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Reproduction pp 405-474 | Cite as

Reproduction of Poxviruses

  • Bernard Moss
Part of the Comprehensive Virology book series (CV)

Abstract

The poxviruses are distinguished principally by their unusual morphology, large DNA genome, and cytoplasmic site of replication. Smallpox, which is caused by variola virus, was recognized many centuries ago as a distinct disease entity because of its striking symptoms and high mortality. Elimination of the disease from most parts of the world stemmed in large measure from the classic report of Jenner in 1798 on smallpox vaccination. Approximately 80 years have passed since poxvirions were observed by microscopy, and it is about 35 years since vaccinia was obtained in a purified state for chemical characterization. Studies with poxviruses have been greatly facilitated by their cytoplasmic site of replication, which is unusual for a DNA virus, and the ability of some members of the group to rapidly terminate host macromolecular synthesis. Biosynthetic events are temporally regulated, and an ordered sequence of development begins with the apparent de novo formation of viral membranes. Further development proceeds with morphopoietic processes that in their complexity resemble cell or organelle differentiation. The resulting virions contain, in addition to their large DNA genomes, many proteins, some of which have enzymatic functions, lipids, and small amounts of carbohydrate. Several reviews describing the state of knowledge regarding poxvirus replication as of 1966–1968 have been published (Joklik, 1966, 1968; Fenner, 1968; Woodson, 1968; McAuslan, 1969a). This chapter, although intended as a comprehensive review, emphasizes biochemical aspects of poxvirus reproduction under active investigation during the past five years.

Keywords

Vaccinia Virus Thymidine Kinase Elementary Body Frog Virus Deoxyribonucleic Acid Synthesis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernard Moss
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Biology of Viruses National Institute of Allergy and Infectious DiseasesNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA

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