Advertisement

Nonverbal Expressions of Aggression and Submission in Social Groups of Primates

  • Robert E. Miller
Part of the Advances in the Study of Communication and Affect book series (ASCA, volume 2)

Abstract

Aggression and violence have both fascinated and repelled mankind since earliest recorded history. All of our histories, and our great legacy of drama and literature, are chronicles of war, civil strife, criminal acts of murder and rape, and accounts of man’s inhumanity to man. The figures of history are, for the most part, men of violence—Alexander the Great, Genghis Khan, the Caesars, Napoleon, Wellington, and Hitler, to mention only a few. Those who have dared to speak out against aggression and to advocate that man use persuasion, reason, logic, and ethics to settle our human differences have, more often than not, been themselves imprisoned and tortured, burned at the stake, crucified, or certified to be insane for their heretical contention that aggression is not the only way to achieve happiness for the greatest number of people.

Keywords

Conditioned Stimulus Aggressive Behavior Rhesus Monkey Social Dominance Primate Behavior 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andrew, R. J. The origin and evolution of the calls and facial expressions of the primates. Behaviour, 1963, 20, 1–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ardrey, R. African genesis. New York: Atheneum, 1961.Google Scholar
  3. Ardrey, R. The territorial imperative: A personal inquiry into the animal origins of property and nations. New York: Atheneum, 1966.Google Scholar
  4. Ardrey, R. The social contract. New York: Atheneum, 1970.Google Scholar
  5. Bandura, A. Aggression: A social learning analysis. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1973.Google Scholar
  6. Bernstein, I. S. Role of the dominant male rhesus monkey in response to external challenges to the group. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1964, 57, 404–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Birch, H. G., & Clark, G. Hormonal modification of social behavior: II. The effects of sex-hormone administration on the social dominance status of the female-castrate chimpanzee. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1946, 8, 320–331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Birch, H. G., & Clark, G. Hormonal modification of social behavior: IV. The mechanism of estrogen-induced dominance in chimpanzees. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1950, 43, 181–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bronson, F. H., & Desjardins, C. Steroid hormones and aggressive behavior in mammals. In B. E. Eleftheriou & J. P. Scott (Eds.), The physiology of aggression and defeat. New York: Plenum Press, 1971, pp. 43–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carpenter, C. R. A field study in Siam of the behavior and social relations of the gibbon (Hylobates lar). Comparative Psychology Monographs, 1940, 16, 1–212.Google Scholar
  11. Carpenter, C. R. Societies of monkeys and apes. Biological Symposia, 1942, 8, 177–204.Google Scholar
  12. Carpenter, C. R. The howlers of Barro Colorado Island. In I. DeVore (Ed.), Primate behavior: Field studies of monkeys and apes. New York: Holt, Reinhart, and Winston, 1965, pp. 250–291.Google Scholar
  13. Clark, G., & Birch, H. G. Hormonal modification of social behavior: I. The effect of sex-hormone administration on the social status of a male-castrate chimpanzee. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1945, 7, 321–329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Clark, G., & Birch, H. G. Hormonal modification of social behavior: III. The effects of stilbesterol therapy on social dominance in the female-castrate chimpanzee. Bulletin Canadian Psychological A ssociation, 1946, 6 (1).Google Scholar
  15. Deets, A. C., & Harlow, H. F. Early experience and the maturation of aggression. In V. P. Rock (Chm.), Value and Knowledge Requirements for Peace. Symposium presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Philadelphia, December, 1971 (Washington: AAAS, 1972, Audiotape No. 94–71 IV).Google Scholar
  16. DeVore, I., & Hall, K. R. L. Baboon ecology. In I. DeVore (Ed.), Primate behavior: Field studies of monkeys and apes. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1965, pp. 20–52.Google Scholar
  17. Geen, R. G. Aggression. Morristown, N.J.: General Learning Press, 1972, pp. 1–23.Google Scholar
  18. Goldstein, M. Brain research and violent behavior: A summary of the status of biomedical research on brain and aggressive violent behavior. Archives of Neurology, 1974, 30, 1–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Goodall, J. Chimpanzees in the Gombe Stream Reserve. In I. DeVore (Ed.), Primate behavior: Field studies of monkeys and apes. New York: Holt, Reinhart, and Winston, 1965, pp. 425–473.Google Scholar
  20. Goy, R. W. Organizing effects of androgen on the behaviour of rhesus monkeys. In R. P. Michael (Ed.), Endocrinology and human behaviour. London: Oxford University Press, 1968, pp. 12–31.Google Scholar
  21. Hall, K. R. L. Aggression in monkey and ape societies. In J. D. Carthy & F. J. Ebling (Eds.), The natural history of aggression. New York: Academic Press, 1964, pp. 51–64.Google Scholar
  22. Hall, K. R. L., & DeVore, I. Baboon social behavior. In I. DeVore (Ed.), Primate behavior: Field studies of monkeys and apes. New York: Holt, Reinhart, and Winston, 1965, pp. 53–110.Google Scholar
  23. Harlow, H. F., & Bromer, J. A. A test-apparatus for monkeys. Psychological Record, 1938, 2, 434–436.Google Scholar
  24. Harlow, H. F., & Harlow, M. K. The affectional systems. In A. M. Schrier, H. F. Harlow, & F. Stollnitz (Eds.), Behavior of nonhuman primates: Modern research trends (Vol. 2). New York: Academic Press, 1965, pp. 287–334.Google Scholar
  25. Harlow, H. F., Rowland, G. L., & Griffin, G. A. The effect of total social deprivation on the development of monkey behavior. Psychiatric Research Reports, 1964, 19, 116–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Imanishi, K. Social behavior in Japanese monkeys, Macaca fuscata. Psychologia, 1957, 1, 47–54.Google Scholar
  27. Jay, P. The Indian langur monkey (Presbytis entellus). In C. H. Southwick (Ed.), Primate Social Behavior. Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand, 1963, pp. 114–123.Google Scholar
  28. Joslyn, W. D. Androgen-induced social dominance in infant female rhesus monkeys. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1973, 14, 137–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kaufmann, J. H. Social relations of adult males in a free-ranging band of rhesus monkeys. In S. Altmann (Ed.), Social Communication among Primates. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967, pp. 73–98.Google Scholar
  30. Kawamura, S. Matriarchal social ranks in the Minoo-B troop: A study of the rank system of Japanese monkeys. Primates, 1958, 1, 149–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Koford, C. B. Ranks of mothers and sons in bands of rhesus monkeys. Science, 1963, 141, 356–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Koford, C. B. Population dynamics of rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago. In I. DeVore (Ed.), Primate Behavior: Field studies of monkeys and apes. New York: Holt, Reinhart, and Winston, 1965, pp. 160–174.Google Scholar
  33. Koyama, N. On dominance rank and kinship of the wild Japanese monkey troop on Arashiyama. Primates, 1967, 8, 189–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lanzetta, J. T., & Kleck, R. E. Encoding and decoding of nonverbal affect in humans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1970, 16, 12–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lindburg, D. G. The rhesus monkey in North India: An ecological and behavioral study. In L. Rosenblum (Ed.), Primate behavior: Developments in field and laboratory research (Vol. 2). New York: Academic Press, 1971, pp. 1–106.Google Scholar
  36. Lorenz, K. On Aggression. London: Methuen, 1966.Google Scholar
  37. Maslow, A. H. Dominance-quality and social behavior in infra-human primates. Journal of Social Psychology, 1940, 11, 313–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Miller, R. E. Experimental approaches to the physiological and behavioral concomitants of affective communication in Rhesus monkeys. In: S. Altmann (Ed.), Social Communication Among Primates. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1967, pp. 125–134.Google Scholar
  39. Miller, R. E. Experimental studies of communication in the monkey. In L. Rosenblum (Ed.), Primate behavior: Developments in field and laboratory research. New York: Academic Press, 1971, pp. 139–175.Google Scholar
  40. Miller, R. E. Social and pharmacological influences on nonverbal communication in monkeys and man. In L. Krames, P. Pliner, & T. Alloway (Eds.), Nonverbal communication: Comparative aspects. New York: Plenum Press, 1974, pp. 77–101.Google Scholar
  41. Miller, R. E., & Banks, J. H. The determination of social dominance in monkeys by a competitive avoidance method. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1962, 55, 137–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Miller, R. E., Caul, W. F., & Mirsky, I.A. The communication of affects between feral and socially isolated monkeys. Journal of Personality’ and Social Psychology, 1967, 7, 231–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Miller, R. E., Levine, J. M., & Mirsky, I. A. Effects of psychoactive drugs on nonverbal communication and group social behavior of monkeys. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1973, 28, 396–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Miller, R. E., & Murphy, J. V. Social interactions of rhesus monkeys: I. Food-getting dominance as a dependent variable. Journal of Social Psychology, 1956, 44 , 249–255 (a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Miller, R. E., & Murphy, J. V. Social interactions of rhesus monkeys: II. Effects of social interaction on the learning of discrimination tasks. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1956, 49, 207–211 (b).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Miller, R. E., Murphy, J. V., & Mirsky, I.A. The modification of social dominance in a group of monkeys by interanimal conditioning. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1955, 48, 392–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mirsky, A. F. The influence of sex hormones on social behavior in monkeys. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology , 1955, 48, 327–335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mitchell, G. D. Persistent behavior pathology in rhesus rrionkeys following early social isolation. Folia Primatologica, 1968, 8, 132–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Montagu, M. F. A. Man and aggression. New York: Oxford University Press, 1968.Google Scholar
  50. Moyer, K. E. A preliminary physiological model of aggressive behavior. In B. E. Eleftheriou & J. P. Scott (Eds.), The physiology of aggression and defeat. New York: Plenum Press, 1971, pp. 223–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Moynihan, M. Comparative aspects of communication in New World monkeys. In D. Morris (Ed.), Primate ethology. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1967, pp. 306–342.Google Scholar
  52. Murphy, J. V., & Miller, R. E. The manipulation of dominance of monkeys with conditioned fear. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1956, 53, 244–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Murphy, J. V., Miller, R. E., & Mirsky, I.A. Interanimal conditioning in the monkey. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1955, 48, 211–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ploog, D. W. The behavior of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) by sociometry, bioacoustics, and brain stimulation. In S. Altmann (Bd.), Social communication among primates. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967, pp. 149–184.Google Scholar
  55. Reynolds, V., & Reynolds, F. Chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest. In I. DeVore (Ed.), Primate behavior: Field studies of monkeys and apes. New York: Holt, Reinhart, and Winston, 1965, pp. 368–424.Google Scholar
  56. Ripley, S. Intertroop encounters among Ceylon gray langurs (Presbytis entellus). In S. Altmann (Ed.), Social communication among primates. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967, pp. 237–253.Google Scholar
  57. Rose, R. M., Holaday, J. W., & Bernstein, I. A. Plasma testosterone, dominance rank, and aggressive behavior in male rhesus monkeys. Nature, 1971, 231, 366–368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Russell, C., & Russell, W. M. S. Violence: Monkeys and man. London: Macmillan, 1968.Google Scholar
  59. Sade, D. S. Determinants of dominance in a group of free-ranging rhesus monkeys. In S. Altmann (Ed.), Social communication among primates. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967, pp. 99–114.Google Scholar
  60. Schaller, G. B. The mountain gorilla. Ecology and behavior. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963.Google Scholar
  61. Seay, B. Maternal behavior in primiparous and multiparous rhesus monkeys. Folia Primatologica, 1966, 4, 146–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Southwick, C. H. Aggressive behaviour of rhesus monkeys in natural and captive groups. In S. Garattini & E. B. Sigg (Eds.), Aggressive behavior. International Symposium on the Biology of Aggressive Behavior, Milan, 1968. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica Foundation, 1969, pp. 32–43.Google Scholar
  63. Sparks, J. Allogrooming in primates: A review. In D. Morris (Ed.), Primate ethology. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday and Co., 1969, pp. 190–225.Google Scholar
  64. Sugiyama, Y. Social organization of hanuman langurs. In S. Altmann (Ed.), Social communication among primates. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967, pp. 221–236.Google Scholar
  65. van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. The facial displays of the catarrhine monkeys and apes. In D. Morris (Ed.), Primate ethology. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1967, pp. 9–88.Google Scholar
  66. Werthan, F. A sign for Cain: An exploration of human violence. London: Robert Hale, 1966.Google Scholar
  67. Zuckerman, S. The social life of monkeys and apes. London: Kegan, Paul, Trench, Trubner, and Co., 1932.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert E. Miller
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry School of MedicineUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations