Effects of Radiation on Animal Tumor Models

  • Robert F. Kallman
  • Sara Rockwell
Part of the Cancer book series (C, volume 6)


Irradiation of a malignant tumor in a patient or in an experimental animal produces a variety of changes in the physiology, growth, and behavior of the neoplasm. Many of these changes are of significance in the therapy of human cancer, because they alter the sensitivity of the tumor to subsequent treatments with radiation or with other therapeutic modalities. A better understanding of the effects of radiation on tumors is therefore necessary in order that improved regimens may be developed in which therapy with radiation or radiation combined with other agents is delivered in a more optimum fashion. However, it is difficult to examine a subject of this complexity in the clinic, because severe technical problems and ethical considerations limit the observations that can be made and the phenomena that can be studied quantitatively. As a result, most of the available data defining the effects of radiation on tumors have been obtained from experiments with tumors in experimental animals or with experimental tumor models in vitro.


Hypoxic Cell Chinese Hamster Cell Clonogenic Cell Animal Tumor Model Hypoxic Fraction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adler, D., Blankenstein, U., and Lennartz, K.-J., 1972, Der Einfluss von Röntgenbestrahlung (500 R OD) unter in vivo-Bedingungen auf die Anderung der Wachstumskinetik von Ehrlich-Aszites-Tumoren Unterschiedlicher Ploidie, Strahlenterapie 144:491.Google Scholar
  2. Alper, T. (ed.), 1975, Cell Survival after Low Doses of Radiation: Theoretical and Clinical Implications, Proceedings of the Sixth L. H. Gray Conference, Sept. 16–21, 1974, Institute of Physics and Wiley, London.Google Scholar
  3. Baldwin, R. W., and Price, M. R., 1976, Immunobiology of rat neoplasia, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 276:3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Banks, W. C., 1974, Radiation therapy of animals using gamma rays and neutrons, J. Am. Vet. Radiol. Soc. 15:104.Google Scholar
  5. Barendsen, G. W., and Broerse, J. J., 1969, Experimental radiotherapy of a rat rhabdomyosarcoma with 15 MeV neutrons and 300 kV X-rays. I. Effects of single exposures, Eur. J. Cancer 5:373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Barendsen, G. W., Roelse, H., Hermens, A. F., Madhuizen, H. T., Van Peperzeel, H. A., and Rutgers, D. H., 1973, Clonogenic capacity of proliferating and non-proliferating cells of a transplantable rat rhabdomyosarcoma in relation to its radiosensitivity, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 51:1521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bedford, J. S., and Mitchell, J. B., 1974, The effect of hypoxia on the growth and radiation response of mammalian cells in culture, Br. J. Radiol. 47:687.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Born, R., Hug, O., and Trott, K.-R., 1976, The effect of prolonged hypoxia on growth and viability of Chinese hamster cells, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 1:687.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown, J. M., 1970, The effect of acute X-irradiation on the Cell proliferation kinetics of induced carcinomas and their normal counterpart, Radiat. Res. 43:627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown, J. M., 1973, The effect of lung irradiation on the incidence of pulmonary metastases in mice, Br. J. Radiol. 46:613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown, J. M., 1975, Animal experiments in radiotherapy. III. Large versus small animals, J. Can. Assoc. Radiol. 26:35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown, J. M., Goffinet, D. R., Cleaver, J. E., and Kallman, R. F., 1971, Preferential radiosensitization of mouse sarcoma relative to normal skin by chronic intra-arterial infusion of halogenated pyrimidine analogs, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 47:75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Burns, F. J., 1975, Theoretical aspects of growth fraction in a G0 model, in: The Cell Cycle in Malignancy and Immunity, pp. 315–322, Proceedings of the 13th Annual Hanford Biology Symposium, Richland, Wash., October 1–3, 1973, CONF-731005, ERDA Symposium Series.Google Scholar
  14. Bush, R. S., and Bruce, W. R., 1964, The radiation sensitivity of transplanted lymphoma cells as determined by the spleen colony method, Radiat. Res. 21:612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bush, R. S., and Hill, R. P., 1975, Biologic discussions augmenting radiation effects and model systems, Laryngoscope 85:1119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. The Cell Cycle in Malignancy and Immunity, 1975, Proceedings of the 13th Annual Hanford Biology Symposium, Richland, Wash., October 1–3, 1973, CONF-731005, Technical Information Center, Office of Public Affairs, U.S. ERDA National Technical Information Service, Department of Commerce, Springfield, Va.Google Scholar
  17. Chen, K. Y., and Withers, H. R., 1972, Survival characteristics of stem cells of gastric mucosa in C3H mice subjected to localized gamma irradiation, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 21:521.Google Scholar
  18. Chu, M. Y., and Fischer, G. A., 1968, The incorporation of 3H cytosine arabinoside and its effect on murine leukemic cells (L5178Y), Biochem. Pharmacol. 17:753.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cobb, L. M., and Mitchley, B. C. V., 1974, The growth of human tumors in immune deprived mice, Eur. J. Cancer 10:473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Courtenay, V. D., 1976, A soft agar colony assay for Lewis lung tumour and B16 melanoma taken directly from the mouse, Br. J. Cancer 34:39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Croizat, H., Frindel, E., and Tubiana, M., 1970, Proliferative activity of the stem cells in the bone-marrow of mice after single and multiple irradiations (total- or partial-body exposure), Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 18:347.Google Scholar
  22. DeChambre, R. P., and Goss, C., 1973, Individual versus group caging of mice with grafted tumors, Cancer Res. 33:140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Dendy, P. P. (ed.), 1976, Human Tumours in Short Term Culture: Techniques and Clinical Applications, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  24. Denekamp, J., and Thomlinson, R. H., 1971, The Cell proliferation kinetics of four experimental tumors after acute X-irradiation, Cancer Res. 31:1279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Denekamp, J., Ball, M. M., and Fowler, J. F., 1969, Recovery and repopulation in mouse skin as a function of time after X-irradiation, Radiat. Res. 37:361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Dewey, W. C., and Highfield, D. P., 1976, G2 block in Chinese hamster cells induced by X-irradiation, hyperthermia, cycloheximide, or actinomycin D, Radiat. Res. 65:511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Duncan, W., 1973, Exploitation of the oxygen enhancement ratio in clinical practice, Br. Med. Bull. 29:33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Elkind, M. M., 1967, Sublethal X-ray damage and its repair in mammalian cells, in: Radiation Research (G. Silini, ed.), pp. 558–586, North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  29. Elkind, M. M., and Sutton, H., 1959, X-ray damage and recovery in mammalian cells in culture, Nature (London) 184:1293.Google Scholar
  30. Elkind, M. M., and Whitmore, G. F., 1967, The Radiobiology of Cultured Mammalian Cells, Gordon and Breach, New York.Google Scholar
  31. Elkind, M. M., Sutton, H., and Moses, W. B., 1961, Postirradiation survival kinetics of mammalian cells grown in culture, J. Cell Comp. Physiol. 58:113 (Suppl. 1).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Elkind, M. M., Han, A., and Volz, K. W., 1963, Radiation response of mammalian cells grown in culture. IV. Dose dependence of division delay and postirradiation growth of surviving and nonsurviving Chinese hamster cells, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 30:705.Google Scholar
  33. Elkind, M. M., Swain, R. W., Alescio, T., Sutton, H., and Moses, W. B., 1965, Oxygen, nitrogen, recovery, and radiation therapy, in: Cellular Radiation Biology, pp. 442–461, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  34. Elkind, M. M., Sutton-Gilbert, H., Moses, W. B., and Kamper, C., 1967, Sublethal and lethal radiation damage, Nature (London) 214:1088.Google Scholar
  35. Ellis, F., 1968, The relationship of biological effect to dose—time—fractionation factors in radiotherapy, Current Topics Radiat. Res. 4:357.Google Scholar
  36. Evans, R. G., Bagshaw, M. A., Gordon, L. F., Kurkjian, S. D., and Hahn, G. M., 1974, Modification of recovery from potentially lethal X-ray damage in plateau phase Chinese hamster cells, Radiat. Res. 59:597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Ferrer, J. F., and Mihich, E., 1967, Dependence of the regression of sarcoma 180 in vitamin B6-deficient mice upon the immunologic competence of the host, Cancer Res. 27:456.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Finney, D. J., 1964, Statistical Method in Biological Assay, 2nd ed., Griffin and Company, London.Google Scholar
  39. Fodge, D. W., and Rubin, H., 1975, Glucose utilization, pH reduction, and density inhibition in cultures of chick embryo fibroblasts, J. Cell Physiol. 85:635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Fowler, J. F., Denekamp, J., Sheldon, P. W., Smith, A. M., Begg, A. C., Harris, S. R., and Page, A. L., 1974, Optimum fractionation in the X-ray treatment of C3H mouse mammary tumors, Br. J. Radiol. 47:781.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Frindel, E., Vassort, F., and Tubiana, M., 1970, Effects of irradiation on the Cell cycle of an experimental ascites tumour of the mouse, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 17:329.Google Scholar
  42. Frindel, E., Hahn, G. M., Robaglia, D., and Tubiana, M., 1972, Responses of bone marrow and tumor cells to acute and protracted irradiation, Cancer Res. 32:2096.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Gerner, E. W., Connor, W. G., Boone, M. W., Doss, J. D., Mayer, E. G., and Miller, R. C., 1975, The potential of localized heating as an adjuvant to radiation therapy, Radiology 116:433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Gimbrone, M. A., Jr., Cotran, R. S., Leapman, S. B., and Folkman, J., 1974, Tumor growth and neovascularization: An experimental model using rabbit cornea, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 52:413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Goldenberg, D. M., Bhan, R. D., and Pavia, R. A., 1971, In vivo human-hamster somatic Cell fusion indicated by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and lactic dehydrogenase profiles, Cancer Res. 31:1148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Gray, L. H., 1961, Radiobiologic basis of oxygen as a modifying factor in radiation therapy, Am. J. Roentgenol. 85:803.Google Scholar
  47. Hahn, G. M., 1974, Metabolic aspects of the role of hyperthermia in mammalian Cell inactivation and their possible relevance to cancer treatment, Cancer Res. 34:3117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hahn, G. M., and Little, J. B., 1972, Plateau phase cultures of mammalian cells: An in vitro model for human cancer, Current Topics Radiat. Res. 8:39.Google Scholar
  49. Hahn, G. M., Bagshaw, M. A., Evans, R. G., and Gordon, L. F., 1973a. Repair of potentially lethal lesions in X-irradiated, density-inhibited Chinese hamster cells: Metabolic effects and hypoxia, Radiat. Res. 55:280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Hahn, G. M., Ray, G. R., Gordon, L. F., and Kallman, R. F., 1973b, Response of solid tumor cells exposed to chemotherapeutic agents in vivo: Cell survival after 2- and 24-hour exposure, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 50:529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Hahn, G. M., Rockwell, S., Kallman, R. F., Gordon, L. F., and Frindel, E., 1974, Repair of potentially lethal damage in vivo in solid tumor cells after X-irradiation, Cancer Res. 34:351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hall, E. J., 1972, The effect of hypoxia on the repair of sublethal radiation damage in cultured mammalian cells, Radiat. Res. 49:405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Hall, E. J., and Roizin-Towle, L., 1975, Hypoxic sensitizers: Radiobiological studies at the cellular level, Radiology 117:453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Hermens, A. F., 1973, Variations in the Cell kinetics and the growth rate in an experimental tumour during natural growth and after irradiation, Pubi. No. 835, Radiobiological Institute TNO, Rijswijk (ZH), the Netherlands.Google Scholar
  55. Hermens, A. F., and Barendsen, G. W., 1976, Effects of ionizing radiation on the growth kinetics of tumors, in: Growth Kinetics and Biochemical Regulation of Normal and Malignant Cells, Proceedings of the 29th Annual M. D. Anderson Symposium, March 10–12, 1976, Houston, Texas.Google Scholar
  56. Hewitt, H. B., 1953, Studies of the quantitative transplantation of mouse sarcoma, Br. J. Cancer 7:367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Hewitt, H. B., and Blake, E. R., 1968, The growth of transplanted murine tumors in pre-irradiated sites, Br. J. Cancer 22:808.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Hewitt, H. B., and Blake, E. R., 1971, Effect of induced host anaemia on the viability and radiosensitivity of murine malignant cells in vivo, Br. J. Cancer 25:323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Hewitt, H. B., and Wilson, C. W., 1959a, A survival curve for mammalian leukaemia cells: Irradiated in vivo (implications for the treatment of mouse leukaemia by whole-body irradiation), Br. J. Cancer 13:69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Hewitt, H. B., and Wilson, C. W., 1959b, The effect of tissue oxygen tension on the radiosensitivity of leukaemia cells irradiated in situ in the livers of leukaemic mice, Br. J. Cancer 13:675.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Hewitt, H. B., Blake, E., and Porter, E. H., 1973, The effect of lethally irradiated cells on the transplantability of murine tumors, Br. J. Cancer 28:123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Hewitt, H. B., Blake, E. R., and Walder, A. S., 1976, A critique of the evidence for active host defence against cancer, based on personal studies of 27 murine tumours of spontaneous origin, Br. J. Cancer 33:241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Hill, R. P., and Bush, R. S., 1969, A lung colony assay to determine the radiosensitivity of the cells of a solid tumour, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 15:435.Google Scholar
  64. Hilmas, D. E., and Gillette, E. L., 1974, Morphometric analysis of the microvasculature of tumors during growth and after X-irradiation, Cancer 33:103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Holthusen, H., 1921, Beiträge zur Biologie der Strahlenwirkung: Untersuchungen an Askarideneirn, Pfluegers Arch. 187:1.Google Scholar
  66. Howes, A. E., 1969, An estimation of changes in the proportions and absolute numbers of hypoxic cells after irradiation of transplanted C3H mouse mammary tumours, Br. J. Radiol. 42:441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Jirtle, R., and Clifton, K. H., 1973, Effect of preirradiation of the tumor bed on the relative vascular space of the mouse gastric adenocarcinoma 328 and mammary adenocarcinoma CA755, Cancer Res. 33:764.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Kallman, R. F., 1963, Recovery from radiation injury: A proposed mechanism, Nature (London) 197:557.Google Scholar
  69. Kallman, R. F., 1968, Methods for the study of radiation effects on cancer cells, in: Methods in Cancer Research, Vol. IV (H. Busch, ed.), pp. 309–354, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  70. Kallman, R. F., 1972, The phenomenon of reoxygenation and its implications for fractionated radiotherapy, Radiology 105: 135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Kallman, R. F., 1974, The oxygen effect and reoxygenation, in: Excerpta Medica International Congress Series No. 353, Vol. 5: Surgery, Radiotherapy, and Chemotherapy of Cancer, pp. 136–140, Proceedings of the XI International Cancer Congress, Florence, 1974.Google Scholar
  72. Kallman, R. F., 1975, Animal experiments in radiotherapy. I. Small animals, J. Can. Assoc. Radiol. 26:15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Kallman, R. F., 1976, On the recruitment of non-cycling tumor cells by irradiation, in: Growth Kinetics and Biochemical Regulation of Normal and Malignant Cells, Proceedings of the 29th Annual M. D. Anderson Symposium, Houston, Texas, March 10–12, 1976.Google Scholar
  74. Kallman, R. F., and Tapley, N. du V., 1964, Radiation sensitivity and recovery patterns of spontaneous and isologously transplanted mouse tumors, Acta Unio Int. Contra Cancrum 20:1216.Google Scholar
  75. Kallman, R. F., Silini, G., and Taylor, H. M., III, 1966, Recuperation from lethal injury by whole-body irradiation. II. Kinetic aspects in radiosensitive BALB/c mice, and cyclic fine structure during the four days after conditioning irradiation, Radiat. Res. 29:362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Kallman, R. F., Silini, G., and van Putten, L. M., 1967, Factors influencing the quantitative estimation of the in vivo survival of cells from solid tumors, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 39:539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Kallman, R. F., DeNardo, G. L., and Stasch, M. J., 1972, Blood flow in irradiated mouse sarcoma as determined by the clearance of xenon-133, Cancer Res. 32:483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Kaplan, H. S., 1964, The role of radiation in experimental leukemogenesis, Nat. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 14:207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Kaplan, H. S., 1970, Radiobiology’s contribution to radiotherapy: Promise or mirage? Failla Memorial Lecture, Radiat. Res. 43:460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Klein, G., Sjögren, H. O., Klein, E., and Hellström, K. E., 1960, Demonstration of resistance against methylcholanthrene-induced sarcomas in the primary autochthonous host, Cancer Res. 20:1561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Knazek, R. A., Gullino, P. M., Kohler, P. O., and Dedrick, R. L., 1972, Cell culture on artificial capillaries: An approach to tissue growth in vitro, Science 178:65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Koch, C. J., and Kruuv, J., 1971, The effect of extreme hypoxia on recovery after radiation by synchronized mammalian cells, Radiat. Res. 48:74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Koch, C. J., Kruuv, J., Frey, H. E., and Snyder, R. A., 1973, Plateau phase in growth induced by hypoxia, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 23:67.Google Scholar
  84. Lajtha, L. G., 1963, On the concept of the Cell cycle, J. Cell Comp. Physiol. 62:143 (Suppl. 1).Google Scholar
  85. Leeper, D. B., Schneiderman, M. H., and Dewey, W. C., 1972, Radiation-induced division delay in synchronized Chinese hamster ovary cells in monlayer culture, Radiat. Res. 50:401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Leeper, D. B., Schneiderman, M. H., and Dewey, W. C., 1973, Radiation-induced cycle delay in synchronized Chinese hamster cells: Comparison between DNA synthesis and division, Radiat. Res. 53:326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. LeFrancois, D., Troise, G. D., Chavaudra, N., Malaise, E. P., and Barski, G., 1974, Comparative effect of local radiotherapy and surgery on cell-mediated immunity against a mouse transplantable mammary tumor, Int. J. Cancer 13:629.Google Scholar
  88. Leighton, J., 1968, Invasive growth and metastasis in tissue culture systems, in: Methods in Cancer Research, Vol. 4 (H. Busch, ed.), p. 85, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  89. Leith, J. T., Schillings, W. A., and Wheeler, K. T., 1975, Cellular radiosensitivity of a rat brain tumor, Cancer 35:1545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Lesher, S., and Bauman, J., 1969, Cell kinetic studies of the intestinal epithelium: Maintenance of the intestinal epithelium in normal and irradiated animals, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 30:185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Lin, A. J., Shansky, C. W., and Sartorelli, A. C., 1974, Potential bioreductive alkylating agents. 3. Synthesis and antineoplastic activity of acetomethyl and corresponding ethyl carbonate derivatives of benzoquinones, J. Med. Chem. 17:558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Littbrand, B., and Révész, L., 1969, The effect of oxygen on cellular survival and recovery after radiation, Br. J. Radiol. 42:914.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Little, J. B., 1969, Repair of sub-lethal and potentially lethal radiation damage in plateau phase cultures of human cells, Nature (London) 224:804.Google Scholar
  94. Little, J. B., and Hahn, G. M., 1973, Life-cycle dependence of repair of potentially-lethal radiation damage, Int. J. Radiat Biol. 23:401.Google Scholar
  95. Little, J. B., Hahn, G. M., Frindel, E., and Tubiana, M., 1973, Repair of potentially lethal radiation damage in vitro and in vivo, Radiology 106:689.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Madoc-Jones, H., and Mauro, F., 1970, Age responses to X-rays, Vinca alkaloids, and hydroxyurea of murine lymphoma cells synchronized in vivo, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 45:1131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Mauro, F., and Elkind, M. M., 1968, Comparison of repair of sublethal damage in cultured Chinese hamster cells exposed to sulfur mustard and X-rays, Cancer Res. 28:1156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. McNally, N. J., 1972, A low oxygen-enhancement ratio for tumour-cell survival as compared with that for tumour-growth delay, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 22:407.Google Scholar
  99. Mendelsohn, M. L., 1962, Autoradiographic analysis of Cell proliferation in spontaneous breast cancer of the C3H mouse. III. The growth fraction, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 28:1015.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Mendelsohn, M. L., 1975, The Cell cycle in malignant and normal tissues, in: The Cell Cycle in Malignancy and Immunity, pp. 293–314, Proceedings of the 13th Annual Hanford Biology Symposium, Richland, Wash., Oct. 1–3, 1973, CONF-731005 ERDA Symposium Series.Google Scholar
  101. Moore, D. H., 1975, Mammary tumor virus, in: Cancer: A Comprehensive Treatise, Vol. 2 (F. F. Becker, ed.), pp. 131–167, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  102. Mottram, J. C., 1936, A factor of importance in the radiosensitivity of tumors, Br. J. Radiol. 9:606.Google Scholar
  103. Moulder, J. E., and Fischer, J. J., 1976, Radiation reaction of rat skin: The role of the number of fractions and the overall treatment time, Cancer 37:2762.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Moulder, J. E., Fischer, J. J., and Milardo, R., 1976, Time-dose relationships for the cure of an experimental rat tumor with fractionated radiation, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 1:431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Owen, L. N., and Steel, G. G., 1969, The growth and Cell population kinetics of spontaneous tumours in domestic animals, Br. J. Cancer 23:493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Peters, L. J., and Hewitt, H. B., 1974, The influence of fibrin formation on the transplantability of murine tumour cells: Implications for the mechanisms of the Révész effect, Br. J. Cancer 29:279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Phillips, R. A., and Tolmach, L. J., 1966, Repair of potentially lethal damage in X-irradiated HeLa cells, Radiat. Res. 29:413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Powers, W. E., and Tolmach, L. J., 1963, A multicomponent X-ray survival curve for mouse lymphosarcoma cells irradiated in in vivo, Nature (London) 197:710.Google Scholar
  109. Powers, W. E., Palmer, L. A., and Tolmach, L. J., 1967, Cellular radiosensitivity and tumor curability, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 24:169.Google Scholar
  110. Probert, J. C., and Hughes, D. B., 1975, Animal experiments in radiotherapy. II. Large animals, J. Can. Assoc. Radiol. 26:25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Reinhold, H. S., 1965, A Cell dispersion technique for use in quantitative transplantation studies with solid tumours, Eur. J. Cancer 1:67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Reinhold, H. S., 1971, Improved microcirculation in irradiated tumours, Eur. J. Cancer 7:273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Reinhold, H. S., and DeBree, C., 1968, Tumour cure rate and Cell survival of a transplantable rat rhabdomyosarcoma following X-irradiation, Eur. J. Cancer 4:367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Révész, L., 1958, Effect of lethally damaged tumour cells upon the development of admixed viable cells, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 20:1157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Rockwell, S., 1971, Cellular radiosensitivity, Cell population kinetics, and tumor radiation response in two related mouse mammary carcinomas, Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University.Google Scholar
  116. Rockwell, S., and Hahn, G. M., 1974, An assay permitting quantitative comparison of tumor-directed immunity and tumor Cell survival, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 53:1379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Rockwell, S., and Kallman, R. F., 1973, Cellular radiosensitivity and tumor radiation response in the EMT6 tumor Cell system, Radiat. Res. 53:281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Rockwell, S., and Kallman, R. F., 1974, Cyclic radiation-induced variations in cellular radiosensitivity in a mouse mammary tumor, Radiat. Res. 57:132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Rockwell, S. C., Kallman, R. F., and Fajardo, L. F., 1972, Characteristics of a serially transplanted mouse mammary tumor and its tissue-culture-adapted derivative, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 49:735.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Rockwell, S., Frindel, E., and Tubiana, M., 1976, A technique for determining the proportion of the clonogenic cells in S phase in EMT6 Cell cultures and tumors, CellTissue Kinet. 9:313.Google Scholar
  121. Rosenblum, M., Knebal, K. D., Wheeler, K. T., Barker, M., and Wilson, C., 1975, Development of an in vitro colony formation assay for the evaluation of in vivo chemotherapy of a rat brain tumor, In Vitro 11:264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Rygaard, J., and Povlsen, C.O., 1969, Heterotransplantation of a human malignant tumor into “nude” mice, Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 77:758.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Scott, O. C. A., 1961, Some observations on the use of transplanted tumors in radiobiological research, Radiat Res. 14:643.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Shipley, W. U., Stanley, J. A., Courtenay, V. D., and Field, S. B., 1975, Repair of radiation damage in Lewis lung carcinoma cells following in situ treatment with fast neutrons and γ-rays, Cancer Res. 35:932.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Silini, G., and Hornsey, S., 1961, Studies on cell-survival of irradiated Ehrlich ascites tumor. I. The effect of the host’s age and the presence of non-viable cells on tumour takes, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 4:127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Sinclair, W. K., and Morton, R. A., 1965, X-ray and ultraviolet sensitivity of synchronized Chinese hamster cells at various stages of the Cell cycle, Biophys. J. 5:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Song, C. W., Payne, J. T., and Levitt, S. H., 1972, Vascularity and blood flow in X-irradiated Walker carcinoma 256 of rats, Radiology 104:693.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Stanbridge, E. J., Boulger, L. R., Franks, C. R., Garrett, J. A., Reeson, D. E., Bishop, D., and Perkins, F. T., 1975, Optimal conditions for the growth of malignant human and animal cell populations in immunosuppressed mice, Cancer Res. 35:2203.Google Scholar
  129. Steel, G. G., 1972, The Cell cycle in tumours: An examination of data gained by the technique of labelled mitoses, Cell Tissue Kinet. 5:87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Steiger, E., Oram-Smith, J., Miller, E., Kuo, L., and Vars, H., 1975, Effect of nutrition on tumor growth and tolerance to chemotherapy, J. Surg. Res. 18:455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Suit, H. D., and Kastelan, A., 1970, Immunologic status of host and response of a methylcholanthrene-induced sarcoma to local X irradiation, Cancer 26:232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Suit, H. D., and Shalek, R. J., 1963, The response of anoxic C3H mouse mammary carcinoma isotransplants (1–25 mm3) to X-irradiation, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 31:479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Suit, H. D., Shalek, R. J., and Wette, R., 1965, Radiation response of C3H mouse mammary carcinoma evaluated in terms of cellular radiation sensitivity, in: Cellular Radiation Biology, pp. 514–530, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  134. Suit, H. D., Howes, A. E., and Hunter, N., 1977, Dependence of response of a C3H mammary carcinoma to fractionated irradiation on fractionation number and intertreatment interval, Radiat. Res. (in press).Google Scholar
  135. Sutherland, R. M., and Durand, R. E., 1973, Hypoxic cells in an in vitro tumor model, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 23:235.Google Scholar
  136. Sutherland, R. M., McCredie, J. A., and Inch, W. R., 1971, Growth of multiceli spheroids in tissue culture as a model of nodular carcinomas, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 46:113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Szczepanski, L., and Trott, K. R., 1975, Post-irradiation proliferation kinetics of a serially transplanted murine adenocarinoma, Br. J. Radiol. 48:200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Takahashi, M., and Kallman, R. F., 1977, Quantitative estimation of histological changes in subcutaneous vasculature of the mouse after X-irradiation. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 2:61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Tannock, I. F., 1968, The relation between Cell proliferation and the vascular systems in a transplanted mouse mammary tumour, Br. J. Cancer 22:258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Tannock, I. F., 1972, Oxygen diffusion and the distribution of cellular radiosensitivity in tumours, Br. J. Radiol. 45:515.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Tannock, I. F., and Steel, G. G., 1970, Tumor growth and Cell kinetics in chronically hypoxic animals, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 45:123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Tannock, I. F., Suit, H. D., and Marshall, N., 1972, Vitamin A and the radiation response of experimental tumors: An immune-mediated effect, J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 48:731.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Terasima, T., and Tolmach, L. J., 1963, Variation in several responses of HeLa cells to X-irradiaton during the division cycle, Biophys. J. 3:11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Terzaghi, M., and Little, J. B., 1975, Establishment and characteristics of a hamster lung adenocarinoma in vivo and in vitro, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 55:865.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Thomlinson, R. H., 1970, Reoxygenation as a function of tumor size and histopathologic type, in: Conference in Time and Dose Relationships in Radiobiology as Applied to Radiotherapy, pp. 242–247, BNL50230 (C-57), Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, Springfield, Va.Google Scholar
  146. Thomlinson, R. H., and Craddock, E. A., 1967, The gross response of an experimental tumour to single doses of X-rays, Br. J. Cancer 21:108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Thomlinson, R. H., and Gray, L. H., 1955, The histological structure of some human lung cancers and the possible implications for radiotherapy, Br. J. Cancer 9:539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Thomlinson, R. H., Dische, S., Gray, A. J., and Errington, L. M., 1976, Clinical testing of the radiosensitiser Ro-07–0582. III. Response of tumours, Clin. Radiol. 27:167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Thomson, J. E., and Rauth, A. M., 1974, An in vitro assay to measure the viability of KHT tumor cells not previously exposed to culture conditions, Radiat. Res. 58:262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Till, J. E., and McCulloch, E. A., 1961, A direct measurement of the radiation sensitivity normal mouse bone marrow cells, Radiat. Res. 14:213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Time—Dose Relationships in Radiaton Biology as Applied to Radiotherapy, 1970, BNL 50203(C-57) (Biology and Medicine-TID-4500), Proceedings of the Conference at Carmel, Calif., Sept. 15–18, 1969, Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, NBS, Department of Commerce, Springfield, Va.Google Scholar
  152. Toolan, H. W., 1953, Growth of human tumors in cortisone-treated laboratory animals: The possibility of obtaining permanently transplantable human tumours, Cancer Res. 13:389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Tubiana, M., Frindel, E., and Malaise, E., 1968, La cinetique de proliferation cellulaire dans les tumeurs animales et humaines—influence d’une irradiation, in: Effects of Radiation on Cellular Proliferation, pp. 423–452, IAEA, Vienna.Google Scholar
  154. Vaage, J., Doroshow, J., and DuBois, T. T., 1974, Radiation induced changes in established tumor immunity, Cancer Res. 34:129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Van der Brenk, H. A. S., Burch, W. M., Orton, C., and Sharpington, C., 1973, Stimulation of clonogenic growth of tumour cells and metastases in the lungs by local X-radiation, Br. J. Cancer 27:291.Google Scholar
  156. Van Peperzeel, H. A., 1972, Effects of single doses of radiation on lung metastases in man and experimental animals, Eur. J. Cancer 8:665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Van Putten, L. M., 1968, Oxygenation and Cell kinetics after irradiation in a transplantable osteosarcoma, in: Effects of Radiation on Cellular Proliferation, pp. 493–505, IAEA, Vienna.Google Scholar
  158. Van Putten, L. M., and Kallman, R. F., 1968, Oxygenation status of a transplantable tumor during fractionated radiation therapy, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 40:441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Vassort, F., Winterholer, M., Frindel, E., and Tubiana, M., 1973, Kinetic parameters of bone marrow stem cells using in vivo suicide by tritiated thymidine or by hydroxyurea, Blood 41:789.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Vos, O., 1968, Repopulation of the stem-cell compartment in hemopoietic and lymphatic tissues of mice after X-irradiation, in: Effects of Radiation on Cellular Proliferation and Differentiation, pp. 149–160, IAEA, Vienna.Google Scholar
  161. Whitmore, G. F., Stanners, C. P., Till, J. E., and Gulyas, S., 1961, Nucleic acid syntheis and the division cycle in X-irradiated L-strain mouse cells, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 47:66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Winans, L. F., Dewey, W. C., and Dettor, C. M., 1972, Repair of sub-lethal and potentially lethal X-ray damage in synchronous Chinese hamster cells, Radiat. Res. 52:333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Withers, H. R., 1967, Recovery and repopulation in vivo by mouse skin epithelial cells during fractionated irradiation, Radiat. Res. 32:227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Withers, H. R., 1972, Cell renewal systems concept and the radiation response, in: Frontiers of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Vol. 6 (J. M. Vaeth, ed.), pp. 93–107, University Park Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  165. Withers, H. R., 1975, The four R’s of radiotherapy, Adv. Radiat. Biol. 5:241.Google Scholar
  166. Withers, H. R., and Mason, K. A., 1974, The kinetics of recovery in irradiated colonic mucosa of the mouse, Cancer 34:896.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Withers, H. R., and Milas, L., 1973, Influence of preirradiation of lung on development of artificial pulmonary metastases of fibrosarcoma in mice, Cancer Res. 33:1931.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Withers, H. R., Hunter, N., Barkley, H. T., Jr., and Reid, B. O., 1974, Radiation survival and regeneration characteristics of spermatogenic stem cells of mouse testis, Radiat. Res. 57:88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Yatvin, M. B., Crouse, D. T., and Clifton, K. H., 1970, Studies on the mechanism of the stimulatory effect of lethally irradiated cells on tumor inocula, Proc. Soc. Exp. Bio. Med. 133:1123.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert F. Kallman
    • 1
  • Sara Rockwell
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyStanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA
  2. 2.Department of Therapeutic RadiologyYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations