Phenotypic Markers for Chloroplast DNA Genes in Higher Plants and Their Use in Biochemical Genetics
Plants belonging to the genera Nicotiana, Avena, and Triticum appear to transmit chloroplast DNA exclusively by the maternal parent. In Nicotiana this mode of inheritance has been demonstrated for a variegation caused by the presence of normal and defective chloroplasts contained within the same cells of N. tabacum leaves (1). The defective chloroplasts have a DNA which is slightly different in physical structure from the DNA of the normal chloroplasts (2). Maternal inheritance also governs transmission of coding information for the large subunit of Fraction I protein (3) as well as the site of its ribulose diphosphate carboxylase catalytic activity (4). In Avena, Steer (5) has found that the electrophoretic mobility of Fraction I protein is controlled by coding information transmitted via the maternal line. In Triticum, genetic information controlling the isoelectric points of the three polypeptides comprising the large subunit of Fraction I protein is also inherited exclusively from the maternal parent (6). In all three genera, the demonstration of chloroplast DNA phenotypic markers for genes controlling the primary structure of proteins has arisen because F1 plants can be created by interspecific hybridization, often in reciprocal fashion.
KeywordsIsoelectric Point Male Sterile Large Subunit Small Subunit Phenotypic Marker
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