The Role of Phytotoxins in Specificity

  • Harry Wheeler
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSA, volume 10)


In his lecture, Brian indicated that Phytotoxins which selectively damage plants susceptible to the pathogen involved provide the clearest examples of agents which determine specificity in plant-pathogen interactions. Five years ago, a preceding Institute was devoted entirely to the role of Phytotoxins in plant disease. In the published proceedings of the Institute, Graniti (8) addressed problems of terminology and classification of toxins associated with plant diseases. Without retracing that ground, I should like to discuss briefly two terms, pathotoxin and host-specific toxin.


Toxin Production Scatchard Plot Selective Toxicity Southern Leaf Blight Toxin Preparation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    ARNTZEN, C.J., KOEPPE, D.E., MILLER, R.J. and PEVERLY, J.H. (1973). The effect of pathotoxin from Helminthosporium maydis (race T) on energy linked processes of corn seedlings. Physiol. Pl. Path., 3, 79–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    BHULLAR, B.S., DALY, J.M. and REHFELD, D.W. (1975). Inhibition of dark CO2 fixation and photosynthesis in leaf discs of corn susceptible to the host-specific toxin produced by Helminthosporium maydis, race T. Pl. Physiol., Lancaster, 56, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    BOZARTH, R.F., WOOD, H.A. and NELSON, R.R. (1972). Virus-like particles in virulent strains of Helminthosporium maydis. Phytopathology, 62, 748 (Abstr.).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    COMSTOCK, J.C., MARTINSON, C.A. and GENGENBACH, B.G. (1973). Host specificity of a toxin from Phyllosticta maydis for Texas cytoplasmically male-sterile maize. Phytopathology, 63, 1357–1361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    DUNKLE, L.D. (1974). Double-stranded RNA mycovirus in Periconia circinata. Physiol. Pl. Path., 4, 107–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    FLOR, H.H. (1971). Current status of the gene-for-gene concept. A. Rev. Phytopath., 9, 275–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    GOODMAN, R.N., HUANG, J.S. and HUANG, PI-YU. (1974). Host-specific phytotoxic polysaccharide from apple tissue infected by Erwinia amylovora. Science, N.Y., 183, 1081–1082.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    GRANITI, A. (1972). The evolution of the toxin concept in plant pathology. In: Phytotoxins in Plant Diseases (WOOD, R.K.S., BALLIO, A. and GRANITI, A., Eds.), 1–18. Academic Press, London and New York.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    HANCHEY, P., WHEELER, H. and LUKE, H.H. (1968). Pathological changes in ultrastructure: effects of victorin on oat roots. Am. J. Bot., 55, 53–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    HOOKER, A.L. (1972). Southern leaf blight of corn — present status and future prospects. J.envir. Quality 1, 244–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    LUKE, H.H. and GRACEN, V.E., JR. (1972). Helminthosporium toxins. In:Microbial Toxins, Vol. 8, Fungal Toxins (Kadis, S., Ciegler, A. and Ajl, S.J., Eds.), 139–168. Academic Press, New York and London.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    NOVACKY, A. and HANCHEY, P. (1973). Depolarization of membrane potentials in oat roots treated with victorin. Physiol. Pl. Path., 4, 161–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    PATIL, S.S. (1974). Toxins produced by phytopathogenic bacteria. A. Rev. Phytopath., 12, 259–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    PRINGLE, R.B. and SCHEFFER, R.P. (1964). Host-specific plant toxins. A. Rev. Phytopath., 2, 133–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    RAWN, C.D. (1974). Victorin-induced changes in carbohydrate metabolism in oat leaves. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Kentucky Library, Lexington.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    SAFTNER, R.A. and EVANS, M.L. (1974). Selective effects of victorin on growth and the auxin response in Avena. Pl. Physiol., Lancaster, 55, 382–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    SANDERLIN, R.S. and GHABRIAL, S.A. (1975). Virus-like particles containing double-stranded RNA in normal and diseased Helminthosporium victoriae. Phytopathology. (In press).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    SCHEFFER, R.P. and YODER, O.C. (1972). Host-specific toxins and selective toxicity. In: Phytotoxins in Plant Diseases (WOOD, R.K.S., BALLIO, A. and GRANITI, A., Eds.), 251–272. Academic Press, London and New York.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    SMEDEGÅRD-PETERSON, V. and NELSON, R.R. (1969). The production of a host-specific pathotoxin by Cochliobolus hetero-strophus. Can. J. Bot., 47, 951–957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    STEINER, G.W. and BYTHER, R.S. (1971). Partial characterization and use of a host-specific toxin from Helminthosporium sacchari on sugarcane. Phytopathology, 61, 691–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    STEINER, G.W. and STROBEL, G.A. (1971). Helminthosporoside, a host-specific toxin from Helminthosporium sacchari. J. biol. Chem., 246, 4350–4357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    STRUBEL, G.A. (1973). The helminthosporoside-binding protein of sugarcane. J. biol. Chem., 284, 1321–1328.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    STROBEL, G.A. (1974). Phytotoxins produced by plant parasites. A. Rev. Pl. Physiol., 25, 541–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    STROBEL, G.A. (1975). A mechanism of disease resistance in plants. Soient. Am., 232, 81–88.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    STROBEL, G.A., HESS, W.M. and STEINER, G.W. (1972). Ultrastructure of cells in toxin-treated and Relminthosporium sacchari-infected sugarcane leaves. Phytopathology, 62, 339–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    TIPTON, C.L., MONDAL, M.H. and UHLIG, J. (1973). Inhibition of the K+ stimulated ATPase of maize root microsomes by Helminthosporium may dis race T pathotoxin. Biochem. biophys. Res. Commun., 51, 525–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    WHEELER, H. (1975). Plant Pathogenesis. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, New York, 106 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    WHEELER, H. and LUKE, H.H. (1963). Microbial toxins in plant disease. A. Rev. Microbiol., 17, 223–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    YODER, O.C. (1973). A selective toxin produced by Phyllostiota may dis. Phytopathology, 63, 1361–1366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harry Wheeler
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant PathologyUniversity of KentuckyLexingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations