Erodibility of Fine Abyssal Sediment
A fundamental approach to erodibility of fine abyssal sediment must take into account the great complexity of forces acting on surface sediment particles exposed to bottom currents. Important controls on these forces involve the dynamics of turbulent boundary-layer flow, the physical and chemical nature of the sediment particles, and the past history of the sediment, including effects of flocculation and the activity of benthic organisms. Time scale also determines, at least in part, the way we view the problem of erodibility. Experiments on erodibility have largely been aimed at threshold velocity or boundary shear stress for incipient erosion. Many such experiments have been made, but comparison is difficult because of differing sediment composition and state of the sediment bed. The only general conclusion that can be drawn is that, for a given sediment, threshold velocity or shear stress varies strongly with water content but depends also on method of sediment preparation and time since deposition. Mode of erosion also varies with water content.
KeywordsFine Sediment Threshold Velocity Viscous Sublayer Boundary Shear Stress Calcareous Ooze
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- ASCE, Task Committee on Preparation of Sediment Manual, Sediment transport mechanics: initiation of motion, Am. Soc. Civil Engrs., Proc, J. Hydraulics Div., 92, 291–314, 1966.Google Scholar
- ASCE, Task Committee on Erosion of Cohesive Sediment, Erosion of cohesive sediments, Am. Soc. Civil Engrs., Proc. J. Hydraulics Div., 94, 1017–1049, 1968.Google Scholar
- Griffin, J. J., H. Windom, and E. D. Goldberg, The distribution of clay minerals in the World Ocean, Deep-Sea Res., 15, 433–460, 1968.Google Scholar
- Heezen, B. C., and C. D. Hollister, The Face of the Deep, Oxford Univ. Press, Inc., N. Y., 1971.Google Scholar
- Heezen, B. C., and C. D. Hollister, Geologic effects of ocean bottom currents: western North Atlantic, in Studies in Physical Oceanography; A Tribute to Georg Wüst on his 80th Birthday, 2, edited by A. L. Gordon, pp. 37–66, Gordon and Breach, N. Y., 1972.Google Scholar
- Lonsdale, P. F., and J. B. Southard, Experimental erosion of abyssal clay (manuscript), 1973.Google Scholar
- Migniot, C., Etude des propriétés physiques de différents sédiments très fins et leur comportements sous des actions hydrodynamiques, La Houille Blanche, 591-620, 1968.Google Scholar
- Partheniades, E., Erosion and deposition of cohesive soils, Am. Soc. Civil Engrs., Proc. J. Hydraulics Div., 91, 105–139, 1965.Google Scholar
- Postma, H., Sediment transport and sedimentation in the estuarine environment, in Estuaries, edited by G. H. Lauff, pp. 158-179, Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci., Publ. 83, Washington, D. C., 1967.Google Scholar
- Shields, A., Anwendung der Ähnlichkeitsmechanik und der Turbulenzforschung auf die Geschiebebewegung, Preussische Versuchanstalt für Wasserbau und Schiffbau, Berlin, Mitteilungen, 26, 1936.Google Scholar
- Sternberg, T. E., Field measurements of the hydrodynamic roughness of the deep-sea boundary, Deep-Sea Res., 17, 413–420, 1970.Google Scholar
- van Olphen, H., An Introduction to Clay Colloid Chemistry, Interscience, N. Y., 1963.Google Scholar