Fabrication of Josephson Junctions
This paper discusses the materials and microcircuit-fabrication techniques that can be applied to Josephson junctions. All practical applications of Josephson junctions require reproducibility in fabrication and physical ruggedness to withstand the stresses imposed by thermally cycling a structure containing materials with different expansion coefficients. In addition, the various applications require different electrical characteristics. For example, junctions for use in SQUID magnetometers and high-frequency electromagnetic detectors and mixers must have non-hysteretic I-V characteristics, while those for most switching circuits should have hysteretic characteristics. In most applications, the ratio of critical current to capacitance (Ic/C) of the junction should be as large as possible. The choice of materials plays a key role in achieving these ends. Also, achievement of the optimum junction properties requires using sophisticated microfabrication techniques such as photo- and electron-lithography, advanced sputtering techniques, and silicon doping and etching.
KeywordsJosephson Junction Tunnel Junction Tunneling Barrier Niobium Oxide Barrier Junction
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