Adipose Tissue

  • Benyamin Shapiro
Part of the Monographs in Lipid Research book series (MLR)


Adipose tissue constitutes about 18% of the body weight in the normally fed human (Wells, 1940) and about 13% in the rat (Reed et al., 1930). Its water content varies between 5% and 30% and about 5% of the dry matter is made up of proteins and over 90% of lipids. The bulk of these are triacylglycerols (90–98%); 1–2% are diacylglycerols; phospholipids and cholesterol make up about 0.25% each.


Adipose Tissue Free Fatty Acid Brown Adipose Tissue Lipoprotein Lipase Fatty Acid Synthesis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahlquist, R. P. 1948. The study of adrenotropic receptors. Am. J. Physiol. 153:586–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Angel, A. 1970. Studies on the compartmentation of lipid in adipose cells. I. Subcellular distribution, composition and transport of newly synthesized lipid:liposomes. J. Lipid Res. 11:420–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Angel, A., and Farkas, J. 1974. Regulation of cholesterol storage in adipose tissue. J. Lipid Res. 15:491–499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Angel, A., Desai, K., and Halperin, M. L. 1971. Free fatty acid and ATP levels in adipocytes during lipolysis. Metabolism 20:87–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Armstrong, K. J., and Stouffer, J. E. 1974. Effects of thyroid hormone deficiency on cyclic adenosine 3′5′ monophosphate and control of lipolysis in fat cells. J. Biol. Chem. 249:4226–4231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Aulich, A., Stock, K., and Westermann, E., 1967. Lipolytic effects of c-AMP and its butyryl derivatives in vitro and their inhibition by alpha and beta adrenolytics. Life Sci. 6:929–938.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ball, E. G. 1970. Some aspects of fatty acid metabolism in brown adipose tissue. Lipids. 5:220–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ballard, F. J., and Hanson, R. W. 1967. The citrate cleavage pathway and lipogenesis in rat adipose tissue: replenishment of oxalacetate.J. Lipid. Res. 8:73–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ballard, F. L., Hanson, R. W., and Leveille, G. A. 1967. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and the synthesis of glyceride-glycerol from pyruvate in adipose tissue.J. Biol. Chem. 242:2746–2750.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bally, P. R., Cahill, G. F., and Leboeuf, B. 1960. Studies on rat adipose tissue in vitro. V. Effects of glucose and insulin on the metabolism of palmitate-1-C14. J. Biol. Chem. 235:333–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Benjamin, W., and Gellhorn, A. 1964. The effect of diabetes and insulin on the biosynthesis of individual fatty acids in adipose tissue. J. Biol. Chem. 239:64–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bensadoun, A., Ehnholme, D., Steinberg, D., and Brown, W. C. 1974. Purification and characterization of lipoprotein lipase from pig adipose tissue.J. Biol. Chem. 249:2220–2227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bragdon, J. H., and Gordon, R. S., Jr. 1958. Tissue distribution of C14 after the intravenous injection of labeled chylomicrons and unesterified fatty acids in the rat. J. Clin. Invest. 37:574–578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown, W. V., Levy, R. I., and Fredrikson, D. S. 1970. Further separation of the apoproteins of the human plasma very low density proteins. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 200:573–575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Buckle, R. M., and Beck, J. C. 1962. Modifying influence of glucose on fatty acid mobilising activities of epinephrine, ACTH and growth hormone in vitro. Metab. Clin. Exptl. 11:235–244.Google Scholar
  16. Burns, T. W., Langley, P. E., and Robison, G. A. 1975. Site of FFA inhibition of lipolysis by human adipocytes. Metabolism 24:265–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Butcher, R. W. 1966. Cyclic 3′5′ AMP and the lipolytic effects of hormones on adipose tissue. Pharmacol. Rev. 18:237–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Butcher, R. W., Baird, C. E., and Sutherland, E. W. 1968. Effect of lipolytic and antilipolytic substances on adenosine 3′5′ monophosphate levels in isolated fat cells. J. Biol. Chem. 243:1705–1712.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cahill, G. F., Jr. 1964. Adipose tissue metabolism, pp. 169–200. In K. Rodahl (ed.). Fat as a Tissue. McGraw-Hill Co., New York.Google Scholar
  20. Cahill, G. F., Jr., Leboeuf, B., and Renold, A. E. 1959. Studies on rat adipose tissue in vitro. in. Synthesis of glycogen and glyceride glycerol.J. Biol. Chem. 234:2540–2544.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cannon, B. 1971. Control of fatty acid oxidation in brown adipose tissue mitochondria. Eur. J. Biochem. 23:125–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cherkes, A., and Gordon, R. S. 1959. The liberation of lipoprotein lipase by heparin from adipose tissue incubated in vitro. J. Lipid Res. 1:97–101.Google Scholar
  23. Coore, H. G., Denton, R. M., Martin, B. R., and Randle, P. J. 1971. Regulation of adipose tissue pyruvate dehydrogenase by insulin and other hormones. Biochem. J. 125:115–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Corbin, J. D., and Krebs, E. G. 1969. A cyclic AMP-stimulated protein kinase in adipose tissue. Biochim. Biophys. Res. Commun. 36:328–336.Google Scholar
  25. Corbin, J. D., Reimann, E. M., Walsh, D. A., and Krebs, E. G. 1970. Activation of adipose tissue lipase by skeletal muscle cyclic adenosine 3′5′-monophosphate-stimulated protein kinase.J. Biol. Chem. 245:4849–4851.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Correze, C., Laudat, M. H., Laudat, Ph., and Numez, J. 1974. Hormone dependent lipolysis in fat cells from thyroidectomized rats. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 1:309–327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cryer, A., Davies, P., Williams, E. R., and Robinson, D. S. 1975. The clearing factor lipase activity in isolated fat cells. Biochem. J. 146:481–488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Daniel, A. M., and Rubinstein, D. 1968. Fatty acid esterification enzymes in rat adipose tissue homogenates. Can. J. Biochem. 46:1030–1045.Google Scholar
  29. Debons, A. F., and Schwartz, I. L. 1961. Dependence of the lipolytic action of epinephrine in vitro upon the thyroid hormone. J. Lipid Res. 2:86–89.Google Scholar
  30. Deykin, D., and Vaughan, M., 1963. Release of free fatty acids by adipose tissue from rats treated with triiodothyronine or propylthiouracil. J. Lipid Res. 4:200–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Diamant, S., Gorin, E., and Shafrir, E. 1972. Enzyme activities related to fatty acid synthesis in liver and adipose tissue of rats treated with triiodothyronine. Eur. J. Biochem. 26:553–559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Dole, V. P., 1961. Fatty acid pools in adipose tissue. J. Biol. Chem. 236:3121–3124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Dryer, R. L., and Harris, R. R. 1975. Metabolic fate of fatty acid in the carnitine cycle of brown adipose tissue mitochondria. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 380:370–381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Fain, J. N. 1973. Biochemical aspects of drug and hormone action on adipose tissue. Pharmacol. Rev. 25:67–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Fain, J. N., Kovacev, V. P., and Scow, R. O. 1965. Effect of growth hormone and dexametha-sone on lipolysis and metabolism in isolated fat cells of the rat.J. Biol. Chem. 240:3522–3529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Fain, J. N., Kovacev, V. P., and Scow, R. O. 1966. Antilipolytic effect of insulin in isolated fat cells of the rat. Endocrinology 78:773–778.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Farkas, J., Angel, A., and Avigan, M. I. 1973, Studies on the compartmentation of lipid in adipose cells. II. Cholesterol accumulation and distribution in adipose tissue components.J. Lipid Res. 14:344–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Favarger, P., and Gerlach, F. 1954. Studies on the synthesis of fats in mouse adipose tissue. Helv. Physiol. Pharmacol. Acta 12:15–17.Google Scholar
  39. Favarger, P., and Gerlach, F. 1955. Studies on the synthesis of fats from acetate or glucose. II. The relative roles of adipose tissue and other tissues in lipogenesis in mice. Helv. Physiol. Pharmacol. Acta 13:96–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Feller, D. D. 1954. Metabolism of adipose tissue. I. Incorporation of acetate carbon into lipides by slices of adipose tissue. J. Biol. Chem. 206:171–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Flatt, J. P. 1970. Conversion of carbohydrates to fat in adipose tissue: An energy yielding and, therefore, self limiting process. J. Lipid Res. 11:131–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Flatt, J. P., and Ball, E. G. 1963. Studies in the metabolism of adipose tissue. XV. An evaluation of the major pathways of glucose catabolism as influenced by insulin and epinephrine. J. Biol. Chem. 239:675–685.Google Scholar
  43. Galton, D. J. 1968. Lipogenesis in human adipose tissue.J. Lipid Res. 9:19–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Garfinkel, A. S., and Schotz, M. C. 1972. Separation of molecular species of lipoprotein lipase from adipose tissue. J. Lipid Res. 13:63–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Ganguly, J. 1960. Studies on the mechanism of fatty acid synthesis. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 40:110–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Gellhorn, A., Benjamin, W., and Wagner, M. 1962. The in vitro incorporation of acetate-1-C14 into individual fatty acids of adipose tissue from young and old rats. J. Lipid Res. 3:314–319.Google Scholar
  47. Giudicelli, H., Combes-Pastre, N., and Boyer, J. 1974. Lipolytic activity of adipose tissue: IV. The diacylglycerollipase activity of human adipose tissue. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 369.25–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Goldman, P., and Vagelos, P. R. 1961. The specificity of triglyceride synthesis from diglycerides in chicken adipose tissue.J. Biol. Chem. 236:2620–2623.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Goodman, D. S. 1962. The metabolism of chylomicron cholesterol ester in the rat.J. Clin. Invest. 41:1886–1896.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Goodridge, A. G., and Ball, E. G. 1967. Lipogenesis in the pigeon. In vivo studies. Amer. J. Physiol. 213:245–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Gordon, R. S., Jr., and Cherkes, A. 1956. Unesterified fatty acid in human blood plasma. J. Clin. Invest. 35:206–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Gordon, R. S., Jr., and Cherkes, A. 1958. Production of unesterified fatty acids from isolated rat adipose tissue incubated in vitro. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 97:150–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Gorin, E. and Goodman, H. M. 1973. Protein kinase in adipose tissue: Effect of hypophysec-tomy. Horm. Metab. Res. 6:146–150.Google Scholar
  54. Gorin, E., and Shafrir, E. 1963. Turnover of adipose tissue triglycerides measured by the rates of synthesis and release of triglyceride-glycerol. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 70:109–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Gorin, E., and Shafrir, E. 1964. Lipolytic activity in adipose tissue homogenate toward tri-, di-, and monoglyceride substrates. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 84:24–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Grav, H. J., Pedersen, J. E., and Christiansen, E. N. 1970. Conditions in vitro which affect respiratory control and capacity for respiration-linked phosphorylation in brown adipose tissue mitochondria. Eur. J. Biochem. 12:11–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Hagen, J. H. 1961. Effect of glucagon on the metabolism of adipose tissue.J. Biol. Chem. 236:1023–1027.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Hahn, P. F. 1943. Abolishment of alimentary lipemia following injection of heparin. Science 98:19–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Hahn, P. 1971. Response of brown and white adipose tissue to lipolytic agents in the rat during development. Pediat. Res. 5:126–130.Google Scholar
  60. Hahn, P., and Skala, J. 1972. Carnitine and brown adipose tissue metabolism in the rat during development. Biochem. J. 127:107–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Hahn, P., and Novak, M. 1975. Development of brown and white adipose tissue. J. Lipid Res. 16:79–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Halperin, M. L., and Robinson, B. H. 1971. Mechanism of insulin action on the control of fatty acid synthesis independent of glucose transport. Metabolism 20:78–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Halestrap, A. P., and Denton, R. M. 1973. Insulin and the regulation of adipose tissue acetyl CoA carboxylase. Biochem. J. 132:509–517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Halestrap, A. P., and Denton, R. M. 1974. Hormonal regulation of adipose tissue acetyl CoA carboxylase by change in the polymeric state of the enzyme. Biochem. J. 142:365–377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Hamosh, M., Hamosh, P., Bar-Maor, J. A., and Cohen, H. 1963. Fatty acid metabolism by human adipose tissue. J. Clin. Invest. 42:1648–1652.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Hanson, R. W., and Ballard, F. J. 1967. The relative significance of acetate and glucose as precursors of lipid synthesis in liver and adipose tissue from ruminants. Biochem. J. 105:529–536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Hanson, R. W., Patel, M. S., Jomain-Baum, J., and Ballard, F. J. 1971. Role of mitochondria in metabolism of pyruvate and lactate by rat adipose tissue. Metabolism 20:27–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Hausberger, F. X., Milstein, W., and Rutman, R. J. 1954. The influence of insulin on glucose utilization in adipose and hepatic tissues in vitro. J. Biol. Chem. 208:431–438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Havel, R. J., Felts, J. M., and VanDuyne, C. M. 1962. Formation and fat of endogenous triglycerides in blood plasma of rabbits.J. Lipid Res. 3:297–308.Google Scholar
  70. Heindel, J. J., Cushman, S. W., and Jeanrenaud, B. 1974. Cell associated fatty acid levels and energy requiring processes in mouse adipocytes. Am. J. Physiol. 226:16–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Heller, R. A., and Steinberg, D. 1972. Partial glyceridase activity of a proteinkinase activated triglyceride lipase from adipose tissue. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 270:65–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Himms-Hagen, J. 1970. Adrenergic receptors for metabolic responses in adipose tissue. Fed. Proc. 29:1388–1401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Hirsch, J., Farquhar, W., Ahrens, E. H., Peterson, M. L., and Stoffel, W. 1960. Studies of adipose tissue in man: A microtechnique for sampling and analysis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 8:499–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Hittleman, K. J., and Butcher, R. W. 1973. Effects of antilipolytic agents and α-adrenergic antagonists on cyclic AMP metabolism in hamster and white adipocytes. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 316:403–410.Google Scholar
  75. Hittleman, K. J., Lindberg, O., and Cannon, B. 1969. Oxidative phosphorylation and compartmentation of fatty acid metabolism in brown fat mitochondria. Eur. J. Biochem. 11:183 – 192.Google Scholar
  76. Hollenberg, C. H. 1959. Effect of nutrition on activity and release of lipase from rat adipose tissue. Am. J. Physiol. 197:667–670.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Huttunen, J. K., and Steinberg, D. 1971. Activation and phosphorylation of purified adipose tissue hormone-sensitive lipase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 239:411–427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Huttunen, J. K., Aquino, A. A., and Steinberg, D. 1970. A purified triglyceride lipase, lipoprotein in nature, from rat adipose tissue. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 224:295–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Hynie, S., Krishna, G., and Brodie, B. B. 1969. Differentiation of mechanisms of the antilipolytic actions produced by alpha and beta blocking agents. Pharmacology 2:129–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Jamdar, S. C., and Fallon, H. J. 1973a. Glycerolipid biosynthesis in rat adipose tissue. I. Properties and distribution of glycerophosphate acyltransferase and effect of divalent cations on neutral lipid formation. J. Lipid. Res. 14:509–516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Jamdar, S. C., and Fallon, H. J. 1973b. II. Properties and distribution of phosphatidate phosphatase. J. Lipid. Res. 14:517–524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Jeanrenaud, B., and Renold, A. E. 1960. Studies on rat adipose tissue in vitro. VII. Effects of adrenal cortical hormones. J. Biol. Chem. 235:2217–2223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Jungas, R. L. 1971. Hormonal regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase. Metabolism 20:43–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Jungas, R. L., and Ball, E. G. 1963. The effect of insulin and epinephrine on free fatty acid and glycerol production in the presence and absence of glucose. Biochemistry 2:383–388.Google Scholar
  85. Katocs, A. S., Jr., Calvert, D. M., and Lech, J. J. 1971. Characterization of two monoglyceride hydrolyzing enzymes in adipose tissue. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 227:608–617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Katz, J., Landau, B. R., and Bartsch, G. E. 1966. Pentose cycle, triose phosphate isomerization and lipogensis in adipose tissue. J. Biol. Chem. 241:727–740.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Kerpel, S., Shafrir, E., and Shapiro, B. 1961. Mechanism of fatty acid assimilation in adipose tissue. Biochim. Biophys. Act 46:495–504.Google Scholar
  88. Kessler, J. I. 1963. Effect of diabetes and insulin on the activity of myocardial and adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase of rats.J. Clin. Invest. 42:362–367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Khoo, J. C., and Steinberg, D. 1974. Reversible protein kinase activation of hormone sensitive lipase from chicken adipose tissue. J. Lipid Res. 15:602–610.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Khoo, J. C., Steinberg, D., Thompson, B., and Mayer, S. E. 1973. Hormonal regulation of adipocyte enzymes. J. Biol. Chem. 248:3823–3830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Kneer, P., and Ball, E. G. 1968. Metabolism of adipose tissue. XXI. Evaluation of the pathways of pyruvate metabolism. J. Biol. Chem. 243:2861–2868.Google Scholar
  92. Korn, E. D. 1955. Clearing factor, heparin-activated lipoprotein lipase. II. Substrate specificity and activation of coconut oil. J. Biol. Chem. 215:15–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Korn, E. D. 1957. Inactivation of lipoprotein lipase by heparinase.J. Biol. Chem. 226:827–832.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Korn, E. D. 1961. The fatty acid and positonal specificities of lipoprotein lipase. J. Biol Chem. 236:1638–1642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Korn, E. D., and Quigley, T. W. 1955. Studies on lipoprotein lipase of rat heart and adipose tissue. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 18:143–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Korn, E. D., and Quigley, T. W. 1957. Lipoprotein lipase of chicken adipose tissue.J. Biol. Chem. 226:833–839.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Kornhauser, D. M., and Vaughan, M. 1975. Release of lipoprotein lipase from fat cells in vitro. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 380:97–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Kovacev, V. P., and Scow, R. O. 1969. Effect of hormones on fatty acid release by rat adipose tissue in vitro. Am. J. Physiol. 210:1199–1208.Google Scholar
  99. Kovanen, P. T., Nikkila, E. A., and Miettinen, T. A. 1975. Regulation of cholesterol synthesis and storage in fat cells.J. Lipid Res. 16:211–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Kupiecki, F. P. 1966. Partial purification of monoglyceride lipase from adipose tissue. J. Lipid. Res. 7:230–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Leboeuf, B., Flinn, R. B., and Cahill, G. F., Jr. 1959. Effect of epinephrine on glucose uptake and glycerol release by adipose tissue in vitro. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 102:527–532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Lossow, W. J., Brot, N., and Chaikoff, I. L. 1962. Disposition of the cholesterol moiety of a chylomicron-containing lipoprotein fraction of chyle in the rat. J. Lipid Res. 3:207–215.Google Scholar
  103. Loten, E. G., and Sneyd, J. G. T. 1970. The effect of insulin on adipose tissue adenosine 3′5′ cyclic monophosphate diesterase. Blochem. J. 120:187–193.Google Scholar
  104. Lynn, W. S., and Perryman, N. C. 1960. Properties and purification of adipose tissue lipase.J. Biol. Chem. 235:1912–1916.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Lynn, W. S., MacLeod, R. M., and Brown, R. H. 1960. Effects of epinephrine, insulin and corticotrophin on the metabolism of rat adipose tissue.J. Biol. Chem. 235:1904–1911.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Margolis, S., and Vaughan, M. 1962. α-glycerophosphate synthesis and breakdown in homogenates of adipose tissue. J. Biol. Chem. 237: 44–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Martin, B. R., and Denton, R. M. 1970. Intracellular localization of enzymes in white adipose tissue fat cells and permeability properties of fat cell mitochondria. Biochem. J. 117:861–877.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Martin, D. B., Renold, A. E., and Dagenais, Y. M. 1958. An assay for insulin-like activity using rat adipose tissue. Lancet 2:76–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Martin, D. B., Horning, M. G., and Vagelos, P. R. 1961. Fatty acid synthesis in adipose tissue. I. Purification and properties of long chain fatty acid synthesizing system.J. Biol. Chem. 236:663–668.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Moskowitz, J., and Fain, J. N. 1970. Stimulation by growth hormone and dexamethasone of labeled cyclic AMP accumulation by white fat cells. J. Biol. Chem. 245:1101–1107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Moss, J., Yamagishi, M., Kleinschmidt, A., and Lane, D. 1972. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, purification and properties of the bovine adipose tissue enzyme. Biochemistry 11:3779–3786.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Mukherjee, C., and Jungas, R. L. 1975. Activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase in adipose tissue. Evidence for an effect of insulin on pyruvate dehydrogenasephosphate phosphatase. Biochem. J. 148:229–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Nestel, P. J., Havel, R. J., and Bezman, A. 1963. Metabolism of constituent lipids of dog chylomicrons. J. Clin. Invest. 42:1313–1321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Nikkilä, E. A. and Pykälistö, O. 1968. Induction of adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase by nicotinic acid. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 152:421–423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Patel, M. S., Owen, O. E., Goodman, L. J., and Hanson, R. W. 1975. Fatty acid synthesis by human adipose tissue. Metabolism 24:161–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Patten, R. L. 1970. The reciprocal regulation of lipoprotein lipase and hormone sensitive lipase activity in rat adipocytes.J. Biol. Chem. 245:5577–5584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Pedersen, J. I., Christiansen, E. N., and Gray, H. J. 1968. Respiration linked phosphorylation in mitochondria. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 32:492–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Prusiner, S., Cannon, B., and Lindberg, O. 1970. Mechanisms controlling oxidative metabolism in brown adipose tissue, pp. 283–312. In O. Lindberg (ed.). Brown Adipose Tissue. Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
  119. Raben, M. S., and Hollenberg, C. H. 1960. Effect of glucose and insulin on the estenfication of fatty acids by isolated adipose tissue.J. Clin. Invest. 39:435–439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Reed, L. L., Yamaguchi, F., Anderson, L. E., and Mendel, L. B. 1930. Factors influencing redistribution and character of adipose tissue in the rat.J. Biol. Chem. 87:147–174.Google Scholar
  121. Renold, A., and Cahill, G. (eds.). 1965. Adipose Tissue. Handbook of Physiology. American Physiological Society. 824 pp.Google Scholar
  122. Reshef, L., and Shapiro, B. 1960. Effect of epinephrine, cortisone and growth hormones on release of unesterified fatty acids by adipose tissue in vitro. Metab. Clin. Exptl. 9:551–556.Google Scholar
  123. Reshef, L., Shafrir, E., and Shapiro, B. 1958. In vitro release of unesterified fatty acids by adipose tissue. Metab. Clin. Exptl. 7:723–730.Google Scholar
  124. Reshef, L., Niv, J., and Shapiro, B. 1967a. Effect of propionate on lipogenesis in adipose tissue. J. Lipid Res. 8:682–687.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Reshef, L., Niv, J., and Shapiro, U. 1967b. Effect of propionate on pyruvate metabolism in adipose tissue.J. Lipid Res. 8:688–693.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Reshef, L., Hanson, R. W., and Ballard, F. J. 1969. Glyceride glycerol synthesis from pyruvate. Adaptive changes in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and pyruvate carbozylase in adipose tissue and liver. J. Biol. Chem. 244:1994–2001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Rizack, M. A. 1961. An epinephrine sensitive lipolytic activity in adipose tissue. J. Biol. Chem. 236:657–662.Google Scholar
  128. Rizack, M. A. 1964. Activation of an epinephrine-sensitive lipolytic activity from adipose tissue by adenosine 3′,5′ phosphate.J. Biol. Chem. 239:392–395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Robinson, D. S. 1960. The effect of changes in nutritional state on the lipolytic activity of rat adipose tissue. J. Lipid Res. 1:332–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Robinson, D. S., and French, J. E. 1960. Heparin, the clearing factor lipase, and fat transport. Pharmacol. Rev. 12:241–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Robinson, J. D., Bradley, R. M., and Brady, R. O. 1963. The utilization of substituted acylcoenzyme A derivatives in fatty acid synthesis. II. Studies with enzymes obtained from adipose tissue. Biochemistry 2:191–199.Google Scholar
  132. Robison, G. A., Butcher, R. W., and Sutherland, E. W. 1970. On the relation of hormone receptors to adenine cyclase, pp. 59–61. In J. F. Danielli, J. F. Morelli, and D. Triggle (eds.). Fundamental Concepts in Drug Receptor Interactions. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  133. Rodbell, M. 1960. The removal and metabolism of chylomicrons by adipose tissue in vitro.J. Biol. Chem. 235:1613–1620.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Rodbell, M. 1964. Metabolism of isolated fat cells. I. Effects of hormones on glucose metabolism and lipolysis. J. Biol. Chem. 239:375–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Rodbell, M. 1965. Modulation of lipolysis in adipose tissue by fatty acid concentration in fat cells. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 131:302–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Rodbell, M., and Fredrickson, D. S. 1959. The nature of the proteins associated with dog and human chylomicrons. J. Biol. Chem. 234:562–566.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Rodbell, M. and Scow, R. O. 1964. Uptake and metabolism of chylomicrons by perfused rat adipose tissue. Am. J. Physiol. 208:106–114.Google Scholar
  138. Roncari, D. A. K., and Hollenberg, C. H. 1967. Esterification of FFA by subcellular preparations of rat adipose tissue. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 137:446–463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Rose, G., and Shapiro, B. 1955. The synthesis of fatty acids and glycogen by adipose tissue in vitro. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 18:504–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Rose, G., and Shapiro, B. 1960. Enzyme systems in adipose tissue participating in fatty acid esterification. Bull. Res. Counc. Isr. 9A: 15–22.Google Scholar
  141. Rose, G., and Shapiro, B. 1963. Phosphoglyceric kinase activity and its role in adipose tissue. Bull. Res. Counc. Isr. 11A:384–386.Google Scholar
  142. Rose, G., Stern, I., and Shapiro, B. 1953. The synthetic activity of adipose tissue. Acta Med. Orient. 12:187–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Rubinstein, D., Daniel, A. M., Chiu, S., and Beck, J. C. 1965. Effect of homogenization on free and esterified fatty acid pools in adipose tissue. Canad. J. Biochem. 43:271–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Saggerson, D., and Greenbaum, A. L. 1970a. The regulation of triglyceride and fatty acid synthesis in vitro. Biochem. J. 119:193–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Saggerson, D., and Greenbaum, A. L. 1970b. The regulation of triglyceride and fatty acid synthesis in rat epididymal adipose tissue. Effects of altered dietary and hormonal conditions. Biochem. J. 119:221–242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Scanu, A., and Page, I. H. 1959. Separation and characterization of human serum chylomicrons.J. Exptl. Med. 109:239–256.Google Scholar
  147. Schmidt, K., and Katz, J. 1969. Metabolism of pyruvate and L-lactate by rat adipose tissue.J. Biol. Chem. 244:2125–2131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Schotz, M. C., and Page, I. H. 1960. Effects of adrenergic blocking agents on the release of free fatty acids from rat adipose tissue.J. Lipid Res. 1:466–468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Scow, R. O, Hamosh, M., Blanchette Mackie, E. J., and Avans, A. J. 1972. Uptake of blood triglycerides by various tissues. Lipids 7:497–505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Shafrir, E. 1960. Release of glycerol during mobilization of unesterified fatty acids (UFA) from adipose tissue. Bull. Res. Counc. Isr. 9A.90–96.Google Scholar
  151. Shafrir E., Sussman, K. E., and Steinberg, D. 1960. Role of the pituitary and the adrenal in the mobilization of free fatty acids and lipoproteins.J. Lipid. Res. 1:459–465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Shapiro, B. 1957. Lipid dynamics in adipose tissue, pp. 177–196. In R. T. Holman et al. (eds.). Progress in the Chemistry of Fats and Other Lipids, Vol. IV. Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  153. Shapiro, B., and Wertheimer, E. 1948. The synthesis of fatty acids in adipose tissue in vitro. J. Biol. Chem. 173:725–728.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Shapiro, B., Weissman, D., Bentor, V., and Wertheimer, E. 1952. Uptake of fat by adipose tissue in vitro. Metab. Clin. Exptl. 1:396–399.Google Scholar
  155. Shapiro, B., Chowers, I., and Rose, G. 1957. Fatty acid uptake and esterification in adipose tissue. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 23:115–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Shrago, E., Spenneta, T., and Gordon, E. 1969. Fatty acid synthesis in human adipose tissue.J. Biol. Chem. 244:2761–2766.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Sica, V., and Cuatrecasas, P. 1973. Effects of insulin, epinephrine and cyclic adenosine monophosphate on pyruvate dehydrogenase of adipose tissue. Biochemistry 12:2282–2291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Siddle, K., and Hales, C. N. 1974. The relationship between the concentration of adenosine 3′5′ cyclic monophosphate and the antilipolytic action of insulin in isolated fat cells. Biochem. J. 142:97–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Smith, R. E., and Horwitz, B. A. 1969. Brown fat and thermogenesis. Physiol. Rev. 49:330–425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Soderling, T. R., Corbin, J. D., and Park, C. R. 1973. Regulation of adenosine 3′5′monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. II. Hormonal regulation of adipose tissue enzyme.J. Biol. Chem. 248:1822–1829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Stein, Y., and Stein, O. 1962. Incorporation and disappearance of fatty acids in the rat epididymal fat pad studied by the vivo incubation technique. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 60:58–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Steinberg, D., Vaughan, M., and Margolis, S. 1961. Studies of triglyceride biosynthesis in homogenates of adipose tissue. J. Biol. Chem. 236:1631–1637.Google Scholar
  163. Stern, I., and Shapiro, B. 1954. The transport of lipids into adipose tissue. Metab. Clin. Exptl. 3:539–543.Google Scholar
  164. Stewart, J. A., and Schotz, M. C. 1974. Release of lipoprotein lipase from isolated fat cells. II. Effect of heparin, J. Biol. Chem. 249:904–907.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Stock, K., and Thomas, T. 1975. Biphasic effect of alpha adrenolytic phentolamine on hormone stimulated formation of cyclic AMP in isolated fat cell of rats. Metabolism 24:277–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Stock, K., and Westerman, E. O. 1966. Competitive and non-competitive inhibition of lipolysis by α- and β-adrenergic blocking agents methoxamine derivatives and prostaglandin E. Life Sci. 5:1667–1678.Google Scholar
  167. Stokes, G. B., Poteat, W., and Tove, J. B. 1975. Distribution of fatty acids incorporated into triacylglycerols by microsome/cytosol preparations from adipose tissue. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 380:245–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Thompson, W. J., and Appleman, M. M. 1971. Characterization of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases of rat tissues.J. Biol. Chem. 246:3145–3150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Tsai, S. C., and Vaughan, M. 1970. Activation of partially purified lipase from adipose tissue by ATP, MgCl2 and cyclic 3′5′-AMP. Fed. Proc. 29:602.Google Scholar
  170. Tsai, S. C., Belfrage, P., and Vaughan, M. 1970. Activation of hormone sensitive lipase in extracts of adipose tissue. J. Lipid Res. 11:466–472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Vagelos, P. R., Alberts, A. W., and Martin, D. B. 1963. Studies on the mechanism of activation of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase by citrate.J. Biol Chem. 238:533–540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Vaughan, M. 1962. The production and reíase of glycerol by adipose tissue incubated in vitro.J. Biol Chem. 237:3354–3358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Vaughan, M., Berger, J. E., and Steinberg, D. 1964. Hormone sensitive lipase and monoglyceride lipase activities in adipose tissue. J. Biol. Chem. 239:401–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Verine, A., Giudicelli, H., and Boyer, J. 1974. Affinity chromatography of human adipose tissue triacylglycerol lipase on agarose linked dioleylglycerol. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 369:125–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Volpe, J. J., and Marasa, J. C. 1975. Hormonal regulation of fatty acid synthetase, acetyl CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthesis in mammalian adipose tissue and liver. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 380:454–472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Volpe, J. J., and Vagelos, P. R. 1973. Fatty acid synthetase of mammalian brain, liver and adipose tissue. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 326:293–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Wells, H. G. 1940. Adipose tissue, a neglected subject.J. Am. Med. Assoc. 114:2177–2183.Google Scholar
  178. Wertheimer, E., and Shapiro, B. 1948. The physiology of adipose tissue. Physiol. Rev. 28:451–464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. White, J. E., and Engel, F. L. 1958. The specificity of epinephrine-induced lipolysis in rat adipose tissue in vitro. Clin. Res. 6:266.Google Scholar
  180. White, J. E., and Engel, F. L. 1959. Fat mobilization by purified corticotropin in the mouse. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 102:272–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Wieland, O., and Suyter, M. 1957. Glycerokinase. Its isolation and properties. Biochem. Z. 329:320–331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Winand, J., Furnelle, J., and Christoffe, J. 1967. Metabolism in vitro du tissu adipeux. V. Heterogeneité et subheterogeneité du pool de NEFA dans le tissue adipeux epididymale de la souris normale. Bull. Soc. Chim. Biol. 49:1331–1356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Winegrad, A. I., and Renold, A. E. 1958. Studies on rat adipose tissue in vitro. I. Effects of insulin on the metabolism of glucose, pyruvate and acetate.J. Biol. Chem. 233:267–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Wing, D. R., and Robinson, D. S. 1968. Clearing factor lipase in adipose tissue. A possible role of adenosine 3′5′-(cyclic) monophosphate in the regulation of its activity. Biochem. J. 109:841–849.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Wing, D. R., Salaman, M. R., and Robinson, D. S. 1966. Clearing factor lipase in adipose tissue. Factors influencing the increase in enzyme activity produced on incubation of tissues from starved rats in vitro. Biochem. J. 99:648–656.Google Scholar
  186. Wood, F. C., Leboeuf, B., Cahill, G. F., Jr., and Renold, A. E. 1961. Metabolism of mannose and glucose by adipose tissue and liver slices from normal and alloxan diabetic rats. J. Biol. Chem. 236:18–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Zinder, O., Eisenberg, E., and Shapiro, B. 1973. Compartmentation of glycerides in adipose tissue cells. I. The mechanism of free fatty acid release. J. Biol Chem. 248:7673–7676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Zinman, B., and Hollenberg, C. H. 1974. Effect of insulin and lipolytic agents on rat adipocyte low KM cyclic adenosine 3′5′ monophosphate phosphodiesterase. J. Biol. Chem. 249:2181–2187.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benyamin Shapiro
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryThe Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical SchoolJerusalemIsrael

Personalised recommendations