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Patterns of Emotions and Emotion Communication in “Hostility” and Aggression

  • Carroll E. Izard
Part of the Advances in the Study of Communication and Affect book series (ASCA, volume 2)

Abstract

The behavioral sciences have an uncommonly difficult problem delineating and defining some of their more important concepts. One of the reasons for this is that behavioral science often has to deal with terms that have a variety of meanings both in the dictionary and in common usage. Typically, behavioral scientists do not discover or invent things that can be given a new and unambiguous name. A few decades ago in the biological sciences a substance was discovered and given the name penicillin. Since that time, a host of antibiotics have been developed and given special names, and each name symbolizes a particular set of biochemical properties. Many of these special names, like penicillin, are now in common usage. Thus the vocabulary of other sciences moves from the realm of science to common usage. There are few, if any, parallels in the behavioral sciences. In the behavioral sciences the reverse is most often the case. Terms go from common usage to behavioral science. This inevitably causes problems. It is difficult to deal scientifically with a term whose meaning may vary even from individual to individual.

Keywords

Facial Expression Prosocial Behavior Facial Muscle Anger Expression Common Usage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carroll E. Izard
    • 1
  1. 1.Vanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA

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