Advertisement

Introduction to Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS)

  • H. W. Werner
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSB, volume 32)

Abstract

This contribution aims to give to the beginner in SIMS a survey of the present state of our knowledge of secondary ion emission, of basic experimental embodiment of today’s SIMS instruments and of the potential of this method for research and as an analytical tool.

Keywords

Erosion Rate Bombardment Time Extraction Electrode Fingerprint Spectrum Pulse Counting Mode 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1).
    F.L. Arnot and J.C. Milligan, Proc. Roy. Soc. Ser. A, 156, (1936) 538.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2).
    R.F.K. Herzog and F.P. Viehböck, Phys. Rev., 76 (1949) 855.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3).
    V.I. Veksler and M.B. Ben’iaminovieh, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys., 1 (1957) 1626.Google Scholar
  4. 4).
    V.E. Krohn, Jr., J.Appl. Phys., 33 (1962) 3523,A.Smith et al. J.Appl.Phys.,34 (1963)2489. H.E.Beske, Z.Angew.Phys.,14(1962)30. V. Walther and H. Hintenberger, Z. Naturforsch. A, 18, (1963) 843. A. Benninghoven, Ann. Phys., 15 (1965) 113. J.A. McHugh and J.C. Sheffield, J. Appl. Phys., 35 (1964) 512.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5).
    R. Castaing, B. Jouffrey and G. Slodzian, C.R. Acad. Sci., 251 (1960) 1010.Google Scholar
  6. H.J. Liehi and R.F.K. Herzog, J. Appl. Phys., 34 (1963) 2893.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. H.J. Liebl, J. Appl. Phys., 38 (1967) 5277.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 6).
    H.W. Werner, Dev. Appl. Spectroscopy, 7A Eds. E.L. Grove and A.J. Perkins, Plenum, New York (1969) 239.Google Scholar
  9. 7).
    H.W. Werner und H.A.M. de Grefte, Vakuum-Technik, 17 (1967) 37.Google Scholar
  10. 8).
    G. Carter and J.S. Colligon, Ion Bombardment of Solids, Heinemann Educational Books Ltd, London (1968).Google Scholar
  11. 9).
    H.W. Werner and H.A.M. de Grefte, Surface Sci., 35 (1973) 458.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 10).
    A. Benninghoven, Surface Sci., 28 (1971) 541.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. A. Benninghoven, Z. Physik, 230 (1970) 403.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 11).
    A. Benninghoven, D. Jaspers and W. Sichtermann, Appl. Phys., 11 (1976) 35.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 12).
    H.W. Werner, Paper to be presented at 7th Intern. Vac. Congr. & 3rd Intern Conf. Solid Surfaces (Vienna 1977), to be published in Proc.Google Scholar
  16. 13).
    W. v. d. Weg, in Proceedings NATO Summer School on Material Characterization, Corsica, 1976 ( Plenum Press).Google Scholar
  17. 14).
    F.G. Rüdenauer, Round table discussion on SIMS, 7th Intern. Mass Spectrom. Conf., (Florence 1976), in press.Google Scholar
  18. 15).
    P. Joyes, J. Physique, 29 (1968) 774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. P. Joyes, J. Physique, 30 (1969) 243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. P. Joyes, J. Physique, 30 (1969) 365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 16).
    G. Blaise and G. Slodzian, J. Physique, 31 (1970) 93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. G. Blaise and G. Slodzian, J. Physique, 35 (1974) 237.Google Scholar
  23. G. Blaise and G. Slodzian, J. Physique, 35 (1974) 47.Google Scholar
  24. 17).
    Z. Sroubek, Surface Sci., 44 (1974) 47.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 18).
    J.M. Schroeer, T.N. Rhodin and R.C. Bradley, Surface Sci., 34 (1973) 571.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 19).
    W.H. Gries and F.G. Rüdenauer, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys., 18 (1975) 111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 20).
    P. Sigmund, Phys. Rev., 184 (1969) 383.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 21).
    M. Cini, Surface Sci., 54 (1976) 71.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 22).
    J. Antal, Phys. Lett., 55A (1976) 281.Google Scholar
  30. 23).
    G. Slodzian and J.F. Hennequin, CR Acad. Sci., 263 (1966)B1246.Google Scholar
  31. 24).
    A. Benninghoven, Z. Naturforsch., 22A (1967) 841.ADSGoogle Scholar
  32. 25).
    R. Castaing and G. Slodzian, CR Acad. Sci., 255 (1962) 1893.Google Scholar
  33. 26).
    A. Benninghoven, Z. Physik, 220 (1969) 159.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 27).
    C. A. Andersen and J.R. Hinthorne, Anal. Chem., 45 (1973) 1421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 28).
    H.W. Werner, Paper presented at the joint Japan-US Seminar on “Quantitative SIMS”, Honolulu, Oct. 13–17, 1975.Google Scholar
  36. 29).
    F.G. Rüdenauer, W. Steiger and H.W. Werner, Surface Sci., 54 (1976) 553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 30).
    A.E. Morgan and H.W. Werner, Anal. Chem., 49 (1977) 927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 31).
    D. S. Simons, J.E. Baker and C.A. Evans, Jr., Analyt. Chem., 48 (1976) 1341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 32).
    D.E. Newbury, Paper Nr. 234, Pittsburgh Meeting on Anal. Chem., Cleveland 1977.Google Scholar
  40. 33).
    R. Shimuzu, T. Ishitani and Y. Ueshima, Japan J. Appl. Phys., 13 (1974) 249.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 34).
    F. G. Rüdenauer, W. Steiger, Vacuum 26 (1976) 537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 35).
    A.E. Morgan and H.W. Werner, Spectrochimica Acta B, (1977) in press. See also ref. 30.Google Scholar
  43. 36).
    A. Lodding, J.M. Gourgout, L.G. Petersson and G. Frostell, Z. Naturforsch., 29A (1974) 897.ADSGoogle Scholar
  44. 37).
    G. R. Sparrow, Paper Nr. 348, Pittsburgh Meeting on Anal. Chem., 1977.Google Scholar
  45. 38).
    A.E. Morgan and H.W. Werner, Analytical Chem., 48 (1976) 699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 39).
    C. Plog, Thesis Univ. Münster, 1974.Google Scholar
  47. 40).
    H. W. Werner, H.A.M. de Grefte and J. van den Berg, Advances in Mass Spectrometry (Ed A.R. West) Vol. 6, p. 673. Applied Science Publishers, Barking, Essex (1974).Google Scholar
  48. 41).
    Z. Jurela, Int. J. Mass Spectr. Ion Phys., 12 (1973) 33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 42).
    H. Oechsner, Appl. Phys., 8 (1975) 185.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 43).
    P. Sigmund, Rev. Roum. Phys., 17. (1972) 823.Google Scholar
  51. 44).
    R. Kelly in: Ion Surface Interactions, Gordon & Breach, R. Behrisch, W. Heiland Eds. London 1973.Google Scholar
  52. 45).
    J.A. McHugh, Methods of Surface Analysis (Ed A.W. Czanderna) Vol. 1 of Methods and Phenomena, p. 223. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam, Oxford, New York (1975).Google Scholar
  53. 46).
    A. Benninghoven and A. Müller, Surf. Sci. 39 (1973), 416.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 47).
    P. Vallerand, Thesis, University Quebec, 1976.Google Scholar
  55. 48).
    H.W. Werner, Vacuum, 22 (1972) 613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 49).
    F. G. Rüdenauer, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys., 6 (1971) 309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. H. Liebl, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys., 6 (1971) 401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. G. Slodzian, Workshop on SIMS and IMMA, NBS Spec. Publ. 427, Gaithersburg, Md., (Eds K.F.J. Heinrich and D.E. Newbury ) (1975) 33.Google Scholar
  59. 50).
    J.M. Morabito and R.K. Lewis, Anal. Chem., 45 (1973) 869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 51).
    H. Liebl, J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 8 (1975) 797.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 52).
    L. Radermacher and H.E. Beske, Int. J. Mass Spectr. Ion Physics, 20 (1976) 333.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 53).
    G. Slodzian, Rev. Phys. Appl. 3 (4), (1968), 360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 54).
    H. Liebl, J. Vac. Sci. Technol., 12 (1975) 385.ADSGoogle Scholar
  64. 55).
    W.O. Hofer and H. Liebl, Appl. Phys., 8 (1975) 359.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 56).
    H.W. Werner and A.E. Morgan, J. Appl. Phys., 47 (1976) 1232.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. C.A. Andersen, H.J. Roden and C.F. Robinson, J. Appl. Phys., 40 (1969) 3419.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 57).
    H.A. Storms, K.F. Brown and J.D. Stein, paper presented at the Japan-US joint seminar on “Quantitative SIMS”, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, Oct. 1975.Google Scholar
  68. 58).
    Unpublished work.Google Scholar
  69. 59).
    H.H. Brongersma, Rev. Sci. Instr., (1977) in press.Google Scholar
  70. 60).
    F. Schulz, K. Wittmaack and J. Maul, Radiat. Eff., 18 (1973) 211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. J.A. McHugh, Workshop on SIMS and IMMA, NBS Spec. Publ. 427 (Eds K.F.J. Heinrich and D.E. Newbury) Gaithersburg, (1975) 179.Google Scholar
  72. 61).
    W.K. Hofker, H.W. Werner, D.P. Oosthoek and H.A.M. de Grefte, Proc. 3rd Intern. Conf. Ion Implantation in Semiconductors, Yorktown Heights, (1972), (Ed B.L. Crowder) New York, Plenum Press (1973) 133.Google Scholar
  73. 62).
    H. Liebl, paper given at the “Pittsburgh Conference”, Cleveland, Ohio, March 1973.Google Scholar
  74. H. Liebl, Round table discussion on SIMS, 7th Intern. Mass Spectrom. Conf., Florence 1976.Google Scholar
  75. 63).
    R.F.K. Herzog, W.P.Poschenrieder and F.G. Satkiewicz, Proc. Intern. Conf. Ion Surface Interaction (Eds R. Behrisch and W. Heiland ), Gordon & Breach, London (1972) 173.Google Scholar
  76. 64).
    H.W. Werner, A.E. Morgan, Paper given at the 7th Intern. Mass Spectrom. Conf., Florence 1976.Google Scholar
  77. 65).
    M. Bernheim, G. Blaise and G. Slodzian, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys., 10 (1972/73) 293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 66).
    D.K. Bakale, B.N. Colby and C.A. Evans, Jr., Anal. Chem., 47 (1975) 1532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. R. Hernandez, P. Lanusse, G. Slodzian and G. Vidal, Rech. Aerospatiale, 6 (1972) 313.Google Scholar
  80. 67).
    H.W. Werner and H.A.M. de Grefte, Surface Sci., 35 (1973) 458.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 68).
    H.W. Werner and H.A.M. de Grefte, Rad. Eff., 18 (1973) 269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 69).
    H.W. Werner, paper presented at the 8th Colloquium on Metallurgical Analysis with Special Emphasis on Electron and Ion Probe Microanalysis, Vienna, Oct. 1976. Published in Mikrochimica Acta, Suppl. 7 (1977) 63.Google Scholar
  83. 70).
    N. Winograd, W. Baitinger, A. Shepard, R. Hewitt, G. Slusser, Paper Nr. 289, presented at the “Pittsburgh Conference” Cleveland, Ohio, March 1977.Google Scholar
  84. 71).
    A.E. Morgan and H.W. Werner, Surface Sci., 65 (1977) 687.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 72).
    A. Benninghoven, E. Loebach; Surf. Sci., 39 (1973) 397.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 73).
    Ya. M. Fogel, Intern. J. Mass Spectr. Ion Phys. 9 (1972) 109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 74).
    W.K. Hofker, Thesis, University Amsterdam, 1975.Google Scholar
  88. 75).
    H.W. Werner, Acta Electronica, 19 (1976) 53.Google Scholar
  89. 76).
    H.W. Werner, Vacuum, 24 (1974) 493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 77).
    See e. g. H.J. Mathieu, D.E. McClure and D. Landolt, Thin Solid Films, 38 (1976) 281.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 78).
    S. Hofmann, Applo Physics, 9 (1976) 59.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 79).
    H. Doi, I. Kanomata and N. Sakudo, 7th Conf. Solid State Devices Tokyo 1975; Suppl. Jap. J. Appl. Phys., 15 (1976) 71.Google Scholar
  93. 80).
    I.W. Drummond and J.P.V. Long, Nature, 215 (1967) 5277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. H.J. Liebl, R.F.K. Herzog, J. Appl. Phys. 34 (1963) 2893.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 81).
    J. Rouberol, J. Radioanal. Chem. 12 (1972) 59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 82).
    H.W. Werner, Vacuum, 22 (1972) 613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 83).
    J.P. Servais and V. Leroy, to be published.Google Scholar
  98. 84).
    G.H. Morrison and G. Slodzian, Anal. Chem., 47 (1975) 932A.Google Scholar
  99. 85).
    M. Prager, A. Wolf and K.H. Gaukler, Beitrage Elektr. Direktabbildg Oberfl. 7 (1974) 509.Google Scholar
  100. 86).
    F.G. Rüdenauer and H.W. Werner, unpublished.Google Scholar
  101. 87).
    H. Hickam and G. Sweeney, private communication 1977.Google Scholar
  102. 88).
    R. Buhl and A. Preisinger, Surf. Sci., 47 (1975) 344.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 89).
    M.G. Dowsett, R. King and E.H. Parker, Surf. Sci. 1977, in press.Google Scholar
  104. 90).
    H.W. Werner, H.A.M. de Grefte, J. v. d. Berg, Radiation Effects, 18 (1973) 269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 91).
    H.W. Werner, H.A.M. de Grefte, J. v. d. Berg, Adv. Mass Spectr. 6 (1974) 673, Proc. Edinb. Conf., A.R. West Ed; Appl. Sci. Publ., Barking, Essex 1974.Google Scholar
  106. 92).
    D.V. McCaughan, R.A. Kushner and V.T. Murphy, Phys. Rev. Letters, 30 (1973) 614 and G. Thomas, private communication.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 93).
    H.W. Werner and A.E. Morgan, J. Appl. Phys., 47 (1976) 1232.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 94).
    A.J. Smith, D.J. Marshall et al. Vacuum, 14 (1964) 263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 95).
    H. Oechsner, Phys. Lett. 40A (1972) 211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 96).
    E. Kay and J. Coburn, VI Int. Vac. Congr. Kyoto, 1974.Google Scholar
  111. 97).
    H. Oechsner and W. Gerhard, Surf. Sci., 44 (1974) 480.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 98).
    J.W. Coburn, E. Taglauer and E. Kay, Japan J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 2, Pt 1, 1974.Google Scholar
  113. 99).
    G.E. Thomas and E.E. de Kluizenaar, Acta Electr., 18 (1975) 63.Google Scholar
  114. 100).
    C.W. White, D.L. Simms and N.H. Tolk, Science 177 (1972) 482.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 101).
    H. Bach, Vacuum, 24 (1974) 469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 102).
    H.W. Werner and A.E. Morgan, Anal. Chem., 49 (1977) 927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 103).
    R.J. MacDonald and P.J. Martin, Surf. Sci., (1977), in press.Google Scholar
  118. 104).
    G. Blaise, Surf. Sci., 60 (1976) 65.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 105).
    F. Hillenkamp and E. Unsöld, Appl. Phys., 8 (1975) 341.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 106).
    G.Pittaway, Paper D12, 1ere Conf. Int. sur les source d’ions, Saclay 1969, INSTN, Saclay, France.Google Scholar
  121. 107).
    H. Heil, Zs. f. Physik, 120 (1942/43) 212.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 108).
    M. von Ardenne, Tabellen der Elektronenphysik, VEB, Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften, Berlin 1956, Vol. I, p. 544.Google Scholar
  123. 109).
    H. Liebl and R.F.K. Herzog, J. Appl. Phys., 34 (1963) 2893.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 110).
    H. Hintenberger and L. König in Adv. Mass. Spectr., Pergamon Press 1959, Ed. J.D. Waldron, p. 16.Google Scholar
  125. 111).
    H. Liebl, Int. J. Mass Spectr. Ion Physics, 22 (1976) 203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. L. Bolduc and M. Baril, J. Appl. Phys., 43 (1972) 1655.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 112).
    H.J. Roden and R.D. Fralick, Pittsb. conf. 1975, Paper No. 70.Google Scholar
  128. H. Liebl, J. Appl. Phys., 38 (1967) 5277.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 113).
    L. Bolduc and M. Baril, J. Appl. Phys., 44 (1973) 657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. H.Ewald and H. Liebl, Zs. Naturforsch. A,10 (1955) 872.ADSMATHGoogle Scholar
  131. 114).
    114)M. Baril and P. Vallerand, Can. J. Phys., 52 (1974) 482.ADSGoogle Scholar
  132. 115).
    R.Castaing and G. Slodzian, J. Microscopie (Paris)1(1962),395.Google Scholar
  133. 116).
    H. Ewald and H. Liebl, Zs. f. Naturforseh., A12 (1957) 28.ADSGoogle Scholar
  134. 117).
    H. Wollnik, Nucl. Instr. Methods 59 (1968) 277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 118).
    T. Matsuo, H. Matsuda and H. Wollnik, Nucl. Instr. Meth. 123.(1972) 515, North-Holland Publ. Co.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 119).
    Cf. H. Kienitz, Massenspektrometrie, Verlag Chemie, (1968) p. 74–98.Google Scholar
  137. 120).
    J. Vastel and J. Rouberol, unpublished.Google Scholar
  138. 121).
    W. Paul und U. von Zahn, Zs. f. Physik, 152. (1958) 143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 122).
    F.G. Rüdenauer, Vacuum, 22 (1972) 609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 123).
    P.H. Dawson and N.R. Whetten in: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, Acad. Press, N.York 1969, L. Marton Ed, p. 60.Google Scholar
  141. 124).
    124)P.H. Dawson and N.H. Whetten in: Dynamic Mass Spectrometry, Vol. 1, Heyden and Son, London 1970, p. 1.Google Scholar
  142. 125).
    U. v. Zahn, Diplomarbeit, Univ. of Bonn 1956.Google Scholar
  143. 126).
    W. Austin, A. Holm and J.H. Leck in Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry and its applications, P.H. Dawson Ed., Elsevier, Amsterdam 1976, p. 121.Google Scholar
  144. 127).
    K. Wittmaack, Rev. Sci. Instr. 47 (1976) 157, Int. J. Mass Spectr. Ion Phys. 11 (1973) 23.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Z. Sroubek, Rev. Sci., Instr. 44 (1973) 1403.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 128).
    M. Baril and P. Vallerand, Can. J. Phys., 48 (1970) 2487.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 129).
    R. Schubert and J.C. Tracy, Rev. Sci. Instr., 44 (1973) 487.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 130).
    H. Liebl, J. Appl. Phys., 38 (1967) 5277.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. A. Hurrle and G.Sixt, Appl. Phys., 8 (1975) 293.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 131).
    W.L. Fite, Paper 20k9 Pittsburg Conference 1977. M.G. Dowsett, R.M. King and E.H.C. Parker, J. Phys. E: Sci. Instr., 8 (1975) 704.Google Scholar
  151. 132).
    W.K. Huber, H. Selhofer and A. Benninghoven, J.Vac. Sci. Techn. 9 (1972) 482.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 133).
    I. Pelchowitch and J.J. Zaalberg van Zelst, Rev. Sci. Instr. 23 (1952) 73.Google Scholar
  153. 134).
    H.W. Werner, H.A.M, de Grefte and J. v. d. Berg, Int. J. Mass Spectr. Ion Phys., 8 (1972) 459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 135).
    P. Richards and E.E. Hays, Rev. Sci. Instr., 21 (1950) 99.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 136).
    N.R. Daly, Rev. Sci. Instr., 31 (1960) 264.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 137).
    W. Schütze and F. Bernhard, Z. Phys. 145 (1956) 44.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. F. Bernhard and K.H. Krebs, Z. Phys., 161 (1961) 103.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 138).
    H.H. Tuithof and A.J.H. Boerboom, Int. J. Mass Spectr. Ion Phys., 15 (1974) 105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 139).
    L. Radermacher and H.E. Beske, Int. J. Mass Spectr. Ion Phys., 20 (1976) 333.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 140).
    E. Mai and H. Wagner, J. Sci. Instr., 44 (1967) 883.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 141).
    M. Maurice, Paper given at ANRT-SIMS meeting, Paris 1977.Google Scholar
  162. 142).
    A. Savitzky and M. Golay, Anal. Chem., 36 (1964) 1627.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 143).
    143)H.W. Werner, Paper to be presented at 7th Inter. Vac. Congress Vienna, 1977; C.A. Evans Jr., Anal. Chem., 47 (1975) 818A;Google Scholar
  164. A. Benninghoven, Appl. Phys., 1 (1973) 3; R. E. Honig, Thin Solid Films, 31 (1975) 89.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 144).
    H.H. Brongersma, private communication 1977.Google Scholar
  166. 145).
    C.T. Hovland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30 (1977) 274.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 146).
    T. Ishitani and R. Shimizu, Appl. Phys., 6 (1975) 241.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 147).
    H.D. Hagstrum, Phys. Rev., 123 (1961) 758.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 148).
    C.B.W. Kerkdijk, Thesis, Leiden, the Netherlands, 1975.Google Scholar
  170. 149).
    C.B.W. Kerkdijk, K.K. Schartner, R. Kelly and F.W. Saris, Nucl. Instr. Meth. 132 (1976) 427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 150).
    P. Sigmund, Phys. Rev. 184 (1969) 383.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 151).
    H. Oechsner, Z. Physik, 261 (1973) 37.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 152).
    H. Oechsner, Appl. Phys., 8 (1975) 185.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. N. Laegreid and G.K. Wehner, Journ. Appl. Phys., 32 (1961) 365.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 154).
    D. Rosenberg and G.K. Wehner, Journ. Appl. Phys., 33 (1962) 1842.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 155).
    B.M. Gurmin, Yu. A. Ryzhov, J.J. Skarban, Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR, Phys. Ser., (USA) 33 (1969) 752.Google Scholar
  177. 156).
    H. Oechsner, Z. Physik, 238 (1970) 433.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 157).
    A. Benninghoven and A. Mueller, Physics Letters, 40A (1972) 169; J.F. Hennequin, J. urn. de Physique, 29 (1968) 957; H.W. Werner (see ref. 6); H.E. Beske, Z. Naturforsch. 22a (1967) 459.Google Scholar
  179. 158).
    H.A. Storms, K.F. Brown and J.D. Stein, Joint-US-Japanese Seminar, Hawaii 1975; C.A. Andersen and J.R. Hinthorne, Science 175 (1972) 853.Google Scholar
  180. 159).
    H.A.M. de Grefte and H.W. Werner, unpublished.Google Scholar
  181. 160).
    H.W. Werner, Mikrochimica Acta, Suppl. 7 (1977) 63.Google Scholar
  182. 161).
    H.H. Tuithof, Thesis Univ. Amsterdam, 1977.Google Scholar
  183. 162).
    P.H. Dawson, 7th Int. Mass Spectr. Conf. Florence 1976.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. W. Werner
    • 1
  1. 1.Philips Research LaboratoriesEindhovenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations