Patterns of Emotions and Emotion Communication in “Hostility” and Aggression

  • Carroll E. Izard
Part of the Advances in the Study of Communication and Affect book series (ASCA, volume 2)


The behavioral sciences have an uncommonly difficult problem delineating and defining some of their more important concepts. One of the reasons for this is that behavioral science often has to deal with terms that have a variety of meanings both in the dictionary and in common usage. Typically, behavioral scientists do not discover or invent things that can be given a new and unambiguous name. A few decades ago in the biological sciences a substance was discovered and given the name penicillin. Since that time, a host of antibiotics have been developed and given special names, and each name symbolizes a particular set of biochemical properties. Many of these special names, like penicillin, are now in common usage. Thus the vocabulary of other sciences moves from the realm of science to common usage. There are few, if any, parallels in the behavioral sciences. In the behavioral sciences the reverse is most often the case. Terms go from common usage to behavioral science. This inevitably causes problems. It is difficult to deal scientifically with a term whose meaning may vary even from individual to individual.


Facial Expression Prosocial Behavior Facial Muscle Anger Expression Common Usage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allport, F. H. Social psychology. Cambridge: Houghton Mifflin, 1924.Google Scholar
  2. Ardrey, R. The territorial imperative. New York: Dell, 1966.Google Scholar
  3. Barron, R. A. Magnitude of victim’s pain cues and level of prior anger arousal as determinants of adult aggressive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1971, 17, 236–243. (a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barron, R. A. Exposure to an aggressive model and apparent probability of retaliation from the victim as determinants of aggressive behavior. Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, 1971, 7. (b)Google Scholar
  5. Bem, D. J. Self-perception theory. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Psychology (Vol. 6). New York: Academic Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  6. Bigelow, R. The evolution of cooperation, aggression, and self-control. In J. K. Cole (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  7. Buss, A. H. The effect of harm on subsequent aggression. Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 1966, 1, 249–255. (a)Google Scholar
  8. Buss, A. H. Instrumentality of aggression, feedback and frustration as determinants of physical aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1966, 3, 153–162. (b)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Darwin, C. The expression of the emotions in man and animals. London: John Murray, 1904.Google Scholar
  10. Dumas, G. La vie affective. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1948.Google Scholar
  11. Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., & Ellsworth, P. Emotions in the human face. New York: Pergamon, 1972.Google Scholar
  12. Feshbach, S., Stiles, W. G., & Bitner, E. The reinforcing effect of witnessing aggression. Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 1967, 2, 133–139.Google Scholar
  13. Gellhorn, E. Motion and emotion: The role of proprioception in the physiology and pathology of the emotions. Psychological Review, 1964, 71, 6, 456–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hansen, E. W. The development of maternal and infant behavior in the rhesus monkey. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1962.Google Scholar
  15. Hansen, E. W. The development of maternal and infant behavior in the rhesus monkey. Behaviour, 1966, 27, 107–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hartman, D. P. Influence of symbolically modeled instrumental aggression and pain cues on aggressive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1969, 11, 280–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hinde, R. A., & Rowell, T. E. Communication by postures and facial expression in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). Proceedings of the Zoological Society (London), 1962, 138, 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Izard, C. E. The face of emotion. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1971.Google Scholar
  19. Izard, C.E. Patterns of emotions: A new analysis of anxiety and depression. New York: Academic Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  20. Izard, C. E., Dougherty, F. E., Bloxom, B. M., & Kotsch, W. E. The differential emotion scale: a method of measuring the subjective experience of discrete emotions. Unpublished ms., Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, 1974.Google Scholar
  21. Izard, C. E., Kotsch, W. E., Kidd, R. F., & Izard, C. E., Jr. The facial expression of anger as an activator of the subjective experience of anger, in preparation.Google Scholar
  22. Izard, C. E., & Tomkins, S. S. Affect and behavior: Anxiety as a negative affect. In C. D. Spielberger (Ed.), Anxiety and behavior. New York: Academic Press, 1966, pp. 81–125.Google Scholar
  23. Izard, C. E., Walker, K., Cobb, C. A. Jr., & Meier, G. W. Prosocial and agonistic behavior in rhesus monkeys with surgically sectioned facial nerves. In preparation.Google Scholar
  24. James W. The principles of psychology. New York: Holt, 1890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kotsch, W. E., & Izard, C. E. A further analysis of the effect of anger expression on anger experience. In preparation.Google Scholar
  26. Kummer, H. Social organization of hamadrya baboon. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968.Google Scholar
  27. Laird, J. E. Self-attribution of emotion: The effects of expressive behavior on the quality of emotional experience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1974, 29, 475–486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. LeBoeuf, B. J., & Peterson, R. S. Social status and mating activity in elephant seals. Science, 1969, 163, 91–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lorenz, K. On aggression. New York: Harcourt, Brace, & World, 1966.Google Scholar
  30. Milgram, S. Behavioral study of obedience. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1963, 67, 371–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Milgram, S. Group pressure and action against a person. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1964, 69, 137–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Milgram, S. Some conditions of obedience and disobedience to authority. Human Relations, 1965, 18 (1), 53–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Morris, D. The naked ape. New York: Dell, 1967.Google Scholar
  34. Nowlis, V. Research with the Mood Adjective Checklist. In S. S. Tomkins,& C. E. Izard (Eds.), Affect, cognition, and personality. New York: Springer, 1965, pp. 352–389.Google Scholar
  35. Rasa, O. A. E. Territoriality and the establishment of dominance by means of visual cues in pomacentrus jenkinsi (Pices: Pomacentridae). Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie, 1969, 26, 825–845. (Cited by R. N. Johnson, Aggression in man and animals. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1972.)Google Scholar
  36. Savitsky, J. C., Izard, C. E., Kotsch, W. E., & Christy, L. Aggressor’s response to the victim’s facial expression of emotion. Journal of Experimental Personality, 1974, 7, 346–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schachter, S. Emotion obesity and crime. New York: Academic Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  38. Tomkins, S. Affect imagery consciousness (Vol. 1). New York: Springer, 1962.Google Scholar
  39. Walker, K. E., & Wilcoxon, H. C. The effect of a change in social density on the behavior of juvenile rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). In preparation.Google Scholar
  40. Wheeler, L., & Caggiula, A. R. The contagion of aggression. Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, 1966, 2, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zimbardo, P. G. The human choice: Individuation, reason, and order versus deindividuation, impulse, and chaos. Unpublished manuscript, Stanford University, 1969.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carroll E. Izard
    • 1
  1. 1.Vanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations