflammatory Process” (B. B. Pharriss and P. W. Ramwell, eds.). Plenum Press, New York (in press).Google Scholar
  33. Greaves, M. W., Sondergaard, J., and McDonald-Gibson, W., 1971, Recovery of prostaglandins in human cutaneous inflammation, Br. Med. J., 2: 258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Green, K., and Samuelsson, B., 1964, Prostaglandins and related factors: XIX, Thin layer chromatography of prostaglandins, J. Lipid. Res. 5:117.Google Scholar
  35. Harris, J. M., and West, G. B., 1963, Rats resistant to the dextran anaphylactoid reactions, Br. J. Pharmac. 20:550.Google Scholar
  36. Holmes, S. W., 1968, Concentrations of prostaglandins in the nervous system. Ph. D. Thesis in the University of London.Google Scholar
  37. Holmes, S. W., 1970, The spontaneous release of prostaglandins into the cerebral ventricles of the dog and the effect of external factors on this release, Br. J. Pharmac. 38:653.Google Scholar
  38. Holmsen, H., and Day, H. J., 1970, The selectivity of the thrombin-induced platelet release reaction: subcellular localization of released and retained constituents, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 75:840.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Horton, E. W., 1963, Action of prostaglandin E(1) on tissues which respond to bradykinin, Nature (London) 200:892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Juhlin, S., and Michaelsson, G., 1969, Cutaneous vascular reactions to prostaglandins in healthy subjects and in patients with urticaria and atopic dermatitis, Acta. Derm-Vener. (Stockholm) 49:251.Google Scholar
  41. Kaley, G., and Weiner, R., 1968, Microcirculatory studies with prostaglandin E(1), in “Prostaglandin”, symposium of the Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology, (P. W. Ramwell and J. E. Shaw, eds.), Interscience, New York, pp. 321–328.Google Scholar
  42. Kaley, G., and Weiner, R., 1971, Prostaglandin E(1): a potential mediator of the inflammatory response, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 180:338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Melmon, K. L., and Cline, M. J., 1967, Interaction of plasma kinins and granulocytes. Nature, (London) 213:90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Michaelsson, G., 1970, Effects of antihistamines, acetylsalicylic acid and prednisone on cutaneous reactions to kallikrein and prostaglandin E(1), Acta- Derm. Vener. (Stockholm) 30:31.Google Scholar
  45. Milton, A. S., and Wendlandt, S., 1970, A possible role for prostaglandin E(1) as a modulator for temperature regulation in the central nervous system of the cat, J. Physiol. Lond. 202:768.Google Scholar
  46. Milton, A. S., and Wendlandt, S., 1971, J. Physiol. (London) 218:325.Google Scholar
  47. Muller-Eberhard, H. J., 1969, Complement, Ann. Rev. Biochem. 38:389.Google Scholar
  48. Parrat, J. R., and West, G. B., 1958, Inhibition by various substances of edema formation in the hind paw of the rat induced by 5-hydroxytryptamine, histamine, dextran, eggwhite, and compound 48/80, Br. J. Pharmac., 13:65.Google Scholar
  49. Piper, P. J., and Vane, J. R., 1969, Release of additional factors in anaphylaxis and its antagonism by antiinflammatory drugs. Nature (London) 225:29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Samuelsson, B., 1963, Isolation and identification of prostaglandins from human seminal plasma, J. Biol. Chem. 238:3229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Selye, H., 1954, An experimental model illustrating the pathogenesis of the diseases of adaptation, J. Clin. Endocrin., 14:997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Shaw, J. E., and Ramwell, P. W., 1969, Separation, identification and estimation of prostaglandins, Meth. Biochem. Analysis, 17:325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Silver, M. J., Smith, J. B., and Webster, G. R., 1971, Phospholipase activity in human platelets, Pharmacologist, 13(2):276, abs. 474.Google Scholar
  54. Smith, A. D., and Winkler, H., 1968, Lysosomal phospholipases A(1) and A(2) of bovine adrenal medulla, Biochem. J., 108:867.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Smith, J. B., and Willis, A. L., 1970, Formation and release of prostaglandins by platelets in response to thrombin, Br. J. Pharmac. 40:545.Google Scholar
  56. Smith, J. B., and Willis, A. L., 1971, Aspirin selectively inhibits prostaglandin production in human platelets, Nature New Biology, 231: 235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Smith, M. J. H., and Dawkins, P. D., 1971, Salicylate and enzymes, J. Pharm. Pharmac. 32:729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Solomon, L. M., Juhlin, L., and Kirschbaum, M. B., 1968, Prostaglandin on cutaneous vasculature, J. Invest. Derm. 51: 280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Spector, W. G., and Willoughby, D. A., 1968, The pharmacology of inflammation, English universities Press Ltd. (London).Google Scholar
  60. van Arman, C. G., Begany, A. J., Miller, L. M., and Pless, H. H., 1965, Some details of the inflammations caused by yeast and carrageenin, J. Pharmac. Exp. Ther. 150:328.Google Scholar
  61. Vane, J. R., 1964, The use of isolated organs for detecting active substances in the circulating blood, Br. J. Pharmac. Chemother. 23:360.Google Scholar
  62. Vane, J. R., 1971, Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis as a mechanism of action from aspirin-like drugs, Nature New Biology, 231:232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Vargaftig, B. B., and Dao, N., Pharmacology, (in press).Google Scholar
  64. Waite, M., Scherphof, G. L., and Van Deenen, L. L. M., 1969, Differentiation of phospholipases A in mitochondria and lysosomes of rat liver, J. Lipid Res. 10:411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Waitzman, M. B., and King, C. D., 1967, Prostaglandin influences on intraocular pressure and pupil size. Am. J. Physiol. 212:329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Weissman, G., 1967, The role of lysosomes in inflammation and disease, Ann. Rev. Med. 18:97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Weissman, G., and Thomas, L., 1964, The effect of corticosteroids upon connective tissue and lysosomes, Recent Progr. Horm. Res. 20:215.Google Scholar
  68. Willis, A. L., 1969a, Parallel assay of prostaglandin-like activity in rat inflammatory exudate by means of cascade superfusion, J. Pharm. Pharmac. 21:126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Willis, A. L., 1969b, Release of histamine, kinin and prostaglandins during carrageenin-induced inf lairmation in the rat, in “Prostaglandins Peptides and Amines”, (P. Mantegazza and E. W. Horton, eds.), Academic Press, London. pp. 31–38.Google Scholar
  70. Willis, A. L., 1970, Identification of prostaglandin E(2) in rat inflammatory exudate, Pharmac. Res. Commun. 2:297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Willis, A. L., 1971, Prostaglandins: their release and inter-relationship with biogenic amines. Ph. D. Thesis in the University of London.Google Scholar
  72. Willis, A. L., Davison, P., and Ramwell, P. W., 1972, An action of antipyretic drugs in mice through inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis in brain, in “Prostaglandins” (in press).Google Scholar
  73. Willoughby, D. A., Coote, E., and Turk, J. L., 1969, Complement in acute inflammation, J. Path. 97:295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Winter, C.A., Risley, E. A., and Nuss, G. V., 1962, Carrageenin-induced edema in hind paws of the rat as an assay for anti-inflammatory drugs, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 111:544.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Winter, C. A., Risley, E. A., and Nuss, G. V., 1963, Antiinflammatory and antipyretic activities of indomethacin, 1 (p-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-indole-3-acetic acid, J. Pharmac. Exp. Ther. 141:369.Google Scholar
  76. Wiseman, E. H., and Chang, Y., 1968, The role of fibrin in the inflammatory response to carrageenin, J. Pharmac. Exp. Ther. 159:206.Google Scholar
  77. Woodbury, D. M., 1970, Analgesic-antipyretics, antiinflammatory agents and inhibitors of uric acid synthesis, in “Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics”, 4th edn. (L. S. Goodman and A. Gilman, eds.), The MacMillan Company, London and Toronto, pp. 314–347.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. L. Willis
    • 1
  • P. Davison
    • 1
  • P. W. Ramwell
    • 1
  • W. E. Brocklehurst
    • 1
  • B. Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physiology, Medical SchoolStanford UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations