It would seem desirable to be able to describe the state of an ionic species in the smooth muscle under study as accurately as possible. However, a complete description of the state of an ion, for example, of Na+, would require that the instantaneous values of all the relevant microscopic parameters, such as the position, velocity, energy, and interaction with the neighboring atoms, be specified for every single Na+, ion present in the preparation. Apart from the obvious fact that determination of this kind is impossible, the resulting set of data would be so complex that it could hardly serve any practical purpose. In order to simplify the description, one could consider the possibility of dividing the preparation into homogeneous volume elements. These elements would have to be small enough to ensure their homogeneity and yet large enough so that the Na+, ions contained in every element could be treated as a statistical assembly. Under these conditions, it would be possible to characterize the state of the assembly of Na+, ions in each volume element by the mean values of the above microscopic parameters, usually in terms of the corresponding macroscopic quantities such as the concentration cNa+, the flux J Na +, and the chemical potential µNa + . Accurate though it might be to describe the state of the ion in the preparation by a set of values of local macroscopic quantities, such a description still would be too complex.
KeywordsSmooth Muscle External Solution Frog Skeletal Muscle Cytoplasmic Matrix Taenia Coli
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