Smooth Muscle pp 313-320 | Cite as

Transmural and Field Stimulation of Nerve—Smooth Muscle Preparations

  • W. D. M. Paton


The method of transmural stimulation was introduced in an attempt to solve a major difficulty in the study of the nerve networks of the small intestine. Unlike other neuroefifector systems, such as ganglia or the neuromuscular junction, there is insufficient anatomical separation of the presynaptic and postsynaptic elements to allow, for instance, the mounting of the presynaptic nerve trunk on a pair of electrodes for stimulation. It is possible, of course, to place electrodes on the surface of the gut; but then the field of current flow is unknown and complex, and the point of presynaptic excitation will change the moment a mechanical response occurs. By the introduction of one electrode into the lumen of a strip of intestine and another into the lluid bathing the intestine, a voltage gradient could be created through the whole gut wall which is not altered by movement of the preparation. The main technical difficulty of the method is that the resistance between the electrodes is low, so that stimulators with a high power output are required.


Longitudinal Muscle Circular Muscle Field Stimulation Longitudinal Strip Nerve Network 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alvarez, W. C. and Mahoney, C. J. 1922. The myogenic nature of the rhythmic contractions of the intestine.Am. J. Physiol., 59:421–430.Google Scholar
  2. Ambache, N. 1954. Separation of the longitudinal muscle of the rabbit’s ileum as a broad sheet. J. Physiol., 725:53–55P.Google Scholar
  3. Ambache, N. 1955. The use and limitations of atropine for pharmacological studies on autonomiceflfectors. Pharmac. Rev., 7:467–494.Google Scholar
  4. Ambache, N. and Freeman, M. A. 1968. Atropine-resistant longitudinal muscle spasms due to excitationof non-cholinergic neurones in Auerbach’s plexus. J. Physiol,799:705–727.Google Scholar
  5. Beani, L. Bianchi, C. and Crema, A. 1969. The effect of catecholamines and sympathetic stimulation onthe release of acetylcholine from the guinea-pig colon. Br. J. Pharmacol., 361–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bell, C., 1967. Effects of cocaine and of monoamine oxidase and catechol-ö-methyl transferase inhibitors on transmission to the guinea-pig vas deferens. Br. J. Pharmacol., 31:276–289.Google Scholar
  7. Bentley, G. A. 1966. The effect of local anaesthetic and anti-adrenaline drugs on the response of sympathetically innervate smooth muscle preparations to electrical stimulus at different frequencies. Br. J. Pharmacol., 27:64–80.Google Scholar
  8. Bentley, G. A. and Sabine, J. R. 1963. The effects of ganglion-blocking and postganglionic sympatholytic drugs on preparations of the guinea-pig vas deferens. Br. J. Pharmacol., 21190–201.Google Scholar
  9. Birmingham, A. T. 1966. The potentiation by antichoHnesterase drugs of the responses of the guinea-pig isolated vas deferens to alternate preganglionic and postganglionic stimulation. Br. J. Pharmacol., 27:145–156.Google Scholar
  10. Birmingham, A. T. and Wilson, A. B. 1963. Preganglionic and post-ganglionic stimulation of the guinea- pig vas deferens preparation. Br. J. Pharmacol., 27:569–580.Google Scholar
  11. Burnstock, G., Campbell, G., and Rand, M. J. 1966. The inhibitory innervation of the taenia of the guinea- pig caecum. J. Physiol, 182:504–526.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Burnstock, G., Campbell, G., Satchell, D., and Smythe, A. 1970. Evidence that adenosine triphosphate or a related nucleotide is the transmitter substance released by non-adrenergic inhibitory nerves in the gut. Br. J. Pharmacol., 40:668–688.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carlyle, R. F. 1964. The response of the guinea-pig isolated intact trachea to transmural stimulation and the release of an acetylcholine-like substance under conditions of rest and stimulation. Br. J. Pharmacol., 22:126–136 Google Scholar
  14. Chesher, G. B. and Thorp, R. H. 1965. The atropine-resistance of the response to intrinsic nerve stimulation of the guinea-pig bladder. Br. J. Pharmacol., 25:288–294.Google Scholar
  15. Cox, B. and Hecker, S. E. 1971. Investigation of the mechanism of action of oxotremorine on the guinea-pig isolated ileum preparation. Br. J. Pharmacol., 4119–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cox, B. M. and Weinstock, M. 1966. The effect of analgesic drugs on the release of acetylcholine from electrically stimulated guinea-pig ileum. Br. J. Pharmacol., 27:81–92.Google Scholar
  17. Day, M. D. 1965. Influence of the length of the stimulus period and frequency of sympathetic stimulation on the response of the guinea-pig isolated vas deferens to bretylium, guanethidine and amphetamine. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 77:619–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Day, M. and Vane, J. R. 1963. An analysis of the direct and indirect actions of drugs on the isolated guinea-pig ileum. Br. J. Pharmacol., 20150–170.Google Scholar
  19. Day, M. D. and Warren, P. R. 1968. A pharmacological analysis of the responses to transmural stimulation in isolated intestinal preparations. Br. J. Pharmacol., 52:227–240.Google Scholar
  20. Dikshit, B. B. 1938. Acetylcholine formation by tissues. Quart. J. Exp. Physiol, 28:243–251.Google Scholar
  21. Farmer, J. B. and Coleman, R. A. 1970. A new preparation of the isolated intact trachea of the guinea-pig. J. Pharm. Pharmacol,22:46–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fennessy, M. R., Heimans, R. L. H., and Rand, M. J. 1969. Comparison of effect of morphine-like analgesics on transmurally stimulated guinea-pig ileum. Br. J. Pharmacol,57:436–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Foster, R. W. 1964. A note on the electrically transmurally stimulated isolated trachea of the guinea-pig. J. Pharm. Pharmacol, 16125–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Furness, J. B. 1971. Secondary excitation of intestinal smooth muscle. Br. J. Pharmacol, 37:213–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gershon, M. D. 1967. Effects of tetrodotoxin on innervated smooth muscle preparations. Br. J. Pharmacol, 29:259–279.Google Scholar
  26. Gill, E. W. and Paton, W. D. M. 1970. Pharmacological experiments in vitro onthe active principles of cannabis. In: Botany and Chemistry of Cannabis,pp. 165–173. Ed. by Joyce, C. R. B. and Curry, S. H. Churchill, London.Google Scholar
  27. Graham, J. D. P., al Katib, H., and Spriggs, T. L. B. 1968. The isolated hypogastric nerve-vas-deferens preparation of the rat. Br. J. Pharmacol, 3234–45.Google Scholar
  28. Gunn, J. A. and Underbill, S. W. F. 1914. Experiments on the surviving mammalian intestine. Quart. J. Exp. Physiol, 8215–296Google Scholar
  29. Gyang, E. A. and Kosterlitz, H. W. 1966. Agonist and antagonist actions of morphine-like drugs on the guinea-pig isolated ileum. Br. J. Pharmacol,27:514–527.Google Scholar
  30. Harry, J. 1962. Effect of cooling local anaesthetic compounds and botulinum toxin on the responses of and the acetylcholine output from the electrically transmurally stimulated isolated guinea-pig ileum. Br. J. Pharmacol,79:42–55.Google Scholar
  31. Heazell, M. A. 1969. A non-adrenergic component to the inhibitory innervation of the fundus of the rat stomach. Br. J. Pharmacol, 36186–187P.Google Scholar
  32. Hellmann, K. 1963a. The isolated pilomotor muscles as an in vitropreparation. J. Physiol, 7(59:603–620.Google Scholar
  33. Hellmann, K. 1963b. The response of the isolated skin of rats to drugs and electrical stimulation. Br. J. Pharmacol,27:331–338.Google Scholar
  34. Holman, M. E. and Hughes, J. R. 1965. Inhibition of intestinal smooth muscle. Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci., 43:211–290Google Scholar
  35. Hughes, J. and Vane, J. R. 1967. An analysis of the response of the isolated portal vein of the rabbit to electrical stimulation and to drugs. Br. J. Pharmaeol., 50:46–66.Google Scholar
  36. Hughes, J. and Vane, J. R. 1970. Relaxation of the isolated portal vein of the rabbit induced by nicotine and electrical stimulus. Br. J. PharmaeoL,59:476–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Irwin, D. A. 1931. The anatomy of Auerbach’s plexus. Am. J. Anat., 49:141–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kosterlitz, H. W. and Watt, A. J., 1968. Kinetic parameters of narcotic agonists and antagonists, with particular reference to N-allylnoroxyjnorphone (Naloxone). Br. J. Pharmacol., 55:266–276.Google Scholar
  39. Kosterlitz, H. W., Lydon, R. J., and Watt, A. J. 1970. The effects of adrenaline, noradrenaline and isoprenahne on inhibitory a- and j9-receptors in the longitudinal muscle of the guinea-pig ileum. Br. J. Pharmacol., 59:398–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. de la Lande, I. S. Paton, W. D. M. and Waud, B. 1968. Output of sympathetic transmitter in the isolated rabbit ear. Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci., 46727–738PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Magnus, R. 1904. Versuche am überlebenden Dünndarm von Sängetieren. Pfiügers Arch. Ges. Physiol., 705:515–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Neal, M. J. 1967. Theeffect ofconvulstant drugs on coaxially stimulated guinea-pig ileum. Br. J. Pharmacol., 57:132–137.Google Scholar
  43. Ogura, Y., Mori, Y., and Watanabe, Y. 1966. Inhibition of the release of acetylcholine from isolated guinea-pig ileum by crystalline tetrodotoxin. J. Pharmacol., 154 456–462.Google Scholar
  44. Paterson, G. 1961. The response to transmural stimulation of isolated arterial strips and its modification by drugs. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 77:341–349.Google Scholar
  45. Paton, W. D. M. 1954. The response of the guinea-pig ileum to electrical stimulation by coaxial electrodes. J. Physiol. (Lond), 12740–41PGoogle Scholar
  46. Paton, W. D. M. 1957. The action of morphine and related substances on contraction and on acetylcholine output of coaxially stimulated guinea-pig üeum. Br. J. Pharmacol,72:119–127.Google Scholar
  47. Paton, W. D. M. 1963. Cholinergic transmission and acetylcholine output. Can. J. Biochem. Physiol., 41:2637–2653.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Paton, W. D. M. and Vane, J. R. 1963. An analysis of the responses of the isolated stomach to electrical stimulation and to drugs. J. Physiol. (Lond.), 16510–46.Google Scholar
  49. Paton, W. D. M. and Vizi, E. S. 1969. The inhibitory action of noradrenaline and adrenaline on acetylcholine output by guinea-pig ileum longitudinal muscle strip. Br. J. Pharmacol., 55:10–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Paton, W. D. M. and Zar, M. Aboo. 1965. A denervated preparation of the longitudinal muscle of the guinea-pig ileum. J. Physiol. (Lond.),779:85–86P.Google Scholar
  51. Paton, W. D. M. and Zar, M. Aboo. 1966. Evidence for transmission of nerve effects by substance P in guinea-pig longitudinal muscle strip. III Int. Pharmacol. Cong. Commun. 23, Abstract p. 9.Google Scholar
  52. Paton, W. D. M. and Zar, M. Aboo. 1968. The origin of acetylcholine released fron guinea-pig intestine and longitudinal muscle strips. J. Physiol. (Lond.), 19413–33.Google Scholar
  53. Paton, W. D. M., Vizi, E. S., and Zar, M. Aboo. 1971. The mechanisms of acetylcholine release from parasympathetic nerves. J. Physiol. (Lond.),275:819–848.Google Scholar
  54. Rang, H. P. 1964. Stimulant actions of volatüe anaesthetics on the smooth muscle. Br. J. Pharmacol., 22356–365.Google Scholar
  55. Speden, R. N. 1965. The effect of some volatile anaesthetics on the transmurally stimulated guinea-pig ileum. Br. J. Pharmacol., 25104–118.Google Scholar
  56. Weiss, G. B., Coalson, R. E., and Hurwitz, L. 1961. K transport and mechanical responses of isolated longitudinal smooth muscle from guinea-pig ileum. Am. J. Physiol,200:789–793.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. D. M. Paton
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PharmacologyUniversity of OxfordOxfordEngland

Personalised recommendations