From Spectroscopy to Microscopy - The Photon as a Probe

  • W. A. Sibley
Part of the Nato Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSB, volume 19)


The title of this paper illustrates the considerable latitude of the subject matter to be covered. Photons range from gamma rays to very low energy infrared rays; thus, the scope is extremely broad. Using gamma rays from the Mossbauer effect Mullen1 has studied impurity precipitates and vacancy-impurity pairs. Visible and infrared radiation can be used to study defect clusters through light scattering or microscopy and to study the effect of point defects on the vibration modes of OH molecules in crystals.2 Because of the limited space available for this review only certain aspects of using the photon as a probe can be emphasized. Those areas which will be covered by other authors at this conference such as x-ray scattering, point defect optical absorption, magnetic circular dichroism, infrared absorption, etc. will be treated only briefly and the reader is referred to the more detailed papers in this volume. Research areas not covered by other participants in the conference will be emphasized but even so certain topics will have to be omitted. First, a review of optical transitions in pure and defect containing crystals is presented and then a treatment of the use of photons to study impurities, radiation damage and macroscopic defects is given.


Magnetic Dipole Oscillator Strength Crystal Field Infrared Absorption Color Center 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    J. G. Mullen, Phys. Rev. 131, 1410 and 1415 (1963).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. V. Klein in “Physics of Color Centers” (ed. W. B. Fowler), Academic Press, p. 429, New York (1968).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. S. Knox and K. J. Teegarden, in “Physics of Color Centers” (ed. W. B. Fowler), p. 1. Academic Press, New York (1968).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    F. C. Brown, Solid State Physics 29, 1 (1974).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    W. F. Henson, E. T. Arakawa and M. W. Williams, J. Appi. Phys. 43, 1661 (1972).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. W. Williams, R. A. MacRae and E. T. Arakawa, J. Appi. Phys. 38, 1701 (1967).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. Duncanson and R. W. H. Stevenson, Proc. Phys. Soc. 72, 1001 (1958).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. S. Barker, Phys. Rev., 136, 1290 (1964).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    W. B. Fowler, in “Physics of Color Centers” (ed. W. B. Fowler) p. 53, Academic Press, New York (1968).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    W. A. Sibley and D. Pooley, in “Treatise on Material Science and Technology”, (ed. by H. Hermann), p. 46, Academic Press, New York (1974).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    C. S. Kelley, Phys. Rev. B6, 4112 (1972) and B8, 1806 (1973).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    C. Jouanin and C. Gout, J. Phys. C5, 1945 (1972).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. Garbuny, “Optical Physics”, p. 289, Academic Press, New York (1965).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    R. C. Chaney, C. C. Lin, and E. E. Lafon, Phys. Rev. B3, 459 (1971).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. B. Kunz, Phys. Rev. 162, 789 (1962).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    D. J. Mickish, A. B. Kunz and T. C. Collins, Phys. Rev. B9, 4461 (1974).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    R. C. Newman, Adv. in Physics 18, 545 (1969) and “Infrared Studies of Crystal Defects”, Taylor and Francis, London (1973).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    C. Kittel, “Introduction to Solid State Physics”, Wilev. New York (1971).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    F. A. Cotton, “Chemical Applications of Group Theory”, Wiley, New York (1963).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    R. S. Katiyar and R. S. Krishnan, Can. J. Phys. 45, 3079 (1967).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    R. Kahn, J. P. Trotin, D. Gribier and C. Benoit, Colloquium on Inelastic Neutron Scattering, SM-104/33, IAEA, Copenhagen 20–25 May, 1968.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    B. N. Brockhouse, S. Hauteeler, and H. Stiller in “Interaction of Radiation with Solids” (ed. Struman et al.), North-Holland (1963).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    G. Shirane, Rev. Mod. Phys. 46, 437 (1974).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    D. S. McClure, in “Solid State Physics”, 9, 399 (ed. F. Seitz and D. Turnbull) Academic Press, New York (1959).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    J. Ferguson, in “Progress in Inorganic Chemistry”, 12, 159 (ed. S. J. Lippard ), Interscience, N.Y. (1970).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    F. Luty, in “Physics of Color Centers” (ed. W. B. Fowler), p. 182, Academic Press, N. Y. (1968).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    F. Luty, Surface Science 37, 120 (1973).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    B. diBartolo, “Optical Interactions in Solids”, Wiley (1968).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    D. B. Fitchen, in “Physics of Color Centers”, p. 294 (ed. W. B. Fowler ), Academic Press, N. Y. (1968).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    K. Huang and A. Rhys, Proc. Phys. Soc. A204, 406 (1950).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    J. Rolfe and S. R. Morrison, Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. 20, 431 (1975).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    A. Hughes and B. Henderson, in “Defects in Solids” (ed. J. H. Crawford and L. Slifkin ), p. 381, Plenum, N. Y. (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    M. D. Sturge, in Solid State Physics, 20, 91 (1967) (ed. F. Seitz and D. Turnbull) Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Y. Tanabe and S. Sugano, J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 9, 753 (1954).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    H. Beleites and F. Fröhlich, Kristall and Technik 7, 1329 (1972).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    F. A. Jenkins and H. E. White, “Fundamentals of Optics”, McGraw Hill, N. Y. (1957).MATHGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    F. Zernicke, Physica 9, 686 and 974 (1942).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    A. H. Bennett, H. Jupnik, H. Osterberg and O. W. Richards, “Phase Microscopy”, Wiley, New York (1951).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    V. Vand, K. Vedam and R. Stein, J. Appi. Phys. 37, 2551 (1966).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    H. C. Van de Hülst, “Light Scattering by Small Particles”, Wiley, New York (1957).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    H. Z. Cummins, “Light Scattering in Solids”, p. 3 (ed. Balkanski ), Paris (1971).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    W. A. Sibley, Phys. Rev. 132, 2065 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    L. W. Hobbs, J. de Physique, 34, C9 - 227 (1973).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    W. E. Vehse, K. H. Lee, S. I. Yun and W. A. Sibley, Journal of Luminescence 10 (1975).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    J. E. Ralph and M. G. Townsend, J. Phys. Chem. 3, 8 (1970).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    B. D. Bird, G. A. Osborne and P. J. Stephens, Phys. Rev. B5, 1800 (1972).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    K. H. Lee and W. A. Sibley, Phys. Rev. (to be published).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    L. E. Halliburton, M. A. Young and E. E. Kohnke, Private Communication and Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 20, 328 (1975).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    J. Ferguson, H. J. Gugganheim, and E. R. Krausz, Mol. Phys. 27, 577 (1974).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    S. Amelinckx, Phil. Mag. 1, 269 (1956).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    R. C. Powell, J. Appl. Physics 39, 3132 (1968).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    L. Taurel and M. Girard-Nottin, J. de Physique 27., C3 - 25 (1966).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    K. G. Bansigin and E. E. Schneider, J. Appl. Physics 533, 383 (1962).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    G. Hauret and M. Girard-Nottin, Phys. Stat. Sol., 17, 881 (1966).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    S. B. Hyder and K. G. Bansigir, Indian J. Pure and Appl. Phys., 2, 395 (1964).Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    M. Fayet-Bonnel, Phys. Stat. Sol.(b) 60, 713 (1973).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    I. Baltog, C. Ghita and M. Giurgea, J. Phys. C7, 1 (1974) and Rev. Roum. Phys. 17, 1121 (1972).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. A. Sibley
    • 1
  1. 1.Physics DepartmentOklahoma State UniversityStillwaterUSA

Personalised recommendations