The P 2–P 4 Transactivation System

  • Richard Calendar
  • Janet Geisselsoder
  • Melvin G. Sunshine
  • Erich W. Six
  • Björn H. Lindqvist
Part of the Comprehensive Virology book series (CV)


The interactions between bacteriophage P 2 and its satellite phage P 4 comprise a promising model system for studying the control of transcription because the two phage have relatively small and therefore tractable genomes and yet exhibit a surprisingly complex set of effects upon one another. Each phage possesses the ability to drastically alter the expression of the other’s genome.


Late Gene Essential Gene Phage Particle Temperate Phage Helper Phage 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Barrett, K., Gibbs, W., and Calendar, R., 1972, A transcribing activity induced by satellite phage P 4, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 69, 2986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barrett, K., Barclay, S., Calendar, R., Lindqvist, B., and Six, E. W., 1974, Reciprocal transactivation in a two-chromosome phage system, in “Mechanism of Virus Disease” (W. S. Robinson and C. F. Fox, eds.), p. 385, W. A. Benjamin, Inc., Menlo Park, California.Google Scholar
  3. Barrett, K. J., Marsh, M. L., and Calendar, R., 1976, Interactions between a satellite phage and its helper, J. Mol. Biol. 106, 683.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bertani, G., 1951, Studies on lysogenesis. I. The mode of phage liberation by lysogenic E. coli, J. Bacteriol. 62, 293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bertani, L. E., 1968, Abortive induction of bacteriophage P 2, Virology 36, 87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bertani, L. E., and Bertani, G., 1971, Genetics of P 2 and related phages, Adv. Genet. 16, 199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blacklow, N. R., Dolin, R., and Hoggan, M. D., 1971, Studies of the enhancement of an adenovirus-associated virus by herpes simplex virus, J. Gen. Virol. 10, 29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bowden, D. W., Twersky, R. S., and Calendar, R., 1975, Escherichia coli deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis mutants: Their effect upon bacteriophage P 2 and satellite bacteriophage P 4 deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis, J. Bacteriol. 124, 167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Calendar, R., and Lindahl, G., 1969, Attachment of prophage P 2: Gene order at different host chromosomal sites, Virology 39, 867.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Calendar, R., Lindqvist, B. H., Sironi, G., and Clark, A. J., 1970, Characterization of REP mutants and their interactions with P 2 phage, Virology 40, 72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chattoraj, D. K., and Inman, R. B., 1972, Position of two deletion mutations on the physical map of bacteriophage P 2, J. Mol. Biol. 66, 423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chattoraj, D. K., and Inman, R. B., 1974, Tandem duplication in bacteriophage P 2: Electron microscopic mapping, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 71, 311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Coppo, A., Manzi, A., Pulitzer, J. F., and Takahashi, H., 1975, Host mutant (tabD) induced inhibition of bacteriophage T 4 late transcription. I. Isolation and phenotypic characterization of the mutants, J. Mol. Biol. 96, 579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fujiki, H., Palm, P., Zillig, W., Calendar, R., and Sunshine, M., 1976, Identification of a mutation within the structural gene for the subunit of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase of E. coli, Molec. Gen. Genet. 145, 19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Geisselsoder, J., 1976, Strand-specific discontinuity in replicating P 2 DNA, J. Mol. Biol. 100, 13–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Geisselsoder, J., Mandel, M., Calendar, R., and Chattoraj, D. K., 1973, Patterns of transcription after infection with bacteriophage P 2, J. Mol. Biol. 77 ,405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gibbs, W., Goldstein, R., Wiener, R., Lindqvist, B., and Calendar, R., 1973, Satellite bacteriophage P 4: Characterization of mutants in two essential genes, Virology 53, 24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Goldstein, L., Thomas, M., and Davis, R. W., 1975, EcoRI endonuclease cleavage map of bacteriophage P 4 DNA, Virology 66, 420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Goldstein, R. N., Lengyel, J., Pruss, G., Barrett, K., Calendar, R., and Six, E. W., 1974, Phage head size determination and the morphogenesis of satellite phage P 4, Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 68, 59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Hamerton, J. L., 1968, Significance of sex chromosome derived heterochromatin in mammals. Nature (London) 219, 910.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hosoda, J., and Levinthal. C., 1968. Protein synthesis by Escherichia coli infected with bacteriophage T 4D, Virology 34,709.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Imamoto, F., and Yanofsky, C., 1967, Transcription of the tryptophan operon in polarity mutants of E. coli. I. Characterization of the tryptophan messenger RNA of polar mutants, J. Mol. Biol. 28, 1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Inman, R., and Bertani, G., 1969, Heat denaturation of P 2 DNA: Compositional heterogeneity, J. Mol. Biol. 44, 533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Inman, R., Schnös, M., Simon, L., Six, E. W., and Walker, D., 1971, Some morphological properties of P 4 bacteriophage and P 4 DNA, Virology 44, 67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jaskunas, S. R., Burgess, R., Lindahl, L., and Nomura, M., 1975, Two clusters of genes for RNA polymerase and ribosome components in E. coli, in “RNA Polymerase” (M. Chamberlin and R. Losick, eds.). Cold Spring Harbor, New York.Google Scholar
  26. Lengyel, J., and Calendar, R., 1974, Control of bacteriophage P 2 protein and DNA synthesis, Virology 57, 305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lindahl, G., 1969a, Genetic map of bacteriophage P 2, Virology 39, 839.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lindahl, G., 1969b, Multiple recombination mechanisms in bacteriophage P 2, Virology 39 ,861.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lindahl, G., 1970, Bacteriophage P 2: Replication of the chromosome requires a protein which acts only on the genome that coded for it, Virology 42, 522.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lindahl, G., 1971, On the control of transcription in bacteriophage P 2, Virology 46, 620.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lindahl, G., 1974, Characterization of conditional lethal mutants of bacteriophage P 2, Mol. Gen. Genet. 128, 249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lindqvist, B. H., 1971, Vegetative DNA of temperate coliphage P 2, Mol. Gen. Genet. 110, 178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Lindqvist, B. H., 1974, Expression of phage transcription in P 2 lysogens infected with helper-dependent coliphage P 4, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 71, 2752.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lindqvist, B. H., and Six, E. W., 1971, Replication of bacteriophage P 4 DNA in a nonlysogenic host, Virology 43, 1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mittwoch, U., 1973, “Genetics of Sex Differentiation,” Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  36. Pruss, G., Goldstein, R. N., and Calendar, R., 1974a, In vitro packaging of satellite phage P 4 DNA, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 71, 2367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pruss G Barrett K Lengyel. .J., Goldstein. R., and Calendar. R., 1974b. Phage head size determination and head protein cleavage in vitro, J. Supramol. Struct. 2, 337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pruss, G., Wang, J. C., and Calendar, R., 1975, In vitro packaging of covalently closed circular monomers of bacteriophage DNA, J. Mol. Biol. 98, 465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Richardson, J. P., Grimley, C., and Lowrey, C., 1975, Transcription termination factor rho activity is altered Escherichia coli with suA gene mutations, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 72, 1725.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Riva, S., Cascino, A., and Geiduscheck, E. P., 1970, Coupling of late transcription of viral replication in bacteriophage T 4 development, J. Mol. Biol. 54, 85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Schnös, M., and Inman, R. B., 1971, Starting point and direction of replication in P 2 DNA, J. Mol. Biol. 55,31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Six, E. W., 1963, A defective phage depending on phage P 2, Bacteriol. Proc. ,p. 138.Google Scholar
  43. Six, E. W., 1975, The helper dependence of satellite bacteriophage P 4: Which gene functions of bacteriophage P 2 are needed by P 4, Virology 67, 249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Six, E. W., and Lindqvist, B. H., 1971, Multiplication of bacteriophage P 4 in the absence of replication of DNA of its helper, Virology 43, 8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Six, E. W., and Klug, C., 1973, Helper-dependent bacteriophage P 4: A satellite virus dependent on a helper such as P 2, Virology 51, 327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Souza, L., Calendar, R., and Six, E. W., 1977, A transactivation mutant of satellite phage P 4, Virology ,in press.Google Scholar
  47. Sunshine, M., and Sauer, B., 1975, A bacterial mutation blocking P 2 phage late-gene expression, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 72, 2770.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sunshine, M., Thorn, M., Gibbs, W., Calendar, R., and Kelly, B., 1971, P 2 phage amber mutants: Characterization by use of a polarity suppressor, Virology 46, 691.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sunshine, M., Six, E. W., Barrett, K., and Calendar, R., 1976, Relief of P 2 phage amber mutant polarity by the satellite phage P 4, J. Mol. Biol. ,106, 673.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Thomas, M., Cameron, J., and Davis, R., 1974, Viable molecular hybrids of bacteriophage and eukaryotic DNA, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 71, 4579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Thomas, R., 1970, Control of development in temperate phage III. Which prophage genes are and which are not transactivatable in the presence of immunity, J. Mol. Biol. 49, 393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wang, J. C., Martin, K. V., and Calendar, R., 1973, On the sequence similarity of the cohesive ends of coliphage P 4, P 2, and 186 DNA, Biochemistry 12, 2119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Williams, R. C., and Fisher, H., 1970, Electron microscopy of tobacco mosaic virus under conditions of minimal beam exposure, J. Mol. Biol. 52, 121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wu, R., and Geiduschek, E. P., 1975, The role of replication proteins in the regulation of bacteriophage T 4 transcription. I. Gene 45 and hydroxymethyl C containing DNA, J. Mol. Biol. 96,513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard Calendar
    • 1
  • Janet Geisselsoder
    • 1
  • Melvin G. Sunshine
    • 2
  • Erich W. Six
    • 2
  • Björn H. Lindqvist
    • 3
  1. 1.Molecular Biology DepartmentUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.Microbiology DepartmentUniversity of IowaIowa CityUSA
  3. 3.Institute of Medical BiologyUniversity of TromsoNorway

Personalised recommendations