Host Immune Response to Human Tumor Antigens

  • Sidney H. Golub
Part of the Cancer book series (C, volume 4)


This chapter assumes that human tumor-associated antigens exist, and that the tumor-bearing host makes an immune response to these antigens. The weight of experimental evidence supports this assumption. However, tumor immunology is a relatively young science that is burdened with inexact and often cumbersome techniques and is working from a base of knowledge of the fundamentals of immunology and tumor biology that is only now beginning to make sense. Thus there can be no dogma of tumor immunology. The literature of this field must be approached critically and with a healthy dose of skepticism. The one prediction that can be made with confidence is that there will be many surprises in tumor immunology in the near future.


Migration Inhibition Factor Tumor Antigen Host Immune Response Culture Tumor Cell Tumor Immunology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alexander, P., 1974, Escape from immune destruction by the host through shedding of surface antigens: Is this a characteristic shared by malignant and embryonic cells? Cancer Res. 34:2077.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alford, C., Hollinshead, A. C., and Herberman, R. B., 1973, Delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions to extracts of malignant and normal breast cells, Ann. Surg. 178:20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersen, V., Bjerrum, O., Bendixen, G., Schiodt, T., and Dissing, I., 1970, Effect of autologous mammary tumor extracts on human leukocyte migration in vitro, Int. J. Cancer 5:357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bach, M. L., Bach, F. S., and Joo, P., 1969, Leukemia-associated antigens in the mixed leukocyte culture test, Science 166:1520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Baldwin, R. W., Price, M. R., and Robins, R. A., 1972, Blocking of lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity for rat hepatoma cells by tumour specific antigen-antibody complexes, Nature New Biol. 238:185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Baldwin, R. W., Embleton, M. J., Jones, J. S. P., and Langman, M. J. S., 1973a, Cell-mediated and humoral immune reactions to human tumors, Int. J. Cancer 12:73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Baldwin, R. W., Embleton, M. J., and Price, M. R., 1973b, Inhibition of lymphocyte cytotoxicity for human colon carcinoma by treatment with solubilized tumour membrane fractions, Int. J. Cancer 12:84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Baldwin, R. W., Price, M. R., and Robins, R. A., 1973c, Inhibition of hepatoma-immune lymph-node cells by tumor-bearer serum and solubilized hepatoma antigen, Int. J. Cancer 11:527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bansal, S. C., and Sjögren, H. O., 1972, Counteraction of the blocking of cell-mediated tumor immunity by inoculation of unblocking sera and splenectomy: Immunotherapeutic effects on primary polyoma tumors in rats, Int. J. Cancer 9:490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Barth, R. F., and Gillespie, G. Y., 1974, The use of technetium-99m as a radioisotopic label to assess cell-mediated immunity in vitro, Cell. Immunol. 10:38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bean, M. A., Pees, H., Rosen, G., and Oetggen, H. F., 1973, Prelabeling target cells with 3H-proline as a method for studying lymphocyte cytotoxicity, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 37:41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bernstein, I. D., Thor, D. E., Zbar, B., and Rapp, H.J., 1971, Tumor immunity: Tumor suppression in vivo initiated by soluble products of specifically sensitized lymphocytes, Science 172:729.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Black, M. M., Speer, F. D., and Opler, S. R., 1956, Structural representations of tumor-host relationships in mammary carcinoma: Biologic and prognostic significance, Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 26:250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bloom, E. T., 1973, Microcytotoxicity tests on human cells in cultures: Effect of contamination with mycoplasma, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 143:244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bloom, E. T., Fahey, J. L., Peterson, I. A., Geering, G., Bernhard, M., and Trempe, G., 1973, Anti-tumor activity in human serum: Antibodies detecting blood-group-A-like antigen on the surface of tumor cells in culture, Int. J. Cancer 12:21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bloom, E. T., Ossorio, R. C., and Brosman, S. A., 1974, Cell-mediated cytotoxicity against human bladder cancer, Int. J. Cancer 14:326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bluming, A. Z., Ziegler, J. L., Fass, L., and Herberman, R. B., 1971, Delayed cutaneous sensitivity reactions to autologous Burkitt lymphoma protein extracts: Results of a prospective two and a half year study, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 9:713.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Boddie, A. W., Jr., Holmes, E. C., Roth, J. A., and Morton, D. L., 1974, Inhibition of human leukocyte migration in agarose by KCl extracts of carcinoma of the lung, Int. J. Cancer 15:823–829.Google Scholar
  19. Bodurtha, A., Chee, D., Laucius, J. F., Mastrangelo, M., and Prehn, M., 1975, Clinical and immunological significance of human melanoma cytotoxic antibody, Cancer Res. 35:189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bonavida, B., 1974, Studies on the induction and expression of T cell-mediated immunity. I. Blocking of cell-mediated cytolysis by membrane antigens, J. Immunol. 112:926.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Borum, K., and Jonsson, N., 1972, Influence of neonatal thymectomy upon the cell-mediated tumor-specific immunity in Rous sarcoma virus tumorigenesis in rats, Cell Immunol. 3:22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Brawn, R. J., 1971, In vitro desensitization of sensitized murine lymphocytes by a serum factor (soluble antigen?), Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 68:1634.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Brooks, W. H., Netsky, M. G., Normansell, D. E., and Horwitz, D. A., 1972, Depressed cell-mediated immunity in patients with primary intracranial tumors: Characterization of a humoral immunosuppressive factor, J. Exp. Med. 136:1631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Brunner, K. T., Mauel, J., Cerrottini, J. C., and Chapuis, B., 1968, Quantitative assay of the lytic action of lymphoid cells on 51Cr-labeled allogeneic target cells in vitro; inhibition by isoantibody and by drugs, Immunology 14:181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bubenik, J., Perlmann, P., Helmstein, K., and Moberger, G., 1970, Cellular and humoral immune responses to human urinary bladder carcinomas, Int. J. Cancer 5:310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cantor, H., and Asofsky, R., 1972, Synergy among lymphoid cells mediating the graft vs. host response. III. Evidence for interaction between two types of thymus-derived cells, J. Exp. Med. 135:764.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Canty, T. G., and Wunderlich, J. R., 1970, Quantitative in vitro assay of cytotoxic cellular immunity, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 45:761.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Carrel, S., and Theilkaes, L., 1973, Evidence for a tumor-associated antigen in human malignant melanoma, Nature (London) 242:609.Google Scholar
  29. Catalono, L. W., Harter, D. H., and Hsu, K. C., 1972, Common antigen in meningioma-derived cell cultures, Science 175:180.Google Scholar
  30. Cerottini, J. C., and Brunner, K. T., 1974, Cell-mediated cytotoxicity, allograft rejection, and tumor immunity, Adv. Immunol. 18:67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Cerottini, J. C., Nordin, A. A., and Brunner, K. T., 1970, Specific in vitro cytotoxicity of thymus derived lymphocytes sensitized to allo-antigens, Nature (London) 228:1308.Google Scholar
  32. Char, D. H., Lepourhiet, A., Leventhal, B. G., and Herberman, R. B., 1973, Cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity responses to tumor-associated and other antigens in acute leukemia, Int. J. Cancer 12:409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Cinader, B., 1972, The future of tumor immunology, Med. Clin. N. Am. 56:801.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Cochran, A.J., Spilg, W. G. S., Mackie, R. M., and Thomas, C. E., 1972, Postoperative depression of tumour directed cell-mediated immunity in patients with malignant disease, Br. Med. J. 4:67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Cochran, A. J., Mackie, R. M., Thomas, C. E., Grant, R. M., Cameron-Mowat, D. E., and Spilg, W. G. S., 1973, Cellular immunity to breast carcinoma and malignant melanoma, Br. J. Cancer 28:77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Cochran, A. J., Grant, R. M., Spilg, W. G., Mackie, R. M., Ross, C. E., Hoyle, D.E., and Russell, J. M., 1974, Sensitization to tumor-associated antigens in human breast carcinoma, Int. J. Cancer 14:19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Cohen, A. M., Burdick, J. F., and Ketcham, A. S., 1971, Cell-mediated cytotoxicity: An assay using 125I-iododeoxyuridine-labeled target cells, J. Immunol. 107:895.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Cohen, A. M., Ketcham, A. S., and Morton, D. L., 1973, Tumor-specific cellular cytotoxicity to human sarcomas: Evidence for a cell-mediated host immune response to a common sarcoma cell-surface antigen, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 50:585.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Cooperband, S. R., Bondevik, H., Schmid, K., and Mannik, J. A., 1968, Transformation of human lymphocytes: Inhibition by homologous alpha globulin, Science 159:1243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Currie, G., and Basham, C., 1972, Serum mediated inhibition of the immunological reactions of the patient to his own tumor: A possible role for circulating antigen. Br. Med. J. 26:427.Google Scholar
  41. Deodhar, S. D., Crile, G., and Esselstyn, C. B., 1972, Study of the tumor cell-lymphocyte interaction in patients with breast cancer, Cancer 29:1321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Devries, J. E., Rümke, P., and Bernheim, J. L., 1972, Cytotoxic lymphocytes in melanoma patients, Int. J. Cancer 9:567.Google Scholar
  43. Devries, J. E., Cornain, S., and Rümke, P., 1974, Cytotoxicity of non-T versus T-lymphocytes from melanoma patients and healthy donors on short-and long-term cultured melanoma cells, int. J. Cancer 14:427.Google Scholar
  44. Devries, J. E., Meyerling, M., VAN Dongen, A., and Rümke, P., 1975, The effects of different isolation procedures and the use of target cells from melanoma cell lines and short term cultures on the non-specific cytotoxic effects of lymphocytes from healthy donors, submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  45. Eccles, S. A., and Alexander, P., 1974, Macrophage content of tumours in relation to metastatic spread and host immune reaction, Nature (London) 250:667.Google Scholar
  46. Eilber, F. R., and Morton, D. L., 1970a, Impaired immunologic reactivity and recurrence following cancer surgery, Cancer 25:362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Eilber, F. R., and Morton, D. L., 1970b, Sarcoma-specific antigens: Detection by complement fixation with serum from sarcoma patients, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 44:651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Elliott, P. C., Thurlow, B., Needham, P. R. G., and Lewis, M. G., 1973, The specificity of the cytoplasmic antigen in human malignant melanoma, Eur. J. Cancer 9:607.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Evans, R., and Alexander, P., 1970, Cooperation of immune lymphoid cells with macrophages in tumour immunity, Nature (London) 228:620.Google Scholar
  50. Evans, R., and Alexander, P., 1972, Mechanism of immunologically specific killing of tumour cells by macrophages, Nature (London) 236:168.Google Scholar
  51. Everson, T. C., and Cole, W. H., 1966, Spontaneous Regression of Cancer, Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  52. Faanes, R. B., Choi, Y. S., and Good, R. A., 1973, Escape from isoantiserum inhibition of lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity, J. Exp. Med. 137:171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Fass, L., Herberman, R. B., and Ziegler, J., 1970a, Delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions to autologous Burkitt-lymphoma cells, New Engl. J. Med. 282:776.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Fass, L., Ziegler, J. L., Herberman, R. B., and Kiryabwire, I. W. M., 1970, Cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions to autologous extracts of malignant melanoma cells, Lancet 1:116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Feldman, J., 1972, Immunological enhancement: A study of blocking antibodies, Adv. Immunol. 15:167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Fidler, I. J., 1974, Inhibition of pulmonary metastasis by intravenous injection of specifically activated macrophages, Cancer Res. 34:1074.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Field, E. J., and Caspary, E. A., 1970, Lymphocyte sensitization: An in vitro test for cancer? Lancet 2:1337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Fisher, B., 1971, The present status of tumor immunology, Adv. Surg. 5:189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Fisher, B., Saffer, E. A., and Fisher, E. R., 1972, Studies concerning the regional lymph node in cancer. III. Response of regional lymph node cells from breast and colon cancer patients to PHA stimulation, Cancer 30:1202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Fisher, B., Saffer, E. A., and Fisher, E. R., 1974, Studies concerning the regional lymph node in cancer. VII. Thymidine uptake by cells from nodes of breast cancer patients relative to axillary location and histopathologic discriminants, Cancer 33:271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Fossati, G., Colnaghi, M. I., Della Porta, G., Cascinelli, N., and Veronesi, U., 1971, Cellular and humoral immunity against human malignant melanoma, Int. J. Cancer 8:344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Fossati, G., Canevari, S., Della Porta, G., Balzarini, G. P., and Veronesi, U., 1972, Cellular immunity to human breast carcinoma, Int. J. Cancer 10:391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Fridman, W. H., and Kourilsky, F. M., 1969, Stimulation of lymphocytes by autologous leukaemia cells in acute leukaemia, Nature (London) 224:277.Google Scholar
  64. Gershon, R. K., Mokyr, M. B., and Mitchell, M.S., 1974, Activation of suppressor T cells by tumour cells and specific antibody, Nature (London) 250:594.Google Scholar
  65. Giraldo, G., Beth, E., Hirshault, Y., Aoki, T., Old, L. J., Boyse, E. A., and Chopra, H. C., 1971, Human sarcomas in culture, J. Exp. Med. 133:454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Golstein, P., Wigzell, H., Blomgren, H., and Svedmyr, E., 1972, Cells mediating specific in vitro cytotoxicity. II. Probable autonomy of thymus-processed lymphocytes (T cells) for the killing of allogeneic target cells, J. Exp. Med. 135:890.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Golub, S. H., and Morton, D. L., 1974, Sensitization of lymphocytes in vitro against human melanoma-associated antigens, Nature (London) 251:161.Google Scholar
  68. Golub, S. H., Svedmyr, E. A. J., Hewetson, J. F., Klein, G., and Singh, S., 1972, Cellular reactions against Burkitt lymphoma cells. III. Effector cell activityof leukocytes stimulated in vitro with autochthonous cultured lymphoma cells, Int. J. Cancer 10:157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Golub, S. H., Hewetson, J. F., Svedmyr, E. A. J., Klein, G., and Singh, S., 1973, Stimulation of lymphocytes in vitro to reactions against cultured Burkitt’s lymphoma cells, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 37:25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Golub, S. H., O’Connell, T. X., and Morton, D. L., 1974, Correlation of in vivo and in vitro assays of immunocompetence in cancer patients, Cancer Res. 34:1833.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Golub, S. H., Hanson, D. C., Morton, D. L., Pellegrino, M., and Ferrone, S., 1975, Comparison of histocompatability antigens on cultured human tumor cells and fibroblasts by sensitivity to cell-mediated cytotoxicity and quantitative antibody absorption, in press. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 1975.Google Scholar
  72. Gorczynski, R. M., 1974, Immunity to murine sarcoma virus-induced tumors. I. Specific T lymphocytes active in macrophage migration inhibition and lymphocyte transformation, J. Immunol. 112:1815.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Gorer, P. A., 1956, Some recent work on tumor immunity, Adv. Cancer Res. 4:149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Granger, G. A., and Weiser, R. S., 1966, Homograft target cells: Contact destruction in vitro by immune macrophages, Science 151:97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Grant, C. K., Currie, G. A., and Alexander, P., 1972, Thymocytes from mice immunized against an allograft render bone-marrow cells specifically cytotoxic, J. Exp. Med. 135:150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Grant, C. K., Evans, R., and Alexander, P., 1973, Multiple effector roles of lymphocytes in allograft immunity, Cell. Immunol. 8:136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Green, S. S., and Sell, K. W., 1970, Mixed leukocyte stimulation of normal peripheral leukocytes by autologous lymphoblastoid cells, Science 170:989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Greenberg, A. H., and Shen, L., 1973, A class of specific cytotoxic cells demonstrated in vitro by arming with antigen-antibody complexes, Nature New Biol. 245:282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Greenberg, A. H., Hudson, L., Shen, L., and Roitt, I. M., 1973, Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity due to a “null” lymphoid cell, Nature New Biol. 242:111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Gupta, R. K., and Morton, D. L., 1975, Suggestive evidence for in vivo binding of specific antitumor antibodies of human melanoma, Cancer Res. 35:58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Gutterman, J. U., Hersh, E. M., Mccredie, K. B., Bodey, G. P., Rodriquez, V., and Freireich, E. J., 1972a, Lymphocyte blastogenesis to human leukemia cells and their relationship to serum factors, immunocompetence and prognosis, Cancer Res. 32:2524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Gutterman, J. U., Mavligit, G., Mccredie, K. B., Bodey, G. P., Freireich, E. J., and Hersh, E. M., 1972b, Antigen solubilized from human leukemia: Lymphocyte stimulation, Science 177:1114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Gutterman, J. U., Hersh, E. M., Freireich, E. J., Rossen, R. D., Butler, W. T., Mccredie, K. B., Bodey, G. P., Rodriquez, V., and Mavligit, G. U., 1973a, Cell-mediated and humoral immune response to acute leukemia cells and soluble leukemia antigen—Relationship to immunocompetence and prognosis, Natl. Cancer Inst. Mongr. 37:153.Google Scholar
  84. Gutterman, J. U., Rossen, R. D., Butler, W. T., Mccredie, K. B., Bodey, G. P., Freireich, E. J., and Hersh, E. M., 1973b, Immunoglobulin on tumor cells and tumor-induced lymphocyte blastogenesis in human acute leukemia, New Engl. J. Med. 288:169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Gutterman, J. U., Mavligit, G., Burgess, M. A., Mccredie, K. B., Hunter, C., Freireich, E. J., and Hersh, E. M., 1974a, Immunodiagnosis of acute leukemia: Detection of residual disease, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 53:389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Gutterman, J. U., Mavligit, G., Mccredie, K. B., Freireich, E. J., and Hersh, E. M., 1974b, Auto-immunization with acute leukemia cells: Demonstration of increased lymphocyte responsiveness, Int. J. Cancer 11:521.Google Scholar
  87. Hakala, T. R., and Lange, P. H., 1974, Serum induced lymphoid cell mediated cytotoxicity to human transitional cell carcinomas of the genitourinary tract, Science 184:795.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Hakala, T. R., Lange, P. H., Castro, A. E., Elliott, A. Y., and Fraley, E. E., 1974, Antibody induction of lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity against human transitional-cell carcinomas of the urinary tract, New Engl. J. Med. 291:637.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Halliday, W. J., Maluish, A., and Miller, S., 1974, Blocking and unblocking of cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity in mice, as detected by the leukocyte adherence inhibition test, Cell. Immunol. 10:467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Hamburger, R. N., Pious, D. A., and Milles, S. E., 1963, Antigenic specificities acquired from the growth medium by cells in tissue culture, Immunology 6:439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Han, T., Moore, G. E., and Sokal, J. E., 1971, In vitro lymphocyte response to autologous cultured lymphoid cells, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 36:976.Google Scholar
  92. Hattler, B. G., and Soehnlen, B., 1974, Inhibition of tumor-induced lymphocyte blastogenesis by a factor or factors associated with peripheral lymphocytes, Science 184:1374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Hellström, I., 1967, A colony inhibition (CI) technique for demonstration of tumor cell destruction by lymphoid cells in vitro, Int. J. Cancer 2:65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Hellström, I., Hellström, K. E., and Pierce, G. E., 1968a, Cellular and humoral immunity to different types of human neoplasms, Nature (London) 220:1352.Google Scholar
  95. Hellström, I. E., Hellström, K. E., Pierce, G. E., and Bill, A. H., 1968b, Demonstration of cell-bound and humoral immunity against neuroblastoma cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 60:1231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Hellström, I., Hellström, K. E., Sjögren, H. O., and Warner, G. A., 1971a, Demonstration of cell-mediated immunity to human neoplasms of various histological types, Int. J. Cancer 7:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Hellström, I., Hellström, K. E., Sjögren, H. O., and Warner, G. A., 1971b, Serum factors in tumor-free patients cancelling the blocking of cell-mediated tumor immunity, Int. J. Cancer 8:185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Hellström, I., Sjögren, H. O., Warner, G. A., and Hellström, K. E., 1971c, Blocking of cell-mediated tumor immunity by sera from patients with growing neoplasms, Int. J. Cancer 7:226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Hellström, I., Hellström, K. E., Sjögren, H. O., and Warner, G. A., 1973a, Destruction of cultivated melanoma cells by lymphocytes from healthy Black (North American Negro) donors, Int. J. Cancer 11:116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Hellström, I., Hellström, K. E., and Warner, G. A., 1973b, Increase of lymphocyte-mediated tumor-cell destruction by certain patient sera, Int. J. Cancer 12:348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Hellström, I., Warner, G. A., Hellström, K. E., and Sjögren, H. O., 1973c, Sequential studies on cell-mediated tumor immunity and blocking serum activity in ten patients with malignant melanoma, Int. J. Cancer 11:280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Hellström, K. E., and Hellström, I., 1974, Lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity and blocking serum activity to tumor antigens, Adv. Immunol. 18:209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Henle, G., Henle, W., Klein, G., Gunven, P., Clifford, P., Morrow, P. H., and Ziegler, J. L., 1971, Antibodies to early EBV-induced antigens in Burkitt’s lymphoma, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 46:861.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Heppner, G. H., Stolbach, L., Byrne, M., Cummings, F. J., Mcdonough, E., and Calabresi, E., 1973, Cell-mediated reactivity to tumor antigens in patients with malignant melanoma, Int. J. Cancer 11:245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Herberman, R. B., 1969, Studies on the specificity of human cytotoxic antibody reactive with cultures of lymphoid cells, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 42:69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Herberman, R. B., Mccoy, J. L., and Levine, P. H., 1974, Immunological reactions to tumor-associated antigens in Burkitt’s lymphoma and other lymphomas, Cancer Res. 34:1222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Hersh, E. M., Whitecar, J. P., Mccredie, K. B., Bodey, G. P., and Freireich, E. J., 1971, Chemotherapy, immunocompetence, immunosuppression, and prognosis in acute leukemia, New Engl. J. Med. 285:1211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Hewetson, J. F., Golub, S. H., Klein, G., and Singh, S., 1972, Cellular reactions against Burkitt lymphoma cells. I. Colony inhibition with effector cells from patients with Burkitt’s lymphoma, Int. J. Cancer 10:142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Hibbs, J. B., 1973, Macrophage nonimmunological recognition: Target cell factors related to contact inhibition, Science 180:868.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Hibbs, J. B., Lambert, L. H., and Remington, J. S., 1972a, Control of carcinogenesis: A possible role for the activated macrophage, Science 177:998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Hibbs, J. B., Lambert, L. H., and Remington, J. S., 1972b, Possible role of macrophage mediated nonspecific cytotoxicity in tumour resistance, Nature New Biol. 235:48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Hilberg, R. W., Balcerzak, S. P., and Lobuglio, A. F., 1973, A migration inhibition factor assay for tumor immunity in man, Cell. Immunol. 7:152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Hirshault, Y., Pei, D. T., Marcove, R. C., Mukherji, B., Spielvogel, A. R., and Essner, E., 1974, Seroepidemiology of human sarcoma antigen (S1), New Engl. J. Med. 291:1103.Google Scholar
  114. Hollinshead, A., Glew, D., Bunnag, B., Gold, P., and Herberman, R., 1970, Skin reactive soluble antigen from intestinal cancer cell membranes and relationship to carcinoembryonic antigens, Lancet 1:1191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Hollinshead, A. C., Stewart, T. H. M., and Herberman, R. B., 1974, Delayed-hypersensitivity reactions to soluble membrane extracts of human malignant lung cells, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 52:327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Hsu, C. C., and Logerfo, P., 1972, Correlation between serum alpha-globulin and plasma inhibitory effect of PHA-stimulated lymphocytes in colon carcinoma patients, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 139:575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Hudson, M. J. K., Humphrey, L. J., Mantz, F. A., and Morse, P. A., 1974, Correlation of circulating serum antibody to the histologic findings in breast cancer, Am. J. Surg. 128:756.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Hughes, L. E., and Lytton, B., 1964, Antigenic properties of human tumors:-Delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions, Br. Med. J. 1:209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Humphrey, L. J., Barker, C., Bokesch, C., Fetter, D., Amerson, J. R., and Boehm, O. R., 1971, Immunologic competence of regional lymph nodes in patients with mammary cancer, Ann. Surg. 174:383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Ikonopisov, R. L., Lewis, M. G., Hunter-Craig, I. D., Bodenham, D. C., Phillips, T. M., Cooling, C. I., Proctor, J., Fairley, G. H., and Alexander, P., 1970, Autoimmunization with irradiated tumour cells in human malignant melanoma, Br. Med. J. 2:752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Irie, K., Irie, R. F., and Morton, D. L., 1974a, Evidence for in vivo reaction of antibody and complement to surface antigens of human cancer cells, Science 186:454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Irie, R. F., 1974, Exclusion of heterologous membrane antigen in immunologic studies of cultured human cancer cells, Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res., p. 87.Google Scholar
  123. Irie, R. F., Irie, K., and Morton, D. L., 1974b, Natural antibody in human serum to a neoantigen in human cultured cells grown in fetal bovine serum, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 5:1051.Google Scholar
  124. Jagarlamoody, S. M., Aust, J. C., Tew, R. H., and Mckhann, C. F., 1971, In vitro detection of cytotoxic cellular immunity against tumor-specific antigens by a radioisotopic technique, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 68:1346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Junge, U., Hoekstra, J., and Deinhardt, F., 1971, Stimulation of peripheral lymphocytes by allogeneic and autochthonous mononucleosis cell lines, J. Immunol. 106:1306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Kanner, S. P., Mardiney, M. R., Jr., and Mangi, R. J., 1970, Experience with a mixed lymphocyte-tumor reaction as a method of detecting antigenic differences between normal and neoplastic cells, J. Immunol. 106:1052.Google Scholar
  127. Keller, R., 1973, Cytostatic elimination of syngeneic rat tumor cells in vitro by nonspecifically activated macrophages, J. Exp. Med. 138:625.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Kirchner, H., Chused, T. M., Herberman, R. B., Holden, H. T., and Lavrin, D. H., 1974, Evidence of suppressor cell activity in spleens of mice bearing primary tumors induced by Moloney sarcoma virus, J. Exp. Med. 138:1473.Google Scholar
  129. Klein, G., 1971, Immunological aspects of Burkitt’s lymphoma, Adv. Immunol. 14:187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Klein, G., Clifford, P., Klein, E., Smith, R. T., Minowada, J., Kourilsky, F., and Burchenal, J., 1967, Membrane immunofluorescence reactions of Burkitt lymphoma cells from biopsy specimens and tissue cultures, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 39:1027.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Klein, G., Pearson, G., Nadkarni, J. S., Nadkarni, J. J., Klein, E., Henle, G., Henle, W., and Clifford, P., 1968, Relation between Epstein-Barr viral and cell membrane immunofluorescence of Burkitt tumor cells. I. Dependence of cell membrane immunofluorescence on presence of EB virus, J. Exp. Med. 128:1011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Klein, G., Clifford, P., Henle, G., Henle, W., Old, L. J., and Geering, G., 1969, EBV-associated serological patterns in a Burkitt lymphoma patient during regression and recurrence, Int. J. Cancer 4:416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Knight, S. C., Moore, G. E., and Clarkson, B. D., 1971, Stimulation of autochthonous lymphocytes by cells from normal and leukaemia lines, Nature New Biol. 229:185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Krahenbuhl, J. L., and Remington, J. S., 1974, The role of activated macrophages in specific and nonspecific cytostasis of tumor cells, J. Immunol. 113:507.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Kronman, B. S., Wepsic, H. T., Churchill, W. H., Zbar, B., Borsos, T., and Rapp, H. J., 1969, Tumor-specific antigens detected by inhibition of macrophage migration Science 165:296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Kumar, S., Taylor, G., Steward, J. K., Waghe, M. A., and Morris-Jones, P., 1973, Cell-mediated immunity and blocking factors in patients with tumors of the central nervous system, Int. J. Cancer 12:194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Lamon, E. W., Wigzell, H., Anderson, B., and Klein, E., 1973a, Anti-tumour activity in vitro dependent on immune B lymphocytes, Nature New Biol. 224:209.Google Scholar
  138. Lamon, E. W., Wigzell, H., Klein, E., Andersson, B., and Skurzak, H. M., 1973b, The lymphocyte response to primary Moloney sarcoma virus tumors in BALB/c mice: Definition of the active subpopulations at different times after infection, J. Exp. Med. 137:1472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Larsson, A., and Perlmann, P., 1972, Study of Fab and F(ab’)2 from rabbit IgG for capacity to induce lymphocyte mediated target cell destruction in vitro, Int. Arch. Allergy 43:80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Leclerc, J. C., Gomard, E., Plata, F., and Levy, J. P., 1973, Cell-mediated immune reaction against tumors induced by oncornaviruses. II. Nature of the effector cells in tumor cell cytolysis, Int. J. Cancer 11:426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Leneva, N. V., and Svet-Moldavsky, G. J., 1974, Susceptibility of tumor cells in different phases of the mitotic cycle to the effect of immune lymphocytes, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 52:699.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Levy, N. L., Mahaley, M. S., and Day, E. D., 1972, In vitro demonstration of cell-mediated immunity to human brain tumors, Cancer Res. 32:477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Lewis, M. G., and Phillips, T. M., 1972, The specificity of surface membrane immunofluorescence in human malignant melanoma, Int. J. Cancer 10:105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Lewis, M. G., Ikonopisov, R. L., Nairn, R. C., Phillips, T. M., Fairley, G. H., Bqdenham, D. C., and Alexander, P., 1969, Tumour-specific antibodies in human malignant melanoma and their relationship to the extent of disease, Br. Med. J. 3:547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Lewis, M. G., Phillips, T. M., Cook, K. B., and Blake, J., 1971, Possible explanation for loss of detectable antibody in patients with disseminated malignant melanoma, Nature (London) 232:52.Google Scholar
  146. Maclennan, I. C. M., 1972, Antibody in the induction and inhibition of lymphocyte cytotoxicity, Transplant. Rev. 13:67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Macpherson, B. R., and Pilch, Y. P., 1972, Cellular cytolysis in vitro: Mechanisms underlying a quantitative assay for cellular immunity, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 48:1619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Matthews, R. S., and Shirodaria, P. V., 1973, Study of regressing warts by immunofluorescence, Lancet 1:689.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Mavligit, G. M., Ambus, U., Gutterman, J. U., Hersh, E. M., and Mcbride, C. M., 1973, Antigen solubilized from human solid tumors: Lymphocyte stimulation and cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity, Nature New Biol. 243:188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Mckhann, C. F., and Jagarlamoody, S. M., 1971, Immune reactivity against neoplasms, Transplant. Rev. 7:55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Ming, S. C., Klein, E., and Klein, G., 1966, Inhibitory effect of lymphocytes on DNA synthesis of target cells in vitro, Ann. Med. Exp. Fenn. 44:191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Mitchell, M., 1972, Central inhibitions of cellular immunity to leukemia L1210 by isoantibody, Cancer Res. 32:825.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Möller, E., 1965, Contact induced cytotoxicity by lymphoid cells containing foreign isoantigens, Science 147:873.Google Scholar
  154. Morton, D. L., Malmgren, R. A., Holmes, E. C., and Ketcham, A. S., 1968, Demonstration of antibodies against human malignant melanoma by immunofluorescence, Surgery 64:233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Morton, D. L., Eilber, F. R., Joseph, W. L., Wood, W. C., Trahan, E., and Ketcham, A. S., 1970, Immunological factors in human sarcoma and melanomas: A rational basis for immunotherapy, Ann. Surg. 172:740.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Morton, D. L., Eilber, F. R., and Malmgren, R. A., 1971, Immune factors in human cancer: Malignant melanomas, skeletal and soft tissue sarcomas, Prog. Exp. Tumor Res. 14:25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Muna, W. M., Marcus, S., and Smart, C., 1969, Detection by immunofluorescence of antibodies specific for human malignant melanoma cells, Cancer 23:88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Nagel, G. A., Piessens, W. F., Stilmont, M. M., and Lejeune, F., 1971, Evidence for tumor specific immunity in human malignant melanoma, Eur. J. Cancer 7:41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Nairn, R. C., Nind, A. P., Guli, E. P., Davies, D. J., Little, J. H., Davis, N. C., and Whitehead, R. H., 1972, Anti-tumor immunoreactivity in patients with malignant melanoma, Med. J. Aust. 1:397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Nelson, D. S., 1973, Production by stimulated macrophages of factors depressing lymphocyte transformation, Nature (London) 246:306.Google Scholar
  161. Oldham, R. K., and Herberman, R. B., 1973, Evaluation of cell-mediated cytotoxic reactivity against tumor associated antigens with 125I-iododeoxyuridine labeled target cells, J. Immunol. 111:1862.Google Scholar
  162. Oren, R. K., and Herberman, R. B., 1971, Delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions to membrane extracts of human tumor cells, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 9:45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Ortiz de Landazuri, M., and Herberman, R. B., 1972, In vitro activation of cellular immune response to Gross virus-induced lymphoma, J. Exp. Med. 136:969.Google Scholar
  164. O’Toole, C., Perlmann, P., Unsgaard, B., Moberger, G., and Edsmyr, F., 1972a, Cellular immunity to human urinary bladder carcinoma. I. Correlation to clinical stage and radiotherapy, Int. J. Cancer 10:77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. O’Toole, C., Perlman, P., Unsgaard, B., Almgard, L. E., Johansson, B., Moberger, G., and Edsmyr, F., 1972b, Cellular immunity to human urinary bladder carcinoma. II. Effect of surgery and preoperative irradiation, Int. J. Cancer 10:92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. O’Toole, C., Perlmann, P., Wigzell, H., Unsgaard, B., and Zetterlund, C. G., 1973a, Lymphocyte cytotoxicity in bladder carcinoma: No requirement for thymus derived effector cells, Lancet 1:1085.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. O’Toole, C., Unsgaard, B., Almgard, L. E., and Johansson, B., 1973b, The cellular immune response to carcinoma of the urinary bladder: Correlation to clinical stage and treatment, Br. J. Cancer 28:266.Google Scholar
  168. O’Toole, C., Stejskal, V., Perlmann, P., and Karlsson, M., 1974, Lymphoid cells mediating tumor-specific cytotoxicity to carcinoma of the urinary bladder: Separation of the effector population using a surface marker, J. Exp. Med. 139:437.Google Scholar
  169. Pattengale, P. K., Smith, R. W., and Perlin, E., 1974, Atypical lymphocytes in acute infectious mononucleosis: Identification by multiple T and B lymphocyte markers, New Engl. J. Med. 291:1145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Perlmann, P., Perlmann, H., Müller-Eberhard, H. J., and Manni, J. A., 1969, Cytotoxic effects of leukocytes triggered by complement bound to target cells, Science 163:937.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Perlmann, P., Perlmann, H., and Wigzell, H., 1972, Lymphocyte mediated cytotoxicity in vitro: Induction and inhibition by humoral antibody and nature of effector cells, Transplant. Rev. 13:91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Phillips, T. M., and Lewis, M. G., 1971, A method for elution of immunoglobulin from the surf ace of living cells, Rev. Eur. Etud. Clin. Biol. 16:1051.Google Scholar
  173. Pilch, Y. H., Myers, G. H., Sparks, F. S., and Golub, S. H., 1975a, Prospects for the immunotherapy of cancer. I. Basic concepts of tumor immunology, Curr. Prob. Surg., 1975:1–46.Google Scholar
  174. Pilch, Y. H., Myers, G. H., Sparks, F. S., and Golub, S. H., 1975b Prospects for the immunotherapy of cancer. II. Current status of immunotherapy, Curr. Prob. Surg., 1975:1–61.Google Scholar
  175. Plata, F., and Levy, J. P., 1974, Blocking of syngeneic effector T cells by soluble tumour antigens, Nature (London) 249:271.Google Scholar
  176. Plata, F., Gomard, E., Leclerc, J. C., and Levy, J. P., 1974, Comparative in vitro studies on effector cell diversity in the cellular immune response to murine sarcoma virus (MSV)-induced tumors in mice, J. Immunol. 112:1477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Pollack, S., 1973, Specific “arming” of normal lymph-node cells by sera from tumor-bearing mice, Int. J. Cancer 11:138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Pollack, S., Heppner, G., Brawn, R. J., and Nelson, K., 1972, Specific killing of tumor cells in vitro in the presence of normal lymphoid cells and sera from hosts immune to the tumor antigens, Int. J. Cancer 9:316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Powles, R. L., Balchin, L. A., Fairley, G. H., and Alexander, P., 1971, Recognition of leukemic cells as foreign before and after auto-immunization, Br. Med. J. 1:486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Prehn, R. T., 1972, The immune reaction as a stimulator of tumor growth, Science 176:170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Proctor, J. W., Rudenstam, C. M., and Alexander, P., 1973, A factor preventing the development of lung metastases in rats with sarcomas, Nature (London) 242:29.Google Scholar
  182. Rich, J. R., and Winters, W. D., 1974, Tumor-associated antigen in human meningioma, New Engl. J. Med. 290:164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Richmond, R. E., and Morton, D. L., 1974, A hamster cheek pouch assay of human cell-mediated immunity to human melanoma xenografts, J. Reticuloendothel. Soc. 16:8a.Google Scholar
  184. Richters, A., and Sherwin, R. P., 1974, Human breast cancer and the autochthonous lymph node cell responses: A tissue culture and ultrastructural study, Cancer 34:328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Richters, A., Sherwin, R. P., and Richters, V., 1971, The lymphocyte and human lung cancers, Cancer Res. 31:214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Röllinghoff, M., Wagner, H., Cone, R. E., Marchalonis, J. J., 1973, Release of antigen-specific immunoglobulin from cytotoxic effector cells and syngeneic tumour immunity in vitro, Nature New Biol. 243:21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Romsdahl, M. M., and Cox, I. S., 1970, Human malignant melanoma antibodies demonstrated by immunofluorescence, Arch. Surg. 100:491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Rosenau, W., and Moon, H. D., 1961, Lysis of homologous cells by sensitized lymphocytes in tissue culture, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 27:471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Rosenberg, E. B., Herberman, R. B., Levine, P. H., Halterman, R. H., Mccoy, J. L., and Wunderlich, J. R., 1972, Lymphocyte cytotoxicity reactions to leukemia associated antigens in identical twins, Int. J. Cancer 9:648.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Rosenberg, E. B., Mccoy, J. L., Green, S. S., Donnelly, F. C., Siwarski, D. F., Levine, P. H., and Herberman, R. B., 1974, Destruction of human lymphoid tissue-culture cell lines by human peripheral blood lymphocytes in 51Cr-release cellular cytotoxicity assays, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 52:345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Roth, J. A., Golub, S. H., Grimm, E. A., Eilber, F. R., and Morton, D. L., 1974, Effect of surgery on in vitro lymphocyte function, Surg. Forum 25:102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Roth, J. A., Golub, S. H., Holmes, E. C., and Morton, D. L., 1975, Effect of BCG on the stimulation of lymphocyte protein synthesis by melanoma antigens, Surgery (in press).Google Scholar
  193. Rouse, B. T., Röllinghoff, M., and Warner, N. L., 1972, Anti-θ serum induced suppression of the cellular transfer of tumour specific immunity to a syngeneic plasma cell tumour, Nature New Biol. 238:116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Rowley, D. A., Fitch, F. W., Stuart, F. P., Köhler, H., and Cosenza, H., 1973, Specific suppression of immune responses, Science 181:1133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Sample, W. F., Gertner, H.R., and Chretien, P. B., 1971, Inhibition of phytohemagglutinin-induced in vitro lymphocyte transformation by serum from patients with carcinoma, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 46:1291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Santos, G. W., Mullins, G. S., Bias, W. B., Anderson, P. N., Grazziano, K. D., Klein, D. L., and Burke, P. J., 1973, Immunologic studies in acute leukemia, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 37:69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Savel, H., 1969, Effect of autologous tumor extracts on cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes, Cancer 24:56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Schrek, R., 1963, Cell transformations and mitoses produced in vitro by tuberculin purified protein derivative in human blood cells, Am. Rev. Resp. Dis. 87:734.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Schweitzer, M., Melief, C. M. J., and Eijsvoogel, V. P., 1973, Failure to demonstrate immunity to leukemia associated antigens by lymphocyte transformation in vitro, Int. J. Cancer 11:11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Seeger, R. C., and Owen, J. J. T., 1973, Measurement of tumor immunity in vitro with 125I-iododeoxyuridine-labeled target cells, Transplantation 15:404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Senik, A., Gomard, E., Plata, F., and Levy, J. P., 1973, Cell-mediated immune reaction against tumors induced by oncornaviruses. III. Studies by mixed lymphocyte-tumor reaction, Int. J. Cancer 12:233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Shearer, W. T., Philpott, G. W., and Parker, C. W., 1973, Stimulation of cells by antibody, Science 182:1357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Sheldon, P. J., Hemsted, E. H., Papamichail, M., and Holborow, E. W., 1973, Thymic origin of atypical lymphoid cells in infectious mononucleosis, Lancet 1:1153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Siegler, H. F., Shingleton, W. W., Metzgar, R. S., Buckley, C. E., Bergoc, P. M., Miller, D. S., Fetter, B. F., and Phaup, M. B., 1972, Non-specific and specific immunotherapy in patients with melanoma, Surgery 72:162.Google Scholar
  205. Silk, M., 1967, Effect of plasma from patients with carcinoma on in vitro lymphocyte transformation, Cancer 20:2088.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Sinkovics, J. G., Cabiness, J. R., and Shullenberger, C. C., 1972, Disappearance after chemotherapy of blocking serum factors as measured in vitro with lymphocytes cytotoxic to tumor cells, Cancer 30:1428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Sjögren, H. O., Hellström, I., Bansal, S. C., and Hellström, K. E., 1971, Suggestive evidence that the “blocking antibodies” of tumor-bearing individuals may be antigen-antibody complexes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 68:1372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Sjögren, H. O., Hellström, I., Bansal, S. C., Warner, G. A., and Hellström, K. E., 1972, Elution of “blocking factors” from human tumors, capable of abrogating tumor-cell destruction by specifically immune lymphocytes, Int. J. Cancer 9:274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Skurzak, H. M., Klein, E., Yoshida, T. O., and Lamon, E. W., 1972, Synergistic or antagonistic effect of different antibody concentrations on in vitro lymphocyte cytotoxicity in the Moloney sarcoma virus system, J. Exp. Med. 135:997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Skurzak, H., Steiner, L., Klein, E., and Lamon, E., 1973, Cytotoxicity of human peripheral lymphocytes for glioma, osteosarcoma, and glia cell lines, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 37:93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Southam, C. M., Brunswig, A., Levin, A. G., and Dizon, Q. S., 1966, Effect of leukocytes on transplantability of human cancer, Cancer 19:1743.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Steel, C. M., and Hardy, D. A., 1970, Evidence of altered antigenicity in cultured lymphoid cells from patients with infectious mononucleosis, Lancet 1:1322.Google Scholar
  213. Stewart, T. H. M., and Orizaga, M., 1971, The presence of delayed hypersensitivity reactions in patients toward cellular extracts of their malignant tumors: The frequency, duration, and cross-reactivity of this phenomenon in patients with breast cancer and its correlation with survival, Cancer 28:1472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Stjernsward, J., Clifford, P., and Svedmyr, E., 1970, General and tumor-distinctive cellular immunological reactivity, in: Burkitt’s Lymphoma (D. P. Burkitt and D. N. Wright, eds.), pp. 164–171, Livingstone, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  215. Sulit, H. S., Golub, S. H., Irie, R., Gupta, R., Grooms, G. A., and Morton, D. L., 1975, Fetal calf serum and human serum grown tumor cells: Influence on tests for lymphocyte cytotoxicity, serum blocking, and serum arming effects, submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  216. Sulitzeanu, D., Gorsky, Y., Paglin, S., and Weiss, D., 1974, Morphologic evidence suggestive of host-tumor cell interactions in vivo in human cancer patients. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 52:603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Svedmyr, E. A., Deinhardt, F., and Klein, G., 1974a, Sensitivity of different target cells to the killing action of peripheral lymphocytes stimulated by autologous lymphoblastoid cell lines, Int. J. Cancer 13:891.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Svedmyr, E., Wigzell, H., and Jondal, M., 1974b, Sensitization of human lymphocytes against autologous or allogeneic lymphoblastoid cell lines: Characterization of the reactive cells, Scand. J. Immunol. 3:499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Takasugi, M., and Klein, E., 1970, A microassay for cell-mediated immunity, Tranplantation 9:219.Google Scholar
  220. Takasugi, M., Mickey, M. R., and Terasaki, P., 1973a, Quantitation of the microassay for cell-mediated immunity through electronic image analysis, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr., 37:77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Takasugi, M., Mickey, M. R., and Terasaki, P. I., 1973b, Reactivity of lymphocytes from normal persons on cultured tumor cells, Cancer Res. 33:2898.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Taranger, L. A., Chapman, W. H., Hellström, I., and Hellström, K. E., 1972, Immunological studies on urinary bladder tumors of rats and mice, Science 176:1337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Taylor, J. F., Junge, U., Wolfe, L., Deinhardt, F., and Kyalwazi, S. K., 1971, Lymphocyte transformation in patients with Kaposi’s sarcoma, Int. J. Cancer 8:468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Thomson, D. M. P., Steele, K., and Alexander, P., 1973, The presence of tumour-specific membrane antigen in the serum of rats with chemically induced sarcomata, Br. J. Cancer 27:27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Vaage, J., Jones, R. D., and Brown, B. W., 1972, Tumor-specific resistance in mice detected by inhibition of macrophage migration, Cancer Res. 32:680.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. VAN Boxel, J. A., Stobo, J. D., Paul, W. E., and Green, I., 1972, Antibody-dependent lymphoid cell-mediated cytoxicity: No requirement for thymus-derived lymphocytes, Science 175:194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Vanky, F., Stjernsward, J., Klein, G., and Nilsonne, U., 1971a, Serum-mediated inhibition of lymphocyte stimulation by autochthonous human tumors, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 47:95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Vanky, F., Stjernsward, J., and Nilsonne, U., 1971b, Cellular immunity to human sarcoma, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 46:1145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Vanky, F., Klein, E., Stjernsward, J., and Nilsonne, U., 1974, Cellular immunity against tumor-associated antigens in humans: Lymphocyte stimulation and skin reaction, Int. J. Cancer 14:333.Google Scholar
  230. VAN Loveren, H., and DEN Otter, W., 1974, In vitro activation of armed macrophages and the therapeutic application in mice, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 52:1917.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Viza, D. C., Bernard-Degani, O., Bernard, C., and Harris, R., 1969, Leukemia antigens, Lancet 2:493.Google Scholar
  232. Wagner, H., and Röllinghoff, M., 1973, In vitro induction of tumor-specific immunity. I. Parameters of activation and cytotoxic reactivity of mouse lymphoid cells immunized in vitro against syngeneic and allogeneic plasma cell tumors, J. Exp. Med. 138:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Wahlström, T., Saksela, E., and Troupp, H., 1973, Cell-bound antiglial immunity in patients with malignant tumors of the brain, Cell. Immunol. 6:161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Wells, S. A., Melewicz, F. C., Christiansen, C., and Ketcham, A. S., 1973. Delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions to membrane extracts of carcinomatous cells of the cervix uteri, Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 136:717.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Wolberg, W. H., and Goelzer, M.L., 1971, In vitro assay of cell-mediated immunity in human cancer: Definition of a leukocyte migration inhibition factor, Nature (London) 229:632.Google Scholar
  236. Wood, G. W., and Barth, R. F., 1974, Immunofluorescent studies of the serologic reactivity of patients with malignant melanoma against tumor-associated cytoplasmic antigens, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 53:309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Wright, P. W., Ortiz, de Landazuri, M., and Herberman, R. B., 1973, Immune response to Gross virus-induced lymphoma: Comparison of two in vitro assays of cell-mediated immunity, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 50:947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Wybran, J., Hellström, I., Hellström, K. E., and Fudenberg, H. H., 1974, Cytotoxicity of human rosette-forming blood lymphocytes on cultivated human tumor cells, Int. J. Cancer 13:515.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Yata, J., and Klein, G., 1969, Some factors affecting membrane immunofluorescence reactivity of Burkitt lymphoma tissue culture cell lines, Int. J. Cancer 4:767.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Yoshida, T. O., and Imai, K., 1970, Auto-antibody to human leukemic cell membrane as detected by immune adherence, Rev. Eur. Etud. Clin. Biol. 15:61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Zighelboim, J., Bonavida, B., and Fahey, J. L., 1973, Evidence for several cell populations active in antibody dependent cellular cytoxicity, J. Immunol. 111:1737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Zighelboim, J., Bonavida, B., and Fahey, J. L., 1974, Antibody-mediated in vivo suppression of EL4 leukemia in a syngeneic host, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 52:879.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sidney H. Golub
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Oncology, Department of Surgery, and Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyUniversity of California at Los Angeles, School of MedicineLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations