Advertisement

The Use of Synchrotron Radiation in UPS: Theory and Results

  • W. E. Spicer
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSB, volume 32)

Abstract

The use of photoemission as a tool for the investigation of the electronic structure of matter has grown at an explosive rate in the last 15 years. For those of you who have become interested in the field in the last few years, it is probably difficult to realize that fifteen or twenty years ago only a small number of papers (approximately 10–20) were being published throughout the world on photoemission per year. Today there are many individual laboratories or groups which publish more than this number per year and the total number of papers are in the hundreds per year. To properly appreciate the growing effect of the use of synchrotron radiation on photoemission, one must view the opportunities opened by synchrotron radiation in terms of the continuous development of photoemission as a tool for exploring the electronic structure of matter. One aspect of this development would be the study of atoms or molecules in the gaseous state. We will not attempt to cover this aspect here but will concentrate on the use of photoemission to study the electronic structure of solids or gases sorbed on or in solids.

Keywords

Valence Band Synchrotron Radiation Storage Ring Photoionization Cross Section Synchrotron Source 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    D.A. Shirley, Ed. Electron Spectroscopy, North Holland - Amsterdam, Amer. Elsevier, N.Y. 1972.Google Scholar
  2. Kai Siegbahn, et al, ESCA Atomic Molecular and Solid State Structure Studied by Means of Electron Spectroscopy, Almquist and Wiksells Boktryckeri AB, Uppsala, 1967.Google Scholar
  3. 2.
    W.E. Spicer and C.N. Berglund, Rev. Sci. Inst., 35 1665 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. R.E. Eden, Rev. Sci. Inst. 41, 252 (1970).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 3.
    See for example, F.Abeles, Ed., Proc. of Intern. Colloq. on Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Metals and Alloys, Paris, 1965 ( North-Holland, Amsterdam; John Wiley, New York ).Google Scholar
  6. 4.
    W.E.Spicer, Phys. Rev., 112, 114 (1958).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. C.N. Berglund and W.E. Spicer, Phys. Rev., 136, 1030, 1044 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 5.
    L.H. Bennett, Ed., Electronic Density of States, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. (SD Catalog No. C13:323) 1971.Google Scholar
  9. 6.
    W.E. Spicer, in Proc. Intern. Colloq. on Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Metals and Alloys, 1965, Paris, Ed. F. Ables (North-Holland, Amsterdam; John Wiley, New York ) pp. 296–315.Google Scholar
  10. 7.
    G.F. Derbenwick, D.T. Pierce, and W.E. Spicer, Solid State Physics, Ed. R.V. Coleman, Acad. Press., N.Y. and London, 1974, p. 67.Google Scholar
  11. 8.
    See for example, J.W. Rabalais, Principles of Ultraviolet Photoemission Spectroscopy, J. Wiley and Sons, 1977, p. 19–28 and references therein.Google Scholar
  12. 9.
    E.E. Koch, R. Haensel, and C. Kunz, Ed., Proc. of IV International Conference on Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics; Hamburg, 1974; Pergamon, Vieweg. 1974.Google Scholar
  13. 10.
    Robert W. Morse, “An Assessment of the National Need for Facilities Dedicated to the Production of Synchrotron Radiation,” National Acad, of Sciences, Washington, DC, 1976. (Available from Solid State Sciences Committee, NRC, 2101 Constitution Ave., Washington, D.C. 20418.)Google Scholar
  14. 11.
    S. Doniach, I. Lindau, W.E. Spicer, and H. Winick, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 11. 23 (1975).Google Scholar
  15. I. Lindau, “Photoemission Studies of Semiconductor and Metal Surfaces Using Synchrotron Radiation,” in course of Synchrotron Radiation, Int. College of Applied Phys, Ed. A.N. Mancini and I.F.Quercis, 1976, p. 321.Google Scholar
  16. 12.
    K.O. Hodgson, H. Winick and G. Chu, Synchrotron Radiation Research, SSRP Report # 76/100 Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305.Google Scholar
  17. 13.
    W.E. Spicer, “Bulk and Surface Ultraviolet Photoemission Spectroscopy,” in Optical Properties of Solids — New Developments, Ed. B.O. Seraphin, North Holland, 1975.Google Scholar
  18. 14.
    P.J. Feibelman and D.E. Eastman, Phys. Rev. B10, 4932 (1974).ADSGoogle Scholar
  19. 15.
    I. Lindau and W.E. Spicer, J. Elect. Spectroscopy 3, 409 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 16.
    D.R. Penn, Phys. Rev. 13, 5248 (1976).ADSGoogle Scholar
  21. C.J. Powell, Surf. Sci., 44, 29 (1974); Rev. Mod. Phys. to be published.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 17.
    T.H. DiStefano and W.E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. B7, 1554 (1973); R. Powell and W. E. Spicer, G.B. Fisher, and P. Gregory, 8, 3987 (1973).Google Scholar
  23. 18.
    F.C. Brown, R.Z. Bachrach, S.B.M. Hagstrom, Proc. IV International Conference on Vac. Ultraviolet Rad. Phys., Hamburg, 1974, p. 785.Google Scholar
  24. 19.
    N. Schwentner, M. Skibowski, and W. Steinmann, Phys. Rev. B8, 2965 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. W. Gudat and C. Kunz, Phys. Rev. Lett., 29, 169 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 20.
    P.W. Chye, I.A. Babalola, T. Sukegawa, and W.E. Spicer, Phys. Lett., 34, 1624 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. G.J. Lapeyre and J. Anderson, Phys. Rev. Lett., 35, 117 (1975) D. E. Eastman and J.L. Freeouf, Phys. Rev. Lett., 33, 1601 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 21.
    W.E. Spicer, I. Lindau, J.N. Miller, D.T. Ling, P. Pianetta, P.W. Chye, and C.M Garner, Physica Scripta, in press.Google Scholar
  29. 22.
    I. Lindau, P. Pianetta, and W.E. Spicer, Phys. Lett., 54A 225 (1976).Google Scholar
  30. 23.
    G. Apai, P.S. Wehner, J. Stohr, R.S. Williams, and D.A. Shirley, Solid State Comm. 20, 1141 (1976).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 24.
    P. Pianetta, I. Lindau, C.M. Garner, and W.E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. Lett., 37, 1166 (1976), 35, 1356 (1975).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 25.
    W.E. Spicer, I. Lindau, P.E. Gregory, C.M. Garner, P. Pianetta, P.W. Chye, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13, 780 (1976).ADSGoogle Scholar
  33. 26.
    W.E.Spicer, I. Lindau, P.E. Gregory, C.M. Garner, P. Pianetta, and P.W. Chye, J. Vac. Sci. Technol., in press.Google Scholar
  34. 27.
    C.R. Brundle, in Electronic Structure and Reactivity of Metal Surfaces, Ed., E.G. Derouane and A.A. Lucas, Plenum Press, New York, 1975 ), p. 389.Google Scholar
  35. 28.
    J.W. Cooper, Phys. Rev. 128, 681 (1962).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 29.
    U. Gelius, E. Basilier, S. Svensson, T. Bergmark, and K. Siegbahn, J. Elec. Spectroscopy, 2, 405 (1973).Google Scholar
  37. 30.
    M.S. Banna and D.A. Shirley, J. Elec. Spectroscopy, 8, 255 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 31.
    H. Hochst, S. Hufner, A. Goldman, Phys. Lett. 57A, 265 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 32.
    A.L. Robinson, Science, 194, 1306 (1977).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 33.
    C.L. Allyn, T. Gustafesson, and E.W. Plummer, Chem. Phys. Lett., 47, 127 (1977) and references therein.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 34.
    R.J. Smith, J. Anderson, J. Hermanson, and G.J. Lapeyre, Solid State Comm., 19, 976 (1976); G.J. Lapeyre, R.J. Smith, J. Anderson, J. Vac. Sc. Technol. 14, 384 (1977).Google Scholar
  42. 35.
    J.W. Davenport, Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 945 (1976).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 36.
    J.L. Dehmer and D. Dill, Phys. Rev. Lett., 35, 213 (1975).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 37.
    E.W. Plummer, T. Gustafesson, W. Gudat, and D.E. Eastman, Phys. Rev. A, 15, 2339 (1977).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 38.
    B. Feuerbacher and N.E. Christensen, Phys. Rev. B10, 2373 (1974).ADSGoogle Scholar
  46. 39.
    N.E. Christensen and B. Feuerbacher, Phys. Rev. B10, 2349 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 40.
    J.L. Shay, Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University, 1966, copies can be obtained from University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Mich. USA, or High Wycomb, England.Google Scholar
  48. J. Shay and W.E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. 161, 799 (1967).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 41.
    W.E. Spicer and R.E. Eden, 1968, Proc. 9th Intern. Conf. on the Phys. of Semicond. Moscow, USSR, p. 65.Google Scholar
  50. 42.
    N.V. Smith, M.M. Traum, J.A. Knapp, J. Anderson, and G.J. Lapeyre, Phys. Rev. B, 13, 4462 (1976).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. E. Spicer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

Personalised recommendations