Functional Characterization of the Initiation Factors of Wheat Germ

  • Samarendra N. Seal
  • Marcella Giesen
  • Ruth Roman
  • Abraham Marcus
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSA, volume 12)


Protein biosynthesis is one of the first biological processes “activated” by exposure of wheat embryos to water (1). A major facet of the “activation” process is the attachment of ribosomes to preformed mRNA (2), and the reaction can, in part, be reproduced in vitro (3). In further studies it was found that the ribosome attachment reaction could be carried out with a number of eucaryotic mRNAs, in particular with plant viral RNAs (4, 5, 6). Utilizing particularly TMV-RNA, we have studied aspects of the initiation reaction in vitro and the subsequent sections summarize the current status of these studies.


Initiation Factor Wheat Germ Wheat System Amino Acid Incorporation Initiator tRNA 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Marcus, A., and Feeley, J. (1964) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 51, 1075–1079.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Marcus, A. (1969) Symp. Soc. Dev. Biol. 23, 143–160.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Weeks, D. P., and Marcus, A. (1970) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 232, 671–684.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Marcus, A., Luginbill, B., and Feeley, J. (1968) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 72, 1189–1193.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Klein, W. H., Nolan, C., Lazar, J. M., and Clark, J. M. JR. (1972) Biochem. 11, 2009–2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Davies, J. W., and Kaesberg, P. (1974) J. Gen. Virol. 25, 11–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Weeks, D. P., Verma, D. P. S., Seal, S. N., and Marcus, A. (1972) Nature 236, 167–168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Marcus, A., Bewley, J. D., and Weeks, D. P. (1970) Science 167, 1735–1736.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Marcus, A., Weeks, D. P., and Seal, S. N. (1973) in Nitrogen Metabolism in Plants (Smellie, R. M. S. and Goodwin, T. W., eds.), Biochem. Soc. Symp. 38, 97–109.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Haselkorn, R., and Rothman-Denes, L. B. (1973) Ann. Rev, of Biochem. 42, 397–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jay, G., and Kaempfer, R. (1975) J.Biol. Chem. 250, 5742–5748.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Seal, S. N., Bewley, J. D., and Marcus, A. (1972) J. Biol. Chem. 247, 2592–2597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shafritz, D. A., and Anderson, W. F. (1970) Nature 227, 918–920.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shafritz, D. A., Prichard, P. M., Gilbert, J. M., Merrick, W. C., and Anderson, W. F. (1972) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 69, 983–989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schreier, M. H., and Staehlin, T. (1973) Proc. 24th Mosbacher Colloq. Springer Verlag., 335–349.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Levin, D. H., Kyner, D., and Acs, G. (1973) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 70, 41–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Levin, D. H., Kyner, D., and Acs, G. (1973) J. Biol. Chem. 248, 6416–6425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dettman, G. L., and Stanley, W. M. JR. (1972) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 287, 124–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cashion, L. M., and Stanley, W. M. JR. (1974) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 71, 436–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gupta, N. K., Woodley, C. L., Chen, Y. C., and Bose, K. K. (1973) J. Biol. Chem. 248, 4500–4511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gupta, N. K., Chatterjee, B., Chen, Y. C., and Majumder, A. (1975) J. Biol. Chem. 250, 853–862.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Giesen, M., Roman, R., Seal, S. N., and Marcus, A., J. Biol. Chem., in press.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kramer, G., Konecki, D., Amadevilla, J. M., and Hardesty, B. (1976) Arch. Biochem. 174, 355–358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Walton, G. N., and Gill, G. N. (1976) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 418, 195–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Knowland, J., Hunter, T., Hunt, T., and Zimmern, D. (1975) in In Vitro Transcription and Translation of Viral Genomes (Haenni, A. L. and Beandt, G., eds.), Ins era, Paris, p. 211–216.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shine, J., and Dalgarno, L. (1974) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 71, 1342–1346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Furuichi, Y., Morgan, M., Shatkin, A. J., Jelinek, W., Dalditt-Georgiev, M., and Darnell, J. E. (1975) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 72, 1904–1908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Both, G. W., Furuichi, Y., Muthukrishnan, S., and Shatkin, A. J. (1975) Cell 6, 185–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Roman, R., Brooker, J. D., Seal, S. N., and Marcus, A. (1976) Nature 260, 359–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lesnaw, J., and Reichmann, M. (1970) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 66, 140–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Horst, J., Frankel-Conrat, H., and Mandeles, S. (1971) Biochem. 10, 4748–4752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Both, G. W., Banerjee, A. K., and Shatkin, A. J. (1975) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 72, 1189–1193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hickey, E. D., Weber, L. A., and Baglioni, C. (1976) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 73, 19–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samarendra N. Seal
    • 1
  • Marcella Giesen
    • 1
  • Ruth Roman
    • 1
  • Abraham Marcus
    • 1
  1. 1.The Fox Chase Cancer CenterThe Institute for Cancer ResearchPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations