Molecular and Cellular Biology of Radiation Lethality

  • M. M. Elkind
  • J. L. Redpath
Part of the Cancer book series (C, volume 6)


In the therapy of tumors with radiation and other cytotoxic agents, a primary objective is the differential killing of tumor cells relative to normal cells. Over the years, empirical approaches have had some success; no doubt, some additional widening of the margin between tumor and normal tissue damage can be expected from trial and error. Ultimately, to be able further to improve treatment modes, or to be able to conclude that a given mode has been optimized, a fundamental knowledge of the molecular biology of cell killing is needed.


Linear Energy Transfer Chinese Hamster Cell Oxygen Effect Sublethal Damage Radiation Lethality 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Achey, P., and Duryea, H., 1974, Production of DNA strand breaks by the hydroxyl radical, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 25:595.Google Scholar
  2. Adams, G. E., Redpath, J. L., Cundall, R. B., and Bisby, R. H., 1972, The use of free radical probes in the study of mechanisms of enzyme inactivation, Isr. J. Chem. 10:1079.Google Scholar
  3. Agnew, D. A., Stratford, I. J., and Adams, G. E., 1975, Sensitization of single-strand breaks, Cancer Res. Campaign, Gray Lab. Ann Rep., p. 93.Google Scholar
  4. Alper, T., 1963a, Lethal mutations and cell death, Phys. Med. Biol. 8:365.Google Scholar
  5. Alper, T., 1963b, Effects on irradiated organisms of growth in the presence of acriflavine, Nature (London) 200:534.Google Scholar
  6. Alper, T., 1970, Mechanisms of lethal radiation damage to cells, in: Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Microdosimetry (Stresa, Italy, 1969) (H. G. Ebert, ed.), pp. 5–36, Euratom, Brussels.Google Scholar
  7. Alper, T., 1971, Cell death and its modification: The roles of primary lesions in membranes and’DNA, in: Biophysical Aspects of Radiation Quality, pp. 171–184, I.A.E.A., Vienna.Google Scholar
  8. Alper, T., 1974, Observations relevant to the mechanism of RBE effects in the killing of cells, in: Biological Effects of Neutron Irradiation, pp. 133–147, I.A.E.A., Vienna.Google Scholar
  9. Alper, T., and Howard-Flanders, P., 1956, Role of oxygen in modifying the radiosensitivity of E. coli B, Nature (London) 178:978.Google Scholar
  10. Alper, T., Moore, J. L., and Smith, P., 1967, The role of dose-rate, irradiation technique and LET in determining radiosensitivities at low oxygen concentrations, Radiat. Res. 32:780.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Barendsen, G. W., 1974, Relative biological effectiveness and biological complexity, in: Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium on Microdosimetry (Verbania-Pallanza, Italy, 24–28 Sept. 1973) (J. Booz, H. G. Ebert, R. Eickel, and A. Waker, eds.), EURATOM Report EUR 5122 d-e-f, pp. 235–252.Google Scholar
  12. Becker, D., Redpath, J. L., and Grossweiner, L. I., 1977, Radiat. Res., in press.Google Scholar
  13. Ben-Hur, E., and Elkind, M. M., 1972, Damage and repair of DNA in 5-bromodeoxyuridine labelled Chinese hamster cells exposed to fluorescent light, Biophys. J. 12:636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Ben-Hur, E., and Elkind, M. M., 1973a, DNA cross-linking in Chinese hamster cells exposed to near UV light in the presence of 4,5′,8-trimethylpsoralen, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 331:181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Ben-Hur, E., and Elkind, M. M., 1973b, Psoralen plus near ultraviolet light inactivation of cultured Chinese hamster cells and its relation to DNA cross-links, Mutat. Res. 18:315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Ben-Hur, E., and Elkind, M. M., 1974, Thermally enhanced radioresponse of cultured Chinese hamster cells: Damage and repair of single-stranded DNA and a DNA complex, Radiat. Res. 59:484.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Ben-Hur, E., Bronk, B., and Elkind, M. M., 1972, Thermally enhanced radiosensitivity of cultured Chinese hamster cells. Nature (London) New Biol. 238:209.Google Scholar
  18. Ben-Hur, E., Elkind, M. M., and Bronk, B. V., 1974, Thermally enhanced radioresponse of cultured Chinese hamster cells: Inhibition of repair of sublethal damage and enhancement of lethal damage, Radiat. Res. 58:38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Berezney, R., and Coffey, D. S., 1975, Nuclear protein matrix: Association with newly synthesized DNA, Science 189:291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Berry, R. J., Hall, E. J., Forster, D. W., Storr, T. H., and Goodman, M. J., 1969, Survival of mammalian cells exposed to X-rays delivered at ultra high dose rates, Br. J. Radiol. 42:102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Blok, J., and Loman, H., 1973, The effects of γ-irradiation in DNA, Curr. Top. Radiat. Res. Q. 9:165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bonura, T., and Smith, K. C., 1976, The involvement of indirect effects in cell killing and double-strand breakage in γ-irradiated Escherichia coli K.12, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 29:293.Google Scholar
  23. Bonura, T., Town, C. D., Smith, K. C., and Kaplan, H. S., 1975, The influence of oxygen on the yield of DNA double-strand breaks in X-irradiated Escherichia coli K12, Radiat. Res. 63:567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Boyce, R. P., and Tepper, M., 1968, X-ray induced single-strand breaks and joining of broken strands in super infecting À DNA in Escherichia coli lysogenic for À, Virology 34:344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Burrell, A. D., Feldschreiber, P., and Dean, C. J., 1971, DNA-membrane association and the repair of double breaks in X-irradiated Micrococcus radiodurans, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 247:38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cabradilla, C. D., and Toliver, A. P., 1975, S-phase dependent forms of DNA nuclear membrane complexes in HeLa cells, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 402:188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Camargo, E. P., and Plaut, W., 1967, The radioautographic detection of DNA with tritiated actinomycin D., J. Cell. Biol. 35:713.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Chapman, J. D., Reuvers, A. P., Borsa, J., and Greenstock, C. L., 1973, Chemical radioprotection and radiosensitization of mammalian cells growing in vitro, Radiat. Res. 56:291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Chelack, W. S., Forsyth, M. P., and Petkau, A., 1974, Radiobiological properties of Acholepasma laidlawii B, Can. J. Microbiol. 20:307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Christensen, R. C., Tobias, C. A., and Taylor, W. D., 1972, Heavy-ion-induced single- and double-strand breaks in øX-174 replicative form DNA, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 22:457.Google Scholar
  31. Cleaver, J. E., 1974, Sedimentation of DNA from human fibroblasts irradiated with ultraviolet light: Possible detection of excision breaks in pigmentosum cells, Radiat. Res. 57:207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Cole, A., 1965, The study of radiosensitive structures with low voltage electron beams, in: Cellular Radiation Biology, pp. 267–271, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  33. Cole, R. S., and Sinden, R. R., 1975, Repair of cross-linked DNA in Escherichia coli, in: Molecular Mechanisms for Repair of DNA, Part B (P. C. Hanawalt and R. B. Setlow, eds.), pp. 487–495, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  34. Cole, R. S., Levitan, D., and Sinden, R. R., 1976, Removal of psoralen interstrand cross-links from DNA of Escherichia coli: Mechanism and genetic control, J. Mol. Biol. 103:39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Comings, D. E., and Okada, T. A., 1970, Association of chromatin fibers with the annuli of the nuclear membrane, Exp. Cell Res. 62:293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Comings, D. E., and Okada, T. A., 1973, DNA replication and the nuclear membrane, J. Mol. Biol. 75:609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Cook, P. R., and Brazell, I. A., 1975, Supercoils in human DNA, J. Cell Sci. 19:261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Coquerelle, T., Bopp, A., Kessler, B., and Hagen, U., 1973, Strand breaks and 5′ end-groups in DNA of irradiated thymocytes, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 24:397.Google Scholar
  39. Corry, P. M., and Cole, A., 1968, Radiation-induced double-strand scission of the DNA of mammalian metaphase chromosomes, Radiat. Res. 36:528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Corry, P. M., and Cole, A., 1973, Double strand rejoining in mammalian DNA, Nature (London) New Biol. 245:100.Google Scholar
  41. Cramp, W. A., Watkins, D. K., and Collins, J., 1972, Effects of ionizing radiation on bacterial DNA-membrane complexes, Nature (London) 235:76.Google Scholar
  42. Datta, R., Cole, A., and Robinson, S., 1976, Use of track-end alpha particles from 241Am to study radiosensitive sites in CHO cells, Radiat. Res. 65:139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Davies, H. G., and Small, J. V., 1968, Structural units in chromatin and their aventation on membranes, Nature (London) 217:1122.Google Scholar
  44. Dean, C. J., and Alexander, P., 1962, Sensitization of radioresistant bacteria to X-rays by iodoacetamide, Nature (London) 196:1324.Google Scholar
  45. Dean, C. J., and Pauling, C., 1970, Properties of a deoxyribonucleic acid mutant of Escherichia coli: X-ray sensitivity, J. Bacterid. 102:588.Google Scholar
  46. Dean, C. J., Ormerod, M. G., Serianni, R. W., and Alexander, P., 1969, DNA strand breakage in cells irradiated with X-rays, Nature (London) 222:1042.Google Scholar
  47. DeJong, J., Loman, H., and Blok, J., 1972, Inactivation of biologically active DNA by radiation-induced phenylalanine radicals, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 22:11.Google Scholar
  48. Demopoulos, H. B., 1973, The basis of free radical pathology, Fed. Proc. 32:1859 (and references therein).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Dewey, D. L., and Boag, J. W., 1959, Modification of the oxygen effect when bacteria are given large pulses of radiation, Nature (London) 183:1450.Google Scholar
  50. Dingman, C. W., and Sporn, M. D., 1965, Actinomycin D and hydrocortisone: Intracellular binding in rat liver, Science 149:1251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Dugle, D.L., Gillespie, C. J., and Chapman, J. D., 1976, DNA strand breaks, repair, and survival in X-irradiated mammalian cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73:809.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Ebstein, B. S., 1967, Tritiated actinomycin D as a cytochemical label for small amounts of DNA, J. Cell Biol. 35:709.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Elkind, M. M., 1970, Damage and repair processes relative to neutron (and charged particle) irradiation, Curr. Top. Radiat. Res. 7:1.Google Scholar
  54. Elkind, M. M., 1971, Sedimentation of DNA released from Chinese hamster cells, Biophys. J. 11:502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Elkind, M. M., 1974, Recovery, reoxygenation, and a strategy to improve radiotherapy, in: The Biological and Clinical Basis of Radiosensitivity (M. Friedman, ed.), pp. 343–372, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Ill.Google Scholar
  56. Elkind, M. M., 1975a, Damage-repair studies of the DNA from X-irradiated Chinese hamster cells, in: Molecular Mechanisms for Repair of DNA (P. C. Hanawalt and R. B. Setlow, eds.), pp. 689–698, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  57. Elkind, M. M., 19756, unpublished findings.Google Scholar
  58. Elkind, M. M., and Ben-Hur, E., 1974. DNA damage in mammalian cells and its relevance to lethality, in: Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium on Microdosimetry (Verbania-Pallenza, Italy, 24–28 Sept. 1973) (J. Booz, H. G. Ebert, R. Eickel, and A. Waker, eds.), EURATOM Report EUR 5122 d-e-f, 1974.Google Scholar
  59. Elkind, M. M., and Chang-Liu, C. M., 1972a, Repair of a DNA complex from X-irradiated Chinese hamster cells, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 22:75.Google Scholar
  60. Elkind, M. M., and Chang-Liu, C. M., 1972b, Actinomycin D inhibition of repair of a DNA complex from Chinese hamster cells, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 22:313.Google Scholar
  61. Elkind, M. M., and Kamper, C., 1970, Two forms of repair of DNA in mammalian cells following irradiation, Biophys. J. 10:237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Elkind, M. M., and Kano, E., 1971, Radiation-induced age-response changes in Chinese hamster cells: Evidence for a new form of damage and its repair, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 19:547.Google Scholar
  63. Elkind, M. M., and Sinclair, W. K., 1965, Recovery in X-irradiated mammalian cells, in: Current Topics in Radiation Research, Vol. 1 (M. Ebert and A. Howard, eds.), pp. 165–220, North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  64. Elkind, M. M., and Sutton, H. A., 1959, X-ray damage and recovery in mammalian cells in culture, Nature (London) 184:1293.Google Scholar
  65. Elkind, M. M., and Sutton, H. A., 1960, Radiation response of mammalian cells grown in culture. I. Repair of X-ray damage in surviving Chinese hamster cells, Radiat. Res. 13:556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Elkind, M. M., and Whitmore, G. F., 1967, The Radiobiology of Cultured Mammalian Cells, Gordon and Breach, New York.Google Scholar
  67. Elkind, M. M., and Withers, H. R., 1970, Sublethal damage repair and its role in the radiation response of cell renewal systems, in: Pathology of Radiation (C. C. Berdjic, ed.), pp. 86–97, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  68. Elkind, M. M., Sutton, H. A., and Moses, W. B., 1961, Postirradiation survival kinetics of mammalian cells grown in culture, J. Comp. Cell Physiol. 58:113 (Suppl. 1).Google Scholar
  69. Elkind, M. M., Han, A., and Wolz, K., 1963, Response of mammalian cells grown in culture. IV. Dose dependence of division delay and postirradiation growth in surviving and nonsurviving Chinese hamster cells, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 30:705.Google Scholar
  70. Elkind, M. M., Alescio, T., Swain, R. W., Moses, W. B., and Sutton, H., 1964a, Recovery of hypoxic mammalian cells from sub-lethal X-ray damage, Nature (London) 202:1190.Google Scholar
  71. Elkind, M. M., Whitmore, G. F., and Alescio, T., 1964b, Actinomycin D: Suppression of recovery in X-irradiated mammalian cells, Science 143:1454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Elkind, M. M., Swain, R. W., Alescio, T., Sutton, H., and Moses, W. B., 1965, Oxygen, nitrogen, recovery, and radiation therapy, in: Cellular Radiation Biology, pp. 442–461, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  73. Elkind, M. M., Sutton-Gilbert, H. A., and Moses, W. B., 1966, unpublished data.Google Scholar
  74. Elkind, M. M., Kamper, C., Moses, W. B., and Sutton-Gilbert, H., 1967a, Sublethal-lethal radiation damage and repair in mammalian cells, Brookhaven Symp. Biol. 20:134.Google Scholar
  75. Elkind, M. M., Moses, W. B., and Sutton-Gilbert, H., 1967b, Radiation response of mammalian cells grown in culture. VI. Protein, DNA and RNA inhibition during the repair of X-ray damage, Radiat. Res. 31:156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Elkind, M. M., Sutton-Gilbert, H., Moses, W. B., and Kamper, C., 1967c, Sub-lethal and lethal radiation damage, Nature (London) 214:1088.Google Scholar
  77. Elkind, M. M., Sakamoto, K., and Kamper, C., 1968a, Age-dependent toxic properties of actinomycin D and X-rays in cultured Chinese hamster cells, Cell Tissue Kinet. 1:209.Google Scholar
  78. Elkind, M. M., Withers, H. R., and Belli, J. A., 1968b, Intracellular repair and the oxygen effect in radiobiology and radiotherapy, Front. Radiat. Ther. Oncol. 3:55.Google Scholar
  79. Emmerson, P. T., 1973, X-ray damage to DNA and loss of biological function: Effect of sensitizing agents, in: Advances in Radiation Chemistry, Vol. 3 (M. Burton and J. L. Magee, eds.), pp. 209–270, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  80. Epp, E. R., Weiss, H., and Santomasso, A., 1968, The oxygen effect in bacterial cells irradiated with high intensity pulsed electrons, Radiat. Res. 34:320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Epp, E. R., Weiss, H., Djordjevic, B., and Santomasso, A., 1972, The radiosensitivity of cultured mammalian cells exposed to single high intensity pulses of electrons in various concentrations of oxygen, Radiat. Res. 52:324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Epp, E. R., Weiss, H., and Ling, C. C., 1976, Irradiation of cells by single and double pulses of high intensity irradiation: Oxygen sensitization and diffusion kinetics, Curr. Top. Radiat. Res. Q. 11:201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Fox, M., and Nias, A. H. W., 1970, The influence of recovery from sublethal damage on the response of cells to protracted irradiation at low dose-rate, Curr. Top. Radiat. Res. Q. 7:71.Google Scholar
  84. Fox, R. A., Flelden, E. M., and Sapora, O., 1976, Yield of single-strand breaks in the DNA of E. coli 10 msecs after irradiation, Int. J. Radiat. Biol 29:391.Google Scholar
  85. Freifelder, D., 1966, DNA strand breakage by X-irradiation, Radiat. Res. 29:329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. George, K. C., Shenoy, M. A., Josm, D. S., Bhatt, B. Y., Singh, B. B., and Gopal-Ayengar, 1975, Modification of radiation effects on cells by membrane binding agents—Procaine HCl, Br. J. Radiol. 48:611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Hagen, U., Keck, K., Korger, H., Zimmerman, F., and Lucking, T., 1965, Ultraviolet light inactiva-tion of the priming ability of DNA in the RNA polymerase system, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 95:418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Hahn, G. M., and Little, J. B., 1972, Plateau-phase cultures of mammalian cells: An in vitro model for human cancer, Curr. Top. Radiat. Res. 8:39.Google Scholar
  89. Hall, E. J., 1972, Radiation dose-rate: A factor of importance in radiobiology and radiotherapy, Br. J. Radiol. 45:81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Han, A., and Elkind, M. M., 1976, Cell cycle dependent interaction of damage due to ionizing and nonionizing radiation in Chinese hamster cells, Radiat. Res. 67: 586.Google Scholar
  91. Hariharan, P. V., and Cerutti, P. A., 1972, Formation and repair of gamma-ray induced thymine damage in Micrococcus radiodurans, J. Mol. Biol. 66:65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Hariharan, P. V., and Cerutti, P. A., 1974, Excision of damaged thymine residues from gamma-irradiated poly (dA-dT) by crude extracts of Escherichia coli, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 71:3532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Hariharan, P. V., and Hutchison, F., 1973, Neutral sucrose gradient sedimentation of very large DNA from Bacillus subtilis. II. Double-strand breaks formed by gamma ray irradiation of the cells, J. Mol. Biol. 75:479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Haynes, R. H., 1962, Reciprocal sensitization of E. coli by ionizing and UV radiation, Radiat. Res. 16:562.Google Scholar
  95. Horikawa, M., Nikaido, O., Tanaka, T., Nagata, H., and Sugahara, T., 1970, Comparative studies on the rejoining of DNA strand breaks induced by X-irradiation in mammalian cell lines in vitro, Exp. Cell. Res. 63:325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Howard-Flanders, P., 1960, Effect of oxygen on the radiosensitivity of bacteriophage in the presence of sulphydryl compounds, Nature (London) 186:485.Google Scholar
  97. Jacob, F., Ryter, A., and Cuzin, F., 1966, On the association between DNA and membrane in bacteria, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 164:267.Google Scholar
  98. Johansen, I., and Howard-Flanders, P., 1965, Macromolecular repair and free-radical scavenging in the protection of bacteria against X-rays, Radiat. Res. 24:184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Johansen, I., Gurvin, I., and Rupp, W. D., 1971, The formation of single-strand breaks in intracellular DNA by X-rays, Radiat. Res. 48:599.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Johansen, I., Boye, E., and Brustad, T., 1975a, Radiation induced strand breaks and time scale for repair of broken strands in superinfecting phage À DNA in Escherichia coli lysogenic for À, in: Fast Processes in Radiation Chemistry and Biology (G. E. Adams, E. M. Fielden, and B. D. Michael, eds.), pp. 267–274, Institute of Physics and Wiley, London.Google Scholar
  101. Johansen, I., Brustad, T., and Rupp, W. D., 1975b, DNA strand breaks measured within 100 milliseconds of irradiation of Escherichia coli by 4 MeV electrons, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72:167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Kaplan, H. S., 1966, DNA strand scission and loss of viability after X-irradiation of normal and sensitized bacterial cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 55:1442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Kaplan, H. S., and Moses, L. E., 1964, Biological complexity and radiosensitivity, Science 145:21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Kaplan, H. S., and Zavarine, R., 1962, Correlation of bacterial radiosensitivity and DNA base composition, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 8:432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Keller, J. M., and Riley, D. E., 1976, Nuclear ghosts: A nonmembranous structural component of mammalian cell nuclei, Science 193:399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Kitayama, S., and Matsuyama, A., 1968, Possibility of the repair of double-strand scissions in Micrococcus radiodurans DNA caused by gamma rays, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 33:418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Koehnlein, W., and Hutchinson, F., 1969, ESR-studies of normal and 5-bromouracil-substituted DNA of Bacillus subtilis after irradiation with ultraviolet light, Radiat. Res. 39:745.Google Scholar
  108. Krasin, F., and Hutchinson, F., 1976, Repair of DNA double-strand breaks by recombination, Radiat. Res. 67:534.Google Scholar
  109. Krisch, R. E., 1976, Lethality and double-strand scissions from 14C delay in the DNA of microorganisms, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 29:249.Google Scholar
  110. Krisch, R. E., Krasin, F., and Sauri, C. J., 1976, DNA breakage, repair and lethality after 125I decay in rec+ and rec A strains of Escherichia coli, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 29:37.Google Scholar
  111. Lark, K. G., 1972, Evidence for the direct involvement of RNA in the initiation of DNA replication in Escherichia coli 15T, J. Mol. Biol. 64:47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Lehmann, A. R., and Ormerod, M. G., 1970, The replication of DNA in murine lymphoma cells. I. Rate of replication, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 217:268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Lennartz, M., Coquerelle, T., and Hagen, U., 1973, Effect of oxygen on DNA strand breaks in irradiated thymocytes, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 24:621.Google Scholar
  114. Lett-, J. T., Caldwell, I., and Little, J. G., 1970, Repair of X-ray damage to the DNA in Micrococcus radiodurans: The effect of 5-bromodeoxyuridine, J. Mol. Biol. 48:395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Lett, J. T., Sun, C., and Wheeler, K. T., 1972, Restoration of the DNA structure in X-irradiated eucaryotic cells: In vitro and in vivo, in: Molecular and Cellular Repair Processes (R. F. Beers Jr., R. M. Herriott, and R. C. Tilghman, eds.), pp. 147–158, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  116. Lion, M., 1972, Mechanism of sensitization to UV radiation by 5-Br-uracil substituted DNA, Isr. J. Chem. 10:1151.Google Scholar
  117. Lohman, P. H. M., 1968, Induction and rejoining of breaks in the deoxyribonucleic acid of human cells irradiated at various phases of the cell cycle, Mutat. Res. 6:449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Marvin, D. A., 1968, Control of DNA replication by membrane, Nature (London) 219:485.Google Scholar
  119. Mattern, M. R., Hariharan, P. V., Dunlap, B. E., and Cerutti, P. A., 1973, DNA degradation and excision repair in γ-irradiated Chinese hamster ovary cells, Nature (London) New Biol. 245:230.Google Scholar
  120. McGrath, R. A., and Williams, R. W., 1966, Reconstruction in vivo of irradiated Escherichia coli deoxyribonucleic acid; the rejoining of broken pieces, Nature (London) 212:534.Google Scholar
  121. Michael, B. D., Adams, G. E., Hewitt, H. B., Jones, W. B. G., and Watts, M. E., 1973, A post-effect of oxygen in irradiated bacteria: A submillisecond fast mixing study, Radiat. Res. 54:239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Munson, R. J., Neary, G. J., Bridges, B. A., and Preston, R. J., 1967, The sensitivity of Escherichia coli to ionizing particles of different LET’s, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 13:205.Google Scholar
  123. Neary, G. J., Simpson-Gildemeister, V. F. W., and Peacocke, A. R., 1970, The influence of radiation quality and oxyen on strand breakage in dry DNA, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 18:25.Google Scholar
  124. Neary, G. J., Horgan, V. J., Bance, D. A., and Stretch, A., 1972, Further data on DNA strand breakage by various radiation qualities, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 22:525.Google Scholar
  125. Nias, A. H. W., Swallow, A. J., Keene, J. P., and Hodgson, B. W., 1969, Effects of pulses of irradiation on the survival of mammalian cells, Br. J. Radiol. 42:553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Ormerod, M. G., and Lehmann, A. R., 1971, The release of high molecular weight DNA from a mammalian cell (L5178Y), Biochim. Biophys. Acta 228:331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Ormerod, M. G., and Stevens, U., 1971, The rejoining of x-ray-induced strand breaks in the DNA of murine a lymphoma cell (L5178Y), Biochim. Biophys. Acta 232:72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Painter, R. B., 1970, Repair of DNA in mammalian cells, Curr. Top. Radiat. Res. Q. 7:45.Google Scholar
  129. Palcic, B., and Skarsgard, L. D., 1975, Absence of ultrafast processes of repair of single-strand breaks in mammalian DNA, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 27:121.Google Scholar
  130. Perry, R. P., 1963, Selective effects of actinomycin D on the intracellular distribution of RNA synthesis in tissue culture cells, Exp. Cell. Res. 29:400.Google Scholar
  131. Petkau, A., and Chelack, W. S., 1974, Radioprotection of Acholeplasma laidlawii B by cysteine, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 25:321.Google Scholar
  132. Powers, E. L., 1972, The hydrated electron, the hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide in radiation damage in cells, Isr. J. Chem. 10:1199.Google Scholar
  133. Powers, E. L., and Gampel-Jobbagy, Z., 1972, Water-derived radicals and the radiation sensitivity of bacteriophage T7, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 21:353.Google Scholar
  134. Puck, T. T., and Kao, F. T., 1967, Genetics of somatic mammalian cells. V. Treatment with 5-bromodeoxyuridine and visible light for isolation of nutritionally deficient mutants, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 58:1227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Puck, T. T., and Marcus, P. E., 1956, Action of X-rays on mammalian cells, J. Exp. Med. 103:653.Google Scholar
  136. Rauth, A. M., and Simpson, L. A., 1964, The energy loss of electrons in solids, Radiat. Res. 22:643.Google Scholar
  137. Redpath, J. L., and Patterson, L. K., 1976, Radiosensitization of Serratia marcescens by cetyl-pyridinium chloride: Evidence for membrane-associated events, Radiology 118:725.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Reich, E., 1964, Actinomycin: Correlation of structure and function of its complexes with purines and DNA, Science 143:684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Remsen, F., Hariharan, P. W., and Cerutti, P. A., 1976, Excision repair of monomeric, ring-saturated thymine damage in human cells, Radiat. Res. 67:514.Google Scholar
  140. Roots, R., and Okada, S., 1972, Protection of DNA molecules of cultured mammalian cells from radiation-induced single-strand scissions by various alcohols and SH compounds, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 21:329.Google Scholar
  141. Rubenstein, I., and Leighton, S. B., 1974, The influence of rotor speed on the sedimentation behavior in sucrose gradients of high molecular wieght DNA’s, Biophys. Chem. 1:292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Salgnik, R. I., Drevick, V. F., and Vasyunia, E. A., 1967, Isolation of ultraviolet-denatured regions of DNA and their base composition, J. Mol. Biol. 30:219.Google Scholar
  143. Sapora, O., Fielden, E. M., and Loverock, P. S., 1975, The application of rapid lysis techniques in radiobiology. I. The effect of oxygen and radiosensitizers on DNA strand break production and repair in E. coli B/r, Radiat. Res. 64:431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Sawads, S. and Okada, S., 1970, Rejoining of single-strand breaks of DNA in cultured mammalian cells, Radiat. Res. 41:145.Google Scholar
  145. Serna, F. R., and Samoylenko, I. I., 1975, The effect of temperature shock on the yield of gamma-induced single-strand breaks in bacterial DNA, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 67:1415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Setlow, R. B., 1974, The wavelengths in sunlight effective in producing skin cancer: A theoretical analysis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 71:3363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Shenoy, M. A., Singh, B. B., and Gopal-Ayengar, A. R., 1974, Enhancement of radiation lethality of E. coli B/r by procaine HCl, Nature (London) 248:415.Google Scholar
  148. Shenoy, M. A., Asquith, J. C., Adams, G. E., Michael, B. D., and Watts, M. E., 1975a, Time resolved oxygen effects in irradiated bacteria and mammalian cells: A rapid mix study, Radiat. Res. 62:498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Shenoy, M. A., George, K. C., Singh, B. B., and Gopal-Ayengar, A. R., 1975b, Modification of radiation effects in single cell systems by membrane-binding agents, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 28:519.Google Scholar
  150. Shipley, W. U., Elkind, M. M., and Prather, W. B., 1971, Potentiation of X-ray killing by 5-bromodeoxyuridine in Chinese hamster cells: A reduction in capacity for incurring sublethal damage, Radiat. Res. 47:437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Simpson, J. R., Nagle, W. A., Beck, M. D., and Belli, J. A., 1973, Molecular nature of mammalian cell DNA in alkaline sucrose gradients, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 70(12, 1):3660.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Sinclair, W. K., 1965, Hydroxyurea: Differential lethal effects on cultured mammalian cells during the cell cycle, Science 150:1729.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Sinclair, W. K., 1967, Hydroxyurea: Effect on Chinese hamster cells grown in culture, Cancer Res. 27:297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Sinclair, W. K., and Morton, R. A., 1964, Recovery following X-irradiation of synchronized Chinese hamster cells, Nature (London) 203:247.Google Scholar
  155. Sinclair, W. K., and Morton, R. A., 1965, X-ray and ultraviolet sensitivity of synchronized Chinese hamster cells at various stages of the cell cycle, Biophys. J. 5:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Sparrow, A. H., Underbrink, A. G., and Sparrow, R. C., 1967, Chromosomes and cellular radiosen-sitivity. I. The relationship of D o to chromosome volume and complexity in seventy-nine different organisms, Radiat. Res. 32:915.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Stubblefield, E., 1973, The structure of mammalian chromosomes, in: International Review of Cytology (G. H. Baurne and J. F. Danielli, eds.), pp. 1–60, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  158. Tappel, A. L., 1973, Lipid peroxidation damage to cell components, Fed. Proc. 32:1870.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Terzi, M., 1961, Comparative analysis of inactivation efficiency of radiation on different organisms, Nature (London) 191:461.Google Scholar
  160. Town, C. D., 1967, Effect of high dose-rates on survival of mammalian cells, Nature (London) 215:847.Google Scholar
  161. Town, C. D., Smith, K. C., and Kaplan, H. S., 1972, Influence of ultra fast repair processes (independent of DNA polymerase I) on the yield of DNA single-strand breaks in Escherichia coli K12 X-irradiated in the presence or absence of oxygen, Radiat. Res. 52:99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Town, C. D., Smith, K. C., and Kaplan, H. S., 1973a, Repair of X-ray damage to bacterial DNA, Curr. Top. Radiat. Res. Q. 8:351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Town, C. D., Smith, K. C., and Kaplan, H. S., 1973b, The repair of DNA single-strand breaks in E. coli Kl2 X-irradiated in the presence or absence of oxygen, Radiat. Res. 55:334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Ullrich, A., and Hagen, U., 1971, Base liberation and concomitant reactions in irradiated DNA solutions, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 19:507.Google Scholar
  165. Van Hemmen, J. J., Meuling, W. J. A., Van der Schans, G. P., and Bleichrodt, J. F., 1974a, On the mechanism of sensitization of living cells towards ionizing radiation by oxygen and other sensitizers, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 25:399.Google Scholar
  166. Van Hemmen, J. J., Meuling, W. J. A., and Bleichrodt, J. F., 1974b, Radiosensitization of biologically active DNA in cellular extracts by oxygen: Evidence that the presence of SH compounds are not required, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 26:547.Google Scholar
  167. Veatch, W., and Okada, S., 1969, Radiation-induced breaks of DNA in cultured mammalian cells, Biophys. J. 9:330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Wacker, A., Menningmann, H. D., and Szybalski, W., Effects of visible light on 5-bromouracil labelled DNA, Nature (London) 196:685.Google Scholar
  169. Ward, J. F., 1972, Mechanisms of radiation-induced strand break formation in DNA, Isr. J. Chem. 10:1123.Google Scholar
  170. Waring, M. J., 1968, Drugs which affect structure and function of DNA, Nature (London) 219:1320.Google Scholar
  171. Watkins, D. K., 1970, High oxygen effect for the release of enzymes from isolated mammalian liposomes after treatment with ionizing radiation, in: Advances in Biological and Medical Physics (J. H. Lawrence and X- W. Gofman, eds.), pp. 289–305, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  172. Wheeler, K. T., and Lett, J. T., 1974, On the possibility that DNA repair is related to age in non-dividing cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 71:1862.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Wills, E. D., and Wilkinson, A. E., 1967, The effect of irradiation on lipid peroxide formation in subcellular fractions, Radiat. Res. 31:732.Google Scholar
  174. Wise, G. E., and Prescott, D. M., 1973, Initiation and continuation of DNA replication are not associated with the nuclear envelope in mammalian cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 70:714.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Yang, S. J., Hahn, G. M., and Van Kersen-Bax, I., 1970, Effects of light on viability and DNA synthesis of mammalian cells preincubated in media containing brominated pyrimidines, Photochem. Photobiol. 11:131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Zermeno, A., and Cole, A., 1969, Radiosensitive structure of metaphase and interphase hamster cells as studied by low-voltage electron beam irradiation, Radiat. Res. 39:669.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Zimm, B. H., 1974, Anomalies in sedimentation. IV. Decrease in sedimentation coefficients of chains at high fields, Biophys. Chem. 1:279.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. M. Elkind
    • 1
  • J. L. Redpath
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Biological and Medical ResearchArgonne National LaboratoryArgonneUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Medical Physics and Radiation OncologyMichael Reese Medical CenterChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations