Advertisement

Genetics of Orthomyxoviruses

  • Lawrence E. Hightower
  • Michael A. Bratt
Part of the Comprehensive Virology book series (CV, volume 9)

Abstract

The influenza viruses of man and animals comprise the orthomyxovirus group (Melnick, 1973). Originally, these viruses were grouped with the viruses which now constitute the paramyxovirus group under the designation “myxoviruses” (Andrewes et al., 1955). Members of both groups possess RNA genomes and lipid-containing envelopes (ether lability), and exhibit strong affinities for various mucoid substances. Despite these common properties, the elucidation of the genome strategy of these viruses has revealed dramatic differences between paramyxoviruses and influenza viruses. Most of these differences stem from the physical nature of the genome: continuous single-stranded RNA in paramyxoviruses and a segmented single-stranded RNA genome in orthomyxoviruses. Orthomyxoviruses also have a nuclear phase in their reproduction which is absent in paramyxoviruses. Long before molecular studies revealed the disparate nature of these groups, clear differences in their genetic interactions were apparent. Over a quarter century ago, Burnet and Lind (1951) observed that recombinant viruses were produced with unexpectedly high frequency after mixed infection with two different strains of influenza virus. “High-frequency recombination,” as it was usually described, can now be more aptly termed “genetic reassortment,” in light of our current knowledge of the segmented genome. Both terms are used in the contemporary literature and we will use them interchangeably here.

Keywords

Influenza Virus Newcastle Disease Virus Nonpermissive Temperature MDBK Cell Recombination Group 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ada, G. L., and Perry, B. T., 1954, The nucleic acid content of influenza virus, Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 32: 453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Agrawal, H. O., and Bruening, G., 1966, Isolation of high molecular weight P32-labeled influenza virus ribonucleic acid, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 55: 3818.Google Scholar
  3. Aleksandrova, G. I., and Kugel, S. M., 1961, Materials on the preparation of an areactogenic live anti-influenza vaccine for immunization of infants (in Russian), in: Problema Grippa, p. 29, Leningrad.Google Scholar
  4. Almeida, J. D., and Waterson, A. P., 1970, Two morphological aspects of influenza virus, in: The Biology of Large RNA Viruses (R. D. Barry and B. W. J. Mahy, eds.), pp. 27–52, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Aminoff, D., 1961, Methods for the quantitative estimation of N-acetylneuraminic acid and their application to hydrolysates of sialomucoids, Biochem. J. 81: 384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Andrewes, C. H., Bang, F. B., and Burnet, F. M., 1955, A short description of the myxovirus group (influenza and related viruses), Virology 1: 176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Apostolov, K., and Flewett, T. H., 1969, Further observations on the structure of influenza viruses A and C, J. Gen. Virol. 4: 365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Apostolov, K., Flewett, T. H., and Kendall A. P., 1970, Morphology of influenza A. B. C. and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) virions and their replication, in: The Biology of Large RNA Viruses ( R. D. Barry and B. W. J. Mahy, eds.), pp. 3–26, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Armstrong, S. J., and Barry R. D., 1975, The detection of virus-induced RNA synthesis in the nuclei of cells infected with influenza viruses, in: Negative Strand Viruses, Vol. 1 ( B. W. J. Mahy and R. D. Barry, eds.), pp. 491–499, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  10. Bachi, T., Gerhard, W., Lindenmann, J., and Muhlethaler, K., 1969, Morphogenesis of influenza A virus in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells as revealed by thin-sectioning and freeze-etching, J. Virol. 4: 769.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Baron, S., and Jensen, K. E., 1955, Evidence for genetic interaction between noninfectious and infectious A viruses, J. Exp. Med. 102: 677.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Barry, R. D., 1961, The multiplication of influenza virus. II. Multiplicity reactivation of ultraviolet-irradiated virus, Virology 14: 398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Barry, R. D., and Mahy, B. W. J., eds., 1970, The Biology of Large RNA Viruses, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Barry, R. D., Ives, D. R., and Cruickshank, J. G., 1962, Participation of deoxyribonucleic acid in the multiplication of influenza virus, Nature (London) 194: 1139.Google Scholar
  15. Bean, W. J., Jr., and Simpson, R. W., 1976, Transcriptase activity and genome composition of defective influenza virus, J. Virol. 18: 365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bishop, D. H. L., Obijeski, J. F., and Simpson, R. W., 1971, Transcription of the influenza ribonucleic acid genome by a virion polymerase. II. Nature of the in vitro polymerase product, J. Virol. 8: 74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bishop, D. H. L., Roy, P., Bean, W. J., Jr., and Simpson, R. W., 1972, Transcription of the influenza ribonucleic acid genome by a virion polymerase. III. Completeness of the transcription process, J. Virol. 10: 689.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Blair, C. D., and Duesberg, P. H., 1970, Myxovirus ribonucleic acids, Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 24: 539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bromley, P. A., and Barry, R. D., 1973, Arch Ges Virusforsch. 42: 182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Burnet, F. M., 1956, Structure of influenza virus, Science 123: 1101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Burnet, F. M., and Lind, P. E., 1949, Recombination of characters between two influenza virus strains, Aust. J. Sci. 12: 109.Google Scholar
  22. Burnet, F. M., and Lind, P. E., 1951, A genetic approach to variation in influenza viruses. 4. Recombination of characters between the influenza virus A strain NWS and strains of different serological subtypes, J. Gen. Microbiol. 5: 67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Burnet, F. M., and Lind, P. E., 1952, Studies on recombination with influenza viruses in the chick embryo. III. Reciprocal genetic interaction between two influenza virus strains. Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 30: 469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Burnet, F. M., and Lind, P. E., 1954, Reactivation of heat inactivated influenza virus by recombination, Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 32: 133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Burnet, F. M., and Lind, P. E., 1957, Studies on filamentary forms of influenza virus with special reference to the use of dark-ground microscopy, Arch. Ges. Virusforsch. 7: 413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Caliguiri, L. A., and Compans, R. W., 1974, Analysis of the in vitro product of an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase isolated from influenza virus-infected cells, J. Virol. 14: 191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Choppin, P. W., 1963, Multiplication of two kinds of influenza A2 virus particles in monkey kidney cells, Virology 21: 342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Choppin, P. W., 1969, Replication of influenza virus in a continuous cell line: High yield of infective virus from cells inoculated at high multiplicity, Virology 38: 130.Google Scholar
  29. Choppin, P. W., and Pons, M. W., 1970, The RNA’s of infective and incomplete influenza virions grown in MDBK and HeLa cells, Virology 42: 603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Choppin, P. W., and Tamm, I., 1960a, Studies of two kinds of virus particles which comprise influenza A2 virus strains. I. Characterization of stable homogeneous substrains in reactions with specific antibody, mucoprotein inhibitors, and erythrocytes, J. Exp. Med. 112: 895.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Choppin, P. W., and Tamm, I., 19606, Studies of two kinds of virus particles which comprise influenza A2 virus strains. II. Reactivity with virus inhibitors in normal sera, J. Exp. Med. 112: 921.Google Scholar
  32. Choppin, P. W., and Tamm, I., 1964, Genetic variants of influenza virus which differ in reactivity with receptors and antibodies, in: Ciba Foundation Symposium: Cellular Biology of Myxovirus Infections, Little, Brown, Boston.Google Scholar
  33. Choppin, P. W., Murphy, J. S., and Tamm, I., 1960, Studies of two kinds of virus particles which comprise influenza A2 virus strains. III. Morphological characteristics: Independence of morphological and functional traits, J. Exp. Med. 112: 945.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Choppin, P. W., Kilbourne, E. D., Dowdle, W., Hirst, G. K., Joklik, W. K., Simpson, R. W., and White, D. O., 1975, Genetics, replication, and inhibition of replication of influenza virus—Summary of influenza workshop VII, J. Infect. Dis. 132: 713.Google Scholar
  35. Compans, R. W., 1973, Influenza virus proteins. II. Association with components of the cytoplasm, Virology 51: 56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Compans, R. W., and Caliguiri, L. A., 1973, Isolation and properties of an RNA polymerase from influenza virus-infected cells, J. Virol. 11: 441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Compans, R. W., and Choppin, P. W., 1975, Reproduction of myxoviruses, in: Comprehensive Virology, Vol. 4 ( H. Fraenkel-Conrat and R. R. Wagner, eds.), pp. 179–252, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  38. Compans, R. W., and Dimmock, N. J., 1969, An electron microscopic study of single-cycle infection of chick embryo fibroblasts by influenza virus, Virology 39: 499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Compans, R. W., Dimmock, N. J., and Meier-Ewert, H., 1969, Effect of antibody to neuraminidase on the maturation and hemagglutinating activity of an influenza virus A2, J. Virol. 4: 528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Compans, R. W., Dimmock, N. J., and Meier-Ewert, H., 1970, An electron microscopic study of the influenza virus-infected cell, in: The Biology of Large RNA Viruses ( R. D. Barry and B. W. J. Mahy, eds.), pp. 87–108, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  41. Compans, R. W., Content, J., and Duesberg, P. H., 1972, Structure of the ribonucleoprotein of influenza virus, J. Virol. 10: 795.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Content, J., 1976, Cell-free translation of influenza virus mRNA, J. Virol. 18: 604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Content, J., and Duesberg, P. H., 1971, Base sequence differences among the ribonucleic acids of influenza virus, J. Mol. Biol. 62: 273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Cooper, P. D., 1969, The genetic analysis of poliovirus, in: The Biochemistry of Viruses ( H. B. Levy, ed.), pp. 177–218, Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  45. Dahlberg, J. E., and Simon, E. H., 1969, Recombination in Newcastle disease virus (NDV): The problem of complementing heterozygotes, Virology 38: 490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Dales, S., and Pons, M. W., 1976, Penetration of influenza examined by means of virus aggregates, Virology 69: 278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Duesberg, P. H., 1968, The RNA’s of influenza virus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 59: 930.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Duesberg, P. H., 1969, Distinct subunits of the ribonucleoprotein of influenza virus, J. Mol. Biol. 42: 485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Duesberg, P. H., and Robinson, W. S., 1967, On the structure and replication of influenza virus, J. Mol. Biol. 25: 383.Google Scholar
  50. Emerson, S. U., and Wagner, R. R., 1973, L protein requirement for in vitro RNA synthesis by vesicular stomatitis virus, J. Virol. 12: 1325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Etkind, P. R., and Krug, R. M., 1975, Purification of influenza viral complementary RNA: Its genetic content and activity in wheat germ cell-free extracts, J. Virol. 16: 1464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Fazekas de St. Groth, S., 1970, Evolution and hierarchy of influenza viruses, Arch. Environ. Health 21: 292.Google Scholar
  53. Fenner, F., 1969, Conditional lethal mutants of animal viruses, Curr. Top. Microbiol. 48: 1.Google Scholar
  54. Fenner, F., 1970, The genetics of animal viruses, Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 24: 297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Fields, B. N., 1971, Temperature-sensitive mutants of reovirus type 3: Features of genetic recombination, Virology 46: 142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Floyd, R. W., Stone, M. P., and Joklik, W. K., 1974, Separation of single-stranded ribonucleic acids by acrylamide-agarose-urea gel electrophoresis, Anal. Biochem. 59: 599.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Frisch-Niggemeyer, W., and Hoyle, L., 1956, The nucleic acid and carbohydrate content of influenza virus A and of virus fractions produced by ether disintegration, J. Hyg. 54: 201.Google Scholar
  58. Furuichi, Y., Muthukrishnan, S., and Shatkin, A. J., 1975, Terminal M7G(5’) ppp (5’) G p In vivo: Identification in reovirus genomic RNA, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72: 742.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Ghendon, Y. Z., 1972, Conditional lethal mutants of animal viruses, Prog. Med. Virol. 14: 68.Google Scholar
  60. Ghendon, Y. Z., Markushin, S. G., Marchenko, A. T., Sitnikov, B. S., and Ginzburg, V. P., 1973, Biochemical characteristics of fowl plaque virus TS mutants, Virology 55: 305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Ghendon, Y. Z., Markushin, S. G., Blagovczhenskaya, O. V., and Genkina, D. B., 1975, Study of fowl plague virus RNA synthesis in is mutants, Virology 66: 454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Glass, S. E., McGeoch, D., and Barry, R. D., 1975, Characterization of the mRNA of influenza virus, J. Virol. 16: 1435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Gottlieb, T., and Hirst, G. K., 1954, The experimental production of combination forms of virus. III. The formation of doubly antigenic particles from influenza A and B virus and a study of the ability of individual particles of X virus to yield separate strains, J. Exp. Med. 99: 307.Google Scholar
  64. Granoff, A., and Hirst, G. K., 1954, The experimental production of combination forms of virus. IV. Mixed influenza A Newcastle disease virus infections, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. 86: 84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Granoff, A., and Kingsburg, D. W., 1964, Effect of actinomycin D on the replication of Newcastle disease and influenza virus, in: Cell Biology of Myxovirus Infection ( G. E. W. Wolstenholme and J. Knight, eds.), pp. 99–119, Little, Brown, Boston.Google Scholar
  66. Gregoriades, A., 1970, Actinomycin D and influenza virus multiplication in the chick embryo fibroblast, Virology 42: 905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Gregoriades, A., 1973, The membrane protein of influenza virus: Extraction from virus and infected cell with acidic chloroform-methanol, Virology 54: 369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Gregoriades, A., and Hirst, G. K., 1976, Mechanism of influenza recombination. III. Biochemical studies of temperature-sensitive mutants belonging to different recombination groups, Virology 69: 81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Griffith, I. P., 1975, The fine structure of influenza virus, in: Negative Strand Viruses, Vol. 1 ( B. W. J. Mahy and R. D. Barry, eds.), p. 121, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  70. Hartman, P. E., and Roth, J. R., 1973, Mechanisms of suppression, Adv. Genet. 17: 1.Google Scholar
  71. Hastie, N. D., and Mahy, B. W. J., 1973, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in nuclei of cells infected with influenza virus, J. Virol 12: 951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Hay, A. J., and J. J. Skehel, 1975, Studies on the synthesis of influenza virus, in: Negative Strand Viruses, Vol. 2 ( B. W. J. Mahy and R. D. Barry, eds.), pp. 635–655, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  73. Hefti, E., Roy, P., and Bishop, D. H. L., 1975, The initiation of transcription by influenza virion transcriptase, in: Negative Strand Viruses, Vol. 1 ( R. D. Barry and B. W. J. Mahy, eds.), pp. 307–326, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  74. Henle, G., Girardi, A., and Henle, W., 1955, A non-transmissable cytopathogenic effect of influenza virus in tissue culture accompanied by formation of non-infectious hemagglutinins, J. Exp. Med. 101: 25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Henle, W., and Liu, O. C., 1951, Studies on host-virus interactions in the chick embryo-influenza virus system. VI. Evidence for multiplicity reactivation of inactivated virus, J. Exp. Med. 94: 305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Hillis, W. D., Moffat, M. A. J., and Holtermann, O. A., 1960, The development of soluble (s) and viral (v) antigens of influenza A virus in tissue culture as studied by the flourescent antibody technique. 3. Studies on the abortive cycle of replication in HeLa cells, Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 50: 419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Hirst, G. K., 1962, Genetic recombination with Newcastle disease virus, poliovirus and influenza, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 27: 303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Hirst, G. K., 1973, Mechanism of influenza recombination. I. Factors influencing recombination rates between temperature-sensitive mutants of strain WSN and the classficiation of mutants into complementation-recombination groups, Virology 55: 81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Hirst, G. K., and Gottlieb, T., 1955, The experimental production of combination forms of virus. V. Alterations in the virulence of neurotropic influenza virus as a result of mixed infection, Virology 1: 221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Hirst, G. K., and Pons, M., 1972, Biological activity in ribonucleoprotein fractions of influenza virus, Virology 47: 546.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Hirst, G. K., and Pons, M. W., 1973, Mechanism of influenza virus recombination. II. Virus aggregation and its effect on plaque formation by socalled noninfectious virus, Virology 56: 620.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Horne, R. W., Waterson, A. P., Wildy, P., and Farnham, A. E., 1960, The structure and composition of the myxoviruses. I. Electron microscope studies of the structure of the myxovirus particles by negative staining techniques, Virology 11: 79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Horst, J., Content, J., Mandeles, S., Fraenkel-Conrat, H., and Duesberg, P., 1972, Distinct oligonucleotide patterns of distinct influenza virus RNA’s, J. Mol. Biol. 69: 209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Hoyle, L., 1968, The influenza viruses, Monogr. Virol. 4: 1.Google Scholar
  85. Hoyle, L., Horne, R. W., and Waterson, A. P., 1961, The structure and composition of the myxoviruses. II. Components released from the influenza virus particle by ether, Virology 13: 448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Inglis, S. C., Carroll, A. R., Lamb, R. A., and Mahy, B. W. J., 1976, Polypeptides specified by the influenza virus genome. I. Evidence for eight distinct gene products specified by fowl plague virus, Virology 74: 489–503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Isaacs, A., and Donald, H. B., 1955, Particle counts of hemagglutinating viruses, J. Gen. Microbiol. 12: 241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Joss, A., Gandhi, S. S., Hay, A. J., and Burke, D. C., 1969, Ribonucleic acid and pro- tein synthesis in chick embryo cells infected with fowl plaque virus, J. Virol. 4: 816.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Kendal, A. P., Kiley, M. P., and Maassab, H. F., 1973, Comparative studies of wild-type and “cold-mutant” (temperature-sensitive) influenza viruses: Polypeptide synthesis by an Asian (H2N2) strain and its cold-adapted variant, J. Virol. 12: 1503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Kilbourne, E. D., 1955, Reactivation of non-infective virus in a cortisone-infected host, J. Exp. Med. 101: 437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Kilbourne, E. D., 1963, Influenza virus genetics, Prog. Med. Virol. 5: 79.Google Scholar
  92. Kilbourne, E. D., 1969, Future influenza vaccines and the use of genetic recombinants, Bull. WHO 41: 643.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Kilbourne, E. D., 1973, The molecular epidemiology of influenza, J. Infect. Dis. 127: 478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Kilbourne, E. D., ed., 1975, The Influenza Viruses and Influenza, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  95. Kilbourne, E. D., and Murphy, J. S., 1960, Genetic studies of influenza virus. I. Viral morphology and growth capacity as exchangeable genetic traits: Rapid in ovo adaptation of early passage Asian strain isolated by combination with PR8, J. Exp. Med. 111: 387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Kilbourne, Edwin D., Lief, F. S., Schulman, J. L., Jahiel, R. I., and Laver, W. G., 1967, Antigenic hybrids of influenza viruses and their implications, Perspect. Virol. 5: 87.Google Scholar
  97. Kilbourne, E. D., Laver, W. G., Schulman, J. L., and Webster, R. G., 1968, Antiviral activity of antiserum specific for an influenza virus neuraminidase, J. Virol. 2: 281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Kilbourne, E. D., Choppin, P. W., Schulze, I. T., Scholtissek, C., and Bucher, D. L., 1972, Influenza virus polypeptides and antigens—Summary of influenza workshop I, J. Infect. Dis. 125: 447.Google Scholar
  99. Kingsbury, D. W., 1970, Replication and functions of myxovirus ribonucleic acids, Prog. Med. Virol. 12: 49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Kingsbury, D. W., and Webster, R. G., 1969, Some properties of influenza virus nucleocapsids, J. Virol. 4: 219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Klenk, H. D., Scholtissek, C., and Rott, R., 1972, Inhibition of glycoprotein biosynthesis of influenza virus by D-glucosamine and 2-deoxy-D-glucose, Virology 49: 723.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Krug, R. M., 1971, Influenza viral RNP’s newly synthesized during the latent period of growth in MDCK cells, Virology 44: 125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Krug, R. M., 1972, Cytoplasmic and nucleoplasmic viral RNPs in influenza virus-infected MDCK cells, Virology 50: 103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Krug, R. M., and Etkind, P. R., 1975, Influenza virus-specific products in the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected cells, in: Negative Strand Viruses, Vol. 2 ( B. W. J. Mahy and R. D. Barry, eds.), pp. 555–572, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  105. Krug, R. M., Ueda, M., and Palesa, P., 1975, Temperature-sensitive mutants of influenza WSN virus defective in Virus-specific RNA synthesis, J. Virol. 16: 790.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Kubinski, H., and Gibbs, P., 1970, Tenacious binding of nucleic acids to basic proteins in vitro: Influence of antibiotics, Fed. Proc. 29: 877A.Google Scholar
  107. Lamb, R. A., and Choppin, P. W., 1976, Synthesis of influenza virus proteins in infected cells: Translation of viral polypeptides, including three P polypeptides, from RNA produced by primary transcription, Virology 74: 504–519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Laver, W. G., 1973, The polypeptides of influenza viruses, Adv. Virus Res. 18: 57.Google Scholar
  109. Laver, W. G., and Downie, J. C., 1976, Influenza virus recombination. I. Matrix protein markers and segregation during mixed infections, Virology 70: 105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Laver, W. G., and Kilbourne, E. D., 1966, Identification in recombinant influenza virus of structural proteins derived from both parents, Virology 30: 493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Lazarowitz, S. G., Compans, R. W., and Choppin, P. W., 1971, Influenza virus structural and non-structural proteins in infected cells and their plasma membranes, Virology 46: 830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Lewandowski, L. J., Content, J., and Leppla, S. H., 1971, Characterization of the subunit structure of the ribonucleic acid genome of influenza virus, J. Virol. 8: 701.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Li, K. K., and Seto, J. T., 1971, Electron microscope study of ribonucleic acid of myxoviruses, J. Virol. 7: 524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Lind, P. E., and Burnet, F. M., 1957, Recombination between virulent and non-virulent strains of influenza virus. I. The significance of heterozygosis, Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 35: 57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Maassab, H. F., 1967, Adaptation and growth characteristics of influenza virus at 25°C, Nature (London) 213: 612.Google Scholar
  116. Maassab, H. F., 1968, Plaque formation of influenza virus at 25°C, Nature (London) 219: 645.Google Scholar
  117. Maassab, H. F., 1969, Biologic and immunologic characteristics of cold-adapted influenza virus, J. Immunol. 102: 728.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Maassab, H. F., 1970, Development of variants of influenza virus, in: The Biology of Large RNA Viruses ( R. D. Barry and B. W. J. Mahy, eds.), pp. 542–566, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  119. Maassab, H. F., 1975, Properties of influenza virus “cold” recombinants, in: Negative Strand Viruses, Vol. 2 ( B. W. J. Mahy and R. D. Barry, eds.), pp. 755–765, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  120. Mackenzie, J. S., 1969, Virulence of temperature-sensitive mutants of influenza virus, Br. Med. J. 3: 757.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Mackenzie, J. S., 1970a, Isolation of temperature-sensitive mutants and the construction of a preliminary genetic map for influenza virus, J. Gen. Virol. 6: 63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Mackenzie, J. S., 1970b, Studies with temperature-sensitive mutants of influenza virus, in: The Biology of Large RNA Viruses, ( R. D. Barry and B. W. J. Mahy, eds.), pp. 507–534, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  123. Mackenzie, J. S., 1971, The use of temperature-sensitive mutants in live virus vaccines, Proc. Symp. Live Influenza Vaccine, p. 35.Google Scholar
  124. Mackenzie, J. S., and Dimmock, N. J., 1973, A preliminary study of physiological characteristics of temperature-sensitive mutants of influenza virus, J. Gen. Virol. 19: 51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Mahy, B. W. J., and Barry, R. D., eds., 1975, Negative Strand Viruses, Vols. 1 and 2, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  126. Mahy, B. W. J., and Bromley, P. A., 1970, In vitro product of a ribonucleic acid polymerase induced by influenza virus, J. Virol. 6: 259.Google Scholar
  127. Markushin, S. G., and Ghendon, Y. Z., 1973, Genetic classification and biological properties of temperature-sensitive mutants of fowl plague virus, Acta Virol. 17: 369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. McCahon, D., Hay, A. J., and Skehel, J. J., 1975, Genetic analysis of influenza virus by marker rescue, in: Negative Strand Viruses, Vol. 2 ( B. W. J. Mahy and R. D. Barry, eds.), pp. 725–740, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  129. McGeoch, D., and Kitron, N. 1975, Influenza virion RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase: stimulation by guanosine and related compounds, J. Virol. 15: 686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. McGeocn, D., Fellner, P., and Newton, C., 1976, The influenza virus genome consists of eight distinct RNA species, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.Google Scholar
  131. McSharry, J. J., Compans, R. W., and Choppin, P. W., 1971, Proteins of vesicular sto- matitis virus (VSV) and of phenotypically-mixed VSV-SV5 virions, J. Virol. 8: 722.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Medvedeva, T. E., Aleksandrova, G. I., and Smorodintsev, A. A., 1969, Pathogenicity of cryophilic and thermophilic strains of influenza type A2 virus for developing chick embryo and albino mice, Acta Virol. 13: 379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Meier-Ewert, H., and Dimmock, N. J., 1970, The role of the neuraminidase of the infecting virus in the production of noninfectious (von Magnus) influenza virus, Virology 42: 794.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Meier-Ewert, H., Gibbs, A. J., and Dimmock, N. J., 1970, Studies on antigenic variations of swine influenza virus isolates, J. Gen. Virol. 6: 409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Melnick, J. L., 1973, Classification and nomenclature of viruses, Prog. Med. Virol. 15: 380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Mills, J. V., and Chanock, R. M., 1971, Temperature-sensitive mutants of influenza virus. I. Behavior in tissue culture and in experimental animals, J. Infect. Dis. 123: 145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Mills, J., Chanock, R. M., and Alling, D. W., 1969a, Mutants of influenza virus, Br. Med. J. Dec. 13, 690.Google Scholar
  138. Mills, J., van Kirk, J., Hill, D. A., and Chanock, R. M., 1969b, Evaluation of influenza virus mutants for possible use in a live virus vaccine, Bull. WHO 41: 599.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Mowshowitz, S., and Kilbourne, E. D., 1975, Genetic dimorphism of the neuraminidase in recombinants of H3N2 influenza virus, in: Negative Strand Viruses, Vol. 2 ( B. W. J. Mahy and R. D. Barry eds.), pp. 765–775. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  140. Murphy, B. R., Chalhub, E. G., Nusinoff, S. R., and Chanock, R. M., 1972, Temperature-sensitive mutants of influenza virus. II. Attenuation of ts recombinants for man, J. Infect. Dis. 126: 170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Murphy, B. R., Baron, S., Chalhub, E. G., Uhlendorf, C. P., and Chanock, R. M., 1973a, Temperature-sensitive mutants of influenza virus. IV. Induction of interferon in the nasopharynx by wild-type and a temperature-sensitive recombinant virus, J. Infect. Dis. 128: 488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Murphy, B. R., Chalhub, E. G., Nusinoff, S. R., Kasel, J., and Chanock, R. M., 1973b, Temperature-sensitive mutants of influenza virus. III. Further characterization of the ts-1 [E] influenza A recombinant (H3N2) virus in man, J. Infect. Dis. 128: 479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Murphy, B. R., Hodes, D. S., Nusinoff, S. R., Spring-Stewart, S., Tierney, E. L., and Chanock, R. M., 1974, Temperature-sensitive mutants of influenza virus. V. Evaluation in man of an additional ts recombinant virus with a 39°C shutoff temperature, J. Infect. Dis. 130: 144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Nayak, D. P., 1969, Influenza virus: Structure, replication and defectiveness, Fed. Proc. 28: 1858.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Nayak, D. P., 1970, The replication of influenza virus RNA, in: The Biology of Large RNA Viruses ( R. D. Barry and B. W. J. Mahy, eds.), pp. 371–391, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  146. Nayak, D. P., 1972, Defective virus RNA synthesis and production of incomplete influenza virus in chick embryo cells, J. Gen. Virol. 14: 63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Nayak, D. P., and Baluda, M. A., 1969, Characterization of influenza virus ribonucleic acid duplex produced by annealing in vitro, J. Virol. 3: 318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Nordling, S., and Mayhew, E., 1966, Exp. Cell. Res. 44: 552.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Noronha-Blob, L., and Schulze, I. T., 1976, Viral interference-mediated selection of a plaque-type variant of influenza virus, Virology 69: 314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Palese, P., and Schulman, J. L., 1974, Isolation and characterization of influenza virus recombinants with high and low neuraminidase activity, Virology 57: 227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Palese, P., and Schulman, J. L., 1976, Differences in RNA patterns of influenza A virus, J. Virol. 17: 876.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Palese, P., Tobita, K., Ueda, M., and Compans, R. W., 1974, Characterization of temperature-sensitive influenza virus mutants defective in neuraminidase, Virology 61: 397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Pons, M. W., 1967a, Studies on influenza virus ribonucleic acid, Virology 31:523. Pons, M. W., 1967b, Some characteristics of double-stranded influenza virus ribonucleic acid, Arch. Ges. Virusforsch. 22: 203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Pons, M. W., 1970, On the nature of the influenza virus genome, Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 52: 142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Pons, M. W., 1971, Isolation of influenza virus ribonucleoprotein from infected cells: Demonstration of the presence of negative-stranded RNA in viral RNP, Virology 46: 149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Pons, M. W., 1972, Studies on the replication of influenza virus RNA, Virology 47: 823.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Pons, M. W., 1973, The inhibition of influenza virus RNA synthesis by actinomycin D and cycloheximide, Virology 51: 120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Pons, M. W., 1976, A reexamination of influenza single-and double-stranded RNAs by gel electrophoresis, Virology 69: 789.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Pons, M. W., and Hirst, G. K., 1968, Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the replicative form of influenza virus RNA, Virology 35: 182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Pons, M. W., and Hirst, G. K., 1969, The single-and double-stranded RNA’s and the proteins of incomplete influenza virus, Virology 38: 68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Richman, D. D., Murphy, B. R., Spring, S. B., Coleman, M. T., and Chanock, R. M., 1975, Temperature-sensitive mutants of influenza virus. IX. Genetic and biological characterization of TS-1 [E] lesions when transferred to a 1972 (H3N2) influenza A virus, Virology 66: 551.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Ritchey, M. B., Palese, P., and Kilbourne, E. D., 1976a, RNAs of influenza A, B, and C viruses, J. Virol. 18: 738.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Ritchey, M. B., Palese, P., and, Schulman, J. L., 1976b, Mapping of the influenza virus genome. III. Identification of genes coding for nucleoprotein, membrane protein, and nonstructural protein, J. Virol. 20: 307–313.Google Scholar
  164. Rochovansky, O. M., and Hirst, G. K., 1976, Infectivity and marker rescue activity of influenza virus ribonucleoprotein-polymerase complexes, Virology 73: 339–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Rott, R., and Scholtissek, C., 1963, Investigations about the formation of incomplete forms of fowl plague virus, J. Gen. Microbiol. 33: 303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Ruck, B. J., Brammer, K. W., Page, M. G., and Coombes, J. D., 1969, The detection and characterization of an induced RNA polymerase in the chorioallantoic membranes of embryonated eggs infected with influenza A2 viruses, Virology 39: 31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Scholtissek, C., and Bowles, A., 1975, Isolation and characterization of temperature-sensitive mutants of fowl plague virus, Virology 67: 576.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Scholtissek, C., and Rott, R., 1964, Behavior of virus-specific activities in tissue cultures infected with myxoviruses after chemical changes of the viral ribonucleic acid, Virology 22: 169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Scholtissek, C., and Rott, R., 1969, Ribonucleic acid nucleotidyl transferase induced in chick fibroblasts after infection with an influenza virus, J. Gen. Virol. 4: 125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Scholtissek, C., and Rott, R., 1970, Synthesis in vivo of influenza virus plus and minus strand RNA and its preferential inhibition by antibiotics, Virology 40: 989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Scholtissek, C., Kruczinna, R., Rott, R., and Kienk, H. D., 1974, Characteristics of an influenza mutant temperature-sensitive for viral RNA synthesis, Virology 58: 317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Schulze, I. T., 1970, The structure of influenza virus. I. The polypeptides of the virion, Virology 42: 890.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Schulze, I. T., 1973, Structure of the influenza virion, Adv. Virus Res. 18: 1.Google Scholar
  174. Shatkin, A. J., 1971, Viruses with segmented ribonucleic acid genomes: Multiplication of influenza versus reovirus, Bacteriol. Rev. 35: 250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Simpson, R. W., and Hirst, G. K., 1961, Genetic recombination among influenza viruses. I. Cross reactivation of plaque forming capacity as a method for selecting recomginants from the progeny of crosses between influenza A strains, Virology 15: 436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Simpson, R. W., and Hirst, G. K., 1968, Temperature-sensitive mutants of influenza A virus: Isolation of mutants and preliminary observations on genetic recombination and complementation, Virology 35: 41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Skehel, J. J., 197la, Estimations of the molecular weight of the influenza virus genome, J. Gen. Virol. 11: 103.Google Scholar
  178. Skehel, J. J., 1971b, The characterization of subviral particles derived from influenza virus, Virology 44: 409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Skehel, J. J., 1972, Polypeptide synthesis in influenza virus-infected cells, Virology 49: 23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Spring, S. B., Nusinoff, S. R., Mills, J., Richman, D. D., Tierney, E. L., Murphy, B. R., and Chanock, R. M., 1975a, Temperature-sensitive mutants of influenza virus. VI. Transfer of is lesions from the Asian subtype of influenza A virus (H2N2) to the Hong Kong subtype (H3N2), Virology 66: 522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Spring, S. B., Nusinoff, S. R., Tierney, E. L., Richman, D. D., Murphy, B. R., and R. M., Chanock, 19756, Temperature-sensitive mutants of influenza. VIII. Genetic and biological characterization of TS mutants of influenza virus A (H3N2) and their assignment to complementation groups, Virology 66: 542.Google Scholar
  182. Sugiura, A., 1975, Influenza virus genetics, in: The Influenza Viruses and Influenza ( E. D. Kilbourne, ed.), Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  183. Sugiura, A., and Kilbourne, E. D., 1965, Genetic studies of influenza viruses. II. Plaque formation by influenza viruses in a clone of a variant human heteroploid cell line, Virology 26: 478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Sugiura A., and Kilbourne, E. D., 1966, Genetic studies of influenza viruses. III. Production of plaque type recombinants with AO and A 1 strains, Virology 29: 84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Sugiura, A., and Ueda, M., 1971, Marker rescue with ultraviolet inactivated influenza virus, J. Virol. 7: 499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Sugiura, A., Tobita, K., and Kilbourne, E. D., 1972, Isolation and preliminary characterization of temperature-sensitive mutants of influenza virus, J. Virol. 10: 639.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Sugiura, A., Ueda, M., Tobita, K., and Enomoto, C., 1975, Further isolation and characterization of temperature-sensitive mutants of influenza virus, Virology 65: 363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Tobita, K., 1971, Genetic recombination between influenza viruses AO/NWS and A2/ Hong Kong, Arch. Ges. Virusforsch. 34: 119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Tobita, K., 1972, Kinetics of genetic recomtination between influenza viruses AO/NWS and A2/Hong Kong, Arch. Ges. Virusforsch. 38: 100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Tobita, K., and Kilbourne, E. D., 1974, Genetic recombination for antigenic markers of antigenically different strains of influenza B virus, J. Virol. 13: 347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Tumova, B., and Pereira, H. G., 1965, Genetic interaction between influenza A viruses of human and animal origin, Virology 27: 253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Ueda, M., 1972, Temperature-sensitive mutants of influenza virus, Arch. Ges. Virusforsch. 39: 360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Magnus, P., 1954, Incomplete forms of influenza virus, Adv. Virus Res. 2: 59.Google Scholar
  194. W agner, R. R., 1975, Reproduction of rhabdoviruses, in: Comprehensive Virology, Vol. 4 ( H. Fraenkel-Conrat and R. R. Wagner, eds.), pp. 1–93, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  195. Webster, R. G., 1972, On the origin of pandemic influenza viruses, Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 59: 75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Webster, R. G., and Campbell, C. H., 1972, The in vivo production of “new” influenza viruses. II. In vivo isolation of “new” viruses, Virology 48: 528.Google Scholar
  197. Webster, R. G., and Granoff, A., 1974, Evolution of orthomyxoviruses, in: Viruses, Evolution, and Cancer ( E. Kurstak, and K. Maramorosch, eds.), pp. 625–649, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  198. Webster, R. G., and Laver, W. G., 1971, Antigenic variation in influenza virus biology and chemistry, Prog. Med. Virol. 13: 271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Webster, R. G., Laver, W. G., and Kilbourne, E. D., 1968, Reactions of antibodies with surface antigens of influenza virus, J. Gen. Virol. 3: 315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. White, D. O., 1974, Influenza viral proteins: Identification and synthesis, Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 63: 1.Google Scholar
  201. White, D. O., and Cheyne, I. M., 1965, Stimulation of Sendai virus multiplication by puromycin and actinomycin D, Nature (London) 208: 813.Google Scholar
  202. Young, R. J., and Content, J., 1971, Terminus of influenza virus RNA, Nature (London) New Biol. 230: 140.Google Scholar
  203. Zhdanov, V. M., 1965, A suggested genetic map of influenza virus, Lancet, April 3, p. 738.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lawrence E. Hightower
    • 1
  • Michael A. Bratt
    • 2
  1. 1.Microbiology Section, Biological Sciences GroupUniversity of ConnecticutStorrsUSA
  2. 2.Microbiology DepartmentUniversity of Massachusetts Medical SchoolWorcesterUSA

Personalised recommendations