Advertisement

Reproduction of Togaviruses

  • Elmer R. Pfefferkorn
  • Daniel Shapiro
Part of the Comprehensive Virology book series (CV, volume 2)

Abstract

The togaviruses may be more familiar to some readers under the old term “arboviruses.” Arboviruses (arthropod-borne), as originally defined, generally are transmitted to their vertebrate hosts by the bite of an infected arthropod, usually a mosquito or a tick. In this natural cycle, the arthropod does not play a passive role; instead, active multiplication of virus in the arthropod host is essential. As Casals (1971) has pointed out, this essentially ecological classification no longer suffices to define a morphologically and biochemically related group of viruses and hence should be abandoned.

Keywords

Envelope Protein Encephalitis Virus Semliki Forest Virus Replicative Form Sindbis Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Acheson, N. H., and Tamm, I., 1967, Replication of Semliki Forest virus: an electron microscopic study, Virology 32, 128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Acheson, N. H., and Tamm, I., 1970a, Purification and properties of Semliki Forest virus nucleocapsids, Virology 41, 306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Acheson, N. H., and Tamm, I., 1970b, Structural proteins of Semliki Forest virus and its nucleocapsid, Virology 41, 321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Acheson, N. H., and Tamm, I., 1970c, Ribonuclease sensitivity of Semliki Forest virus nucleocapsids, J. Virol. 5, 714.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ada, G. L., Abbott, A., Anderson, S. G., and Collins, F. D., 1962, Particle count and some chemical properties of Murray Valley encephalitis virus, J. Gen. Microbiol. 29, 165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Appleyard, G., Oram, J. D., and Stanley, J. L., 1970, Dissociation of Semliki Forest virus into biologically active components, J. Gen. Virol. 9, 179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Arif, B. M., and Faulkner, P., 1972, Genome of Sindbis virus, J. Virol. 9, 102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Baltimore, D., 1971, Expression of animal virus genomes, Bacteriol. Rev. 35, 235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Banerjee, K., and Singh, K. R. P., 1968, Establishment of carrier cultures of Aedes albopictus cell line infected with arboviruses. Ind. J. Med. Res. 56, 812.Google Scholar
  10. Barnes, R., Vogel, H., and Gordon, I., 1969, Temperature of compensation: significance for virus inactivation, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 69, 263.Google Scholar
  11. Bhamarapravati, N., Halstead, S. B., Sookavachana, P., and Boonyapaknavik, V., 1964, Studies on dengue virus infection. 1. Immunofluorescent localization of virus in mouse tissue, Arch. Pathol. 77, 538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Birdwell, C. R., and Strauss, J. H., Jr., 1973, Agglutination of Sindbis virus and of cells infected with Sindbis virus by plant lectins, J. Virol. 11, 502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bose, H. R., and Brundige, M. A., 1972, Selective association of Sindbis virion proteins with different membrane fractions of infected cells, J. Virol. 9, 785.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bose, H. R., and Sagik, B. P., 1970a, Immunological activity associated with the nucelocapsid and envelope components of an arbovirus, J. Virol. 5, 410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bose, H. R., and Sagik, B. P., 1970b, The virus envelope in cell attachment, J. Gen. Virol. 9, 159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Boulton, R. W., and Westaway, E. G., 1972, Comparisons of togaviruses: Sindbis virus (group A) and Kunjun virus (group B), Virology 49, 283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Brandt, W. E., Cardiff, R. D., and Russell, P. K., 1970, Dengue virions and antigens in brain and serum of infected mice, J. Virol. 6, 500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Brawner, T. A., and Sagik, B. P., 1971, Rescue of ultraviolet-inactivated Sindbis virus, Abstr. Annu. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol. 218.Google Scholar
  19. Brawner, T. A., Lee, J. C., and Trent, D. W., 1973, Nuclear and cytoplasmic localization of polyadenylate-rich St. Louis encephalitis virus-induced RNA, Abstr. Annu. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol. 202.Google Scholar
  20. Brown, D. T., Waite, M. R. F., and Pfefferkorn, E. R., 1972, Morphology and morphogenesis of Sindbis virus as seen with freeze-etching techniques, J. Virol. 10, 524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Burge, B. W., and Huang, A. S., 1970, Comparison of membrane protein glycopeptides of Sindbis virus and vesicular stomatitis virus, J. Virol. 6, 176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Burge, B. W., and Pfefferkorn, E. R., 1966a, Isolation and characteristics of temperature-sensitive mutants of Sindbis virus, Virology 30, 204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Burge, B. W., and Pfefferkorn, E. R., 1966b, Complementation between temperature-sensitive mutants of Sindbis virus, Virology 30, 214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Burge, B. W., and Pfefferkorn, E. R., 1967, Temperature-sensitive mutants of Sindbis virus: biochemical correlates of complementation, J. Virol. 1, 956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Burge, B. W., and Pfefferkorn, E. R., 1968, Functional defects of temperature-sensitive mutants of Sindbis virus, J. Mol. Biol. 35, 193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Burge, B. W., and Strauss, J. H., Jr., 1970, Glycopeptides of the membrane glycoprotein of Sindbis virus, J. Mol. Biol. 47, 449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Burrell, C. J., Martin, E. M., and Cooper, P. D., 1970, Posttranslational cleavage of virus polypeptides in arbovirus-infected cells, J. Gen. Virol. 6, 319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Cardiff, R. D., Brandt, W. E., McCloud, T. O., Shapiro, D., and Russell, P. K., 1971, Immunological and biophysical separation of dengue-2 antigens, J. Virol. 7, 15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Cardiff, R. D., Russ, S. B., Brandt, W. E., and Russell, P. K., 1973a, Cytological localization of dengue-2 antigens: an immunological study with ultrastrucutral correlation, Infect. Immun. 7, 809.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Cardiff, R. D., Dalrymple, J. M., and Russell, P. K., 1973b, RNA polymerase in group B arbovirus (dengue-2) infected cells, Arch. Ges. Virus 40, 392.Google Scholar
  31. Cartwright, K. L., and Burke, D. C., 1970, Virus nucleic acids formed in chick embryo cells infected with Semliki Forest virus, J. Gen. Virol. 6, 231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Carver, D. H., and Seto, D. S. Y., 1968, Viral inactivation by disulfide bond reducing agents, J. Virol. 2, 1482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Casals, J., 1971, Arboviruses: incorporation into a general system of virus classification, in “Comparative Virology,” (K. Maramorosch and E. Kurstak, eds.), pp. 307–333, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  34. Casals, J., and Clarke, D. H., 1965, Arbovirus; group A, in “Viral and Rickettsial Infections of Man” (F. L. Horsfall and I. Tamm, eds.) pp. 583–605, Lippincott, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  35. Cassells, A. C., and Burke, D. C., 1973, Changes in the constitutve enzymes of chick cells following infection with Semliki Forest virus, J. Gen. Virol. 18, 135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Cheng, P.-Y., 1958, The inactivation of group B arthropod-borne animal viruses by proteases, Virology 6, 129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Chiang-Shem, M., Chen-Hsiang, H., and Chiang-Show, H., 1966, The effect of temperature and pH on the production of Japanese B encephalitis virus and interferon in embryo cell cultures, Acta Microbiol. Sin. 12, 152.Google Scholar
  38. Clarke, D. H., and Casals, J., 1965, Arboviruses; group B in “Viral and Rickettsia! Infections of Man” (F. L. Horsfall and I. Tamm, eds.), pp. 606–658, Lippincott, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  39. Compans, R. W., 1971, Location of the glycoprotein in the membrane of Sindbis virus, Nat. New Biol. 229, 114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Cory, J., and Yunker, C. E., 1972, Arbovirus plaques in mosquito cell monolayers, Acta Virol. 16, 90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Dalrymple, J. M., Vogel, S. N., Teramoto, A. Y., and Russell, P. K., 1973, Antigenic components of group A arbovirus virions, J. Virology 12, 1034.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. David, A. E., 1971, Lipid composition of Sindbis virus, Virology 46, 711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Diercks, F. D., and Hammon, W. McD., 1958, Hamster kidney cell tissue cultures for propagation of Japanese B encephalitis. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 97, 627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Dobos, P., and Faulkner, P., 1969, Properties of 42 S and 26 S Sindbis viral ribonucleic acid species, J. Virol. 5, 429.Google Scholar
  45. Dobos, P., and Faulkner, P., 1970, Molecular weight of Sindbis virus ribonucleic acid as measured by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, J. Virol. 6, 145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Dorsett, P. H., and Acton, J. D., 1970, Synthesis of virus macromolecules in L-929 cells infected with Mayaro virus, J. Gen. Virol. 9, 133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Eaton, B. T., and Faulkner, P., 1972, Heterogeneity in the poly(A) content of the genome of Sindbis virus, Virology 50, 865.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Eaton, B. T., and Faulkner, P., 1973, Altered pattern of viral RNA synthesis in cells infected with standard and defective Sindbis virus, Virology 51, 85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. El Dadah, N., and Nathanson, N., 1967, Pathogenesis of West Nile virus encephalitis in mice and rats. II. Virus multiplication, evolution, of immunofluorescence, and development of histological lesions in the brain, Am. J. Epidemiol. 86, 776.Google Scholar
  50. Enzmann, P. J., 1973, Induction of an interferon-like substance in persistently infected Aedes albopictus cells, Arch. Ges. Virus. 40: 382.Google Scholar
  51. Filshie, B. K., and Rehacek, J., 1968, Studies of the morphology of Murray Valley encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis viruses growing in cultured mosquito cells, Virology 34, 435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Fleming, P., 1971a, Thermal inactivation of Semliki Forest virus, J. Gen. Virol. 13, 385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Fleming, P., 1971b, Inactivation and reactivation of Semliki Forest virus by urea and guanidine hydrochloride, J. Gen. Virol. 13, 393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Friedman, R. M., 1968a, Replicative intermediate of an arbovirus, J. Virol. 2, 547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Friedman, R. M., 1968b, Structural and nonstructural proteins of an arbovirus, J. Virol. 2, 1076.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Friedman, R. M., 1969, Primary gene products of an arbovirus, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 37, 369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Friedman, R. M., and Berezesky, I. K., 1967, Cytoplasmic fractions associated with Semliki Forest virus ribonucleic acid replication, J. Virol. 1, 374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Friedman, R. M., and Grimley, P. M., 1969, Inhibition of arbovirus assembly by cycloheximide, J. Virol. 4, 292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Friedman, R. M., and Pastan, I., 1969, Nature and function of the structural phospholipids of an arbovirus, J. Mol. Biol. 40, 107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Friedman, R. M., and Sreevalsan, T., 1970, Membrane binding of input arbovirus ribonucleic acid: Effect of interferon or cycloheximide, J. Virol. 6, 169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Friedman, R. M., Levy, H. R., and Carter, W. B., 1966, Replication of Semliki Forest virus: three forms of viral RNA produced during infection, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 56, 440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Friedman, R. M., Levin, J. G., Grimley, P. M., and Berezesky, I. K., 1972, Membrane-associated replication complex in arbovirus infection, J. Virol. 10, 504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Furusawa, E., Furusawa, S., and Cutting, W., 1969, Refractoriness of KB cell cultures carrying Japanese B encephalitis virus to encephalomyocarditis virus infection. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 131, 951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Fuscaldo, A. A., Aaslestad, H. G., and Hoffman, E. J., 1971, Biological, physical and chemical properties of eastern equine encephalitis virus, J. Virol. 7, 233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Gahmberg, C. G., Simons, K., Renkonen, O., and Kääriäinen, L., 1972, Exposure of proteins and lipids in the Semliki Forest virus membrane, Virology 50, 259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Gorman, B., and Goss. P., 1972, Sensitivity of arboviruses to proteases, J. Gen. Virol. 16, 83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Grimes, W. J., and Burge, B. W., 1971, Modification of Sindbis virus glycoprotein by host-specified glycosyl transferases, J. Virol. 7, 309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Grimley, P. M., Berezesky, I. K., and Friedman, R. M., 1968, Cytoplasmic structures associated with an arbovirus infection: loci of viral ribonucleic acid synthesis, J. Virol. 2, 1326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Grimley, P. M., Levin, J. G., Berezesky, I. K., and Friedman, R. M., 1972, Specific membranous structures associated with the replication of group A arboviruses, J. Virol. 10, 492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Harrison, S. C., David, A. E., Jumblatt, J., and Darnell, J. E., Jr., 1971, Lipid and protein organization in Sindbis virus, J. Mol. Biol. 60, 523.Google Scholar
  71. Hay, A. J., Skehel, J. J., and Burke, D. C., 1968, Proteins synthesized in chick cells following infection with Semliki Forest virus, J. Gen. Virol. 3, 175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Heydrick, F. P., Corner, J. F., and Wachter, R. F., 1971, Phospholipid composition of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, J. Virol. 7, 642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Horzinek, M., and Mussgay, M., 1969, Studies on the nucleocapsid structure of a group A arbovirus, J. Virology 4, 514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Igarashi, A., 1970, Protein synthesis and formation of Chikungungya virus in infected BHK21 cells, Biken J. 13, 289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Igarashi, A., Kitano, H., Fukunaga, T., and Fukai, K., 1963, Infectivity of the ribonucleic acid fraction from mouse brain infected with Japanese encephalitis virus, Biken J. 6, 165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Igarashi, A., Fukunaga, T., and Fukai, K., 1964, Sedimentation characteristics of Japanese encephalitis virus ribonucleic acid, Biken J. 7, 111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Inglot, A. D., Albin, M., and Chudzio, T., 1973, Persistent infection of mouse cells with Sindbis virus: role of virulence of strains, auto-interfering particles and interferon, J. Gen. Virol. 20, 105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Inoue, Y. K., and Ogura, R., 1962, Studies on Japanese B encephalitis virus. III. Propagation and assay of Japanese B encephalitis virus in a stable line of porcine kidney cells, Virology 16, 205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Iwasaki, T., and Inoue, Y. K., 1961, Studies on Japanese B encephalitis virus. II. Isolation of a heat-resistant mutant of Japanese B encephalitis virus, Virology 51, 81.Google Scholar
  80. Johnston, R. E., and Bose, H. R., 1972a, An adenylate-rich segment in the virion RNA of Sindbis virus, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 46, 712.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Johnston, R. E., and Bose, H. R., 1972b, Correlation of messenger RNA function with adenylate-rich segments in the genomes of single-stranded RNA viruses, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 69, 1514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Kääriäinen, L., and Gomatos, P. J., 1969, A kinetic analysis of the synthesis in BHK 21 cells of RNAs specific for Semliki Forest virus, J. Gen. Virol. 5, 251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Kääriäinen, L., and Söderlund, H., 1971, Properties of Semliki Forest virus nucleocapsid. I. Sensitivity to pancreatic ribonuclease, Virology 43, 291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Kaluza, G., Scholtissek, C., and Rott, R., 1972, Inhibition of the multiplication of enveloped RNA-viruses by glucosamine and 2-deoxy-D-glucose, J. Gen. Virol. 14, 251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Kaluza, G., Schmidt, M. F. G., and Scholtissek, C., 1973, Effect of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on the multiplication of Semliki Forest virus and the reversal of the block by man-nose, Virology 54, 179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Karabatsos, N., and Buckley, S. M., 1967, Susceptibility of the baby-hamster kidney- cell line (BHK-21) to infection with arboviruses, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 16, 99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Kennedy, S. I. T., 1972, Isolation and identification of the virus-specified RNA species found on membrane-bound polyribosomes of chick embryo cells infected with Semliki Forest virus, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 48, 1254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Kennedy, S. I. T., and Burke, D. C., 1972, Studies on the structural proteins of Semliki Forest virus, J. Gen. Virol. 14, 87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Kitaoka, M., Shimizu, A., Tuchinda, P., and Chandana, K. A., 1971, Electron microscopic observations on dengue type 2 virus, Biken J. 14, 361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Klimenko, S. M., Yershov, F. I., Gofman, Y. P., Nabatnikov, A. P., and Zhdanov, V. M., 1965, Architecture of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Virology 27, 125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Laine, R., Kettunen, M.-L., Gahmberg, C. G., Kääriäinen, L., Renkonen, O., 1972, Fatty acids of different lipid classes of Semliki Forest virus and host cell membranes, J. Virol. 10, 433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Lee, H. W., Hinz, R. W., and Scherer, W. F., 1958, Porcine kidney cell cultures for propagation and assay of Japanese encephalitis virus, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 99, 579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Levin, J. G., and Friedman, R. M., 1971, Analysis of arbovirus ribonucleic acid forms by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, J. Virol. 7, 504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. McCollum, R. W., and Foley, J. F., 1956, Japanese B encephalitis virus in tissue culture. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 94, 556.Google Scholar
  95. Marcus, P. I., and Carver, D. H., 1967, Intrinsic interference: a new type of viral interference, J. Virol. 1, 334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Marcus, P. I., and Salb, J. M., 1966, Molecular basis of interferon action: inhibition of viral RNA translation, Virology 30, 502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Martin, E. M., 1969, Studies on the RNA polymerase of some temperature-sensitive mutants of Semliki Forest virus, Virology 39, 107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Martin, E. M., and Sonnabend, J. A., 1967, Ribonucleic acid polymerase catalyzing synthesis of double-stranded arbovirus ribonucleic acid, J. Virol. 1, 97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Matsumura, T., Stollar, V., and Schlesinger, R. W., 1970, Effect of magnesium chloride on yield of dengue virus from Vero cells, Abstr. Annu. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol. 190.Google Scholar
  100. Matsumura, T., Stollar, V., and Schlesinger, R. W., 1971, Studies on the nature of dengue viruses. V. Structure and development of dengue virus in Vero cells, Virology 46, 344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Mécs, E., Sonnabend, J. A., and Martin, E. M., 1967, The effect of interferon on the synthesis of RNA in chick cells infected with Semliki Forest virus, J. Gen. Virol. 1, 25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Michel, M. R., and Gomatos, P. J., 1973, Semliki Forest virus-specific RNAs synthesized in vitro by enzyme from infected BHK cells, J. Virol. 11, 900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Morgan, C., Howe, C., and Rose. H. M., 1961, Structure and development of viruses as observed in the electronmicroscope. V. Western equine encephalomyelitis virus, J. Exptl. Med. 113, 219.Google Scholar
  104. Mowshowitz, D., 1973, Identification of polysomal RNA in BHK cells infected by Sindbis virus, J. Virol. 11, 535.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Murphy, F. A., Harrison, A. K., Gary, G. W., Whitfield, S. G., and Forrester, F. T., 1968, St. Louis encephalitis virus infection of mice. Electron microscopic studies of central nervous system, Lab. Invest. 19, 652.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Mussgay, M., 1964, Growth cycle of arboviruses in vertebrate and arthropod cells, Prog. Med. Virol. 6, 193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Mussgay, M., and Horzinek, M., 1966, Investigations on complement-fixing subunits of a group A arbovirus (Sindbis), Virology 29, 199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Nagatomo, Y., 1972, The characterization of Chikungunya virus RNA, Archiv. Ges. Virus 39, 63.Google Scholar
  109. Nishimura, C., and Kitaoka, M., 1964, Purification of Japanese encephalitis virus and its antigenic particles from infected suckling mouse brains, Jap. J. Med. Sci. Biol. 17, 295.Google Scholar
  110. Nishimura, C., and Tsukeda, H., 1971, Replication and synthesis of Japanese encephalitis virus ribonucleic acids in Vero cells, Jap. Microbiol. 15, 309.Google Scholar
  111. Nozima, T., Mori, HI, Minobe, Y., and Yamamoto, S., 1964, Some properties of Japanese encephalitis virus, Acta Virol. 8, 97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Ota, Z., 1965, Electron microscopic study of the development of Japanese B encephalitis virus in porcine kidney stable (PS) cells, Virology 25, 372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Ozaki, Y., and Kumagi, K., 1972, Effect of polyions on Japanese encephalitis virus, Arch. Ges. Virus 39, 83.Google Scholar
  114. Paul, S. D., Singh, K. R. P., and Bhat, U. K. M., 1969, A study on the cytopathic effect of arboviruses on cultures from Aedes albopictus cell line, Ind. J. Med. Res. 57, 339.Google Scholar
  115. Pederson, C. E., Jr., and Sagik, B. P., 1973, Sindbis virus maturation, J. Gen. Virol. 18, 375.Google Scholar
  116. Peleg, J., 1969a, Behaviour of infectious RNA from four different viruses in continuously subcultured Aedes aegypti mosquito embryo cells, Nature (Lond.) 221, 193.Google Scholar
  117. Peleg, J., 1969b, Inapparent persistent virus infection in continuously grown Aedes aegypti mosquito cells, J. Gen. Virol. 5, 463.Google Scholar
  118. Peleg, J., 1972, Studies on the behavior of arboviruses in an Aedes aegypti mosquito cell line, Arch. Ges. Virus 37, 54.Google Scholar
  119. Pfefferkorn, E. R., and Boyle, M. K., 1972, Selective inhibition of the synthesis of Sindbis virion proteins by an inhibitor of chymotrypsin, J. Virol. 9, 187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Pfefferkorn, E. R., and Burge, B. W., 1967, Genetics and biochemistry of arbovirus temperature-sensitive mutants, in “The Molecular Biology of Viruses” (J. Colter, ed.), pp. 403–426, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  121. Pfefferkorn, E. R., and Clifford, R. L., 1964, The origin of the protein of Sindbis virus, Virology 23, 217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Pfefferkorn, E. R., and Hunter, H. S., 1963a, Purification and partial chemical analysis of Sindbis virus, Virology 20, 433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Pfefferkorn, E. R., and Hunter, H. S., 1963b, The source of the ribonucleic acid and phospholipid of Sindbis virus, Virology 20, 446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Pfefferkorn, E. R., Burge, B. W., and Coady, H. M., 1967, Intracellular conversion of the RNA of Sindbis virus to a double-stranded form, Virology 33, 239.Google Scholar
  125. Pollack, R., and Goldman, R, 1973, Synthesis of infective poliovirus in BSC-1 monkey cells enucleated with cytochalasin B, Science (Wash., D.C.) 179, 915.Google Scholar
  126. Porterfield, J. S., 1959, Plaque production with yellow fever and related arthropod-borne virus, Nature (Lond.) 183, 1069.Google Scholar
  127. Purifoy, D. J. M., Purifoy, J. A., and Sagik, B. P., 1968, A mathematical analysis of concomitant virus replication and heat inactivation, J. Virol. 2, 275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Qureshi, A. A., and Trent, D. W., 1972, Saint Louis encephalitis viral ribonucleic acid replication complex, J. Virol. 9, 565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Qureshi, A. A., and Trent, D. W., 1973, Group B arbovirus structural and nonstructural antigens I. Serological identification of Saint Louis encephalitis virus soluble antigens. Infect. Immun. 7, 242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Ranki, M., Kääriäinen, L., and Renkonen, O., 1972, Semliki Forest virus glycoproteins and canavanine, Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. (B) 80, 760.Google Scholar
  131. Rehacek, J., 1968, Persistent infection of mosquito cells grown in vitro with Murray Valley encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis viruses, Acta Virol. 12, 340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Renkonen, O., Kääriäinen, L., Simons, K., and Gahmberg, C. G., 1971, The lipid class composition of Semliki Forest virus and of plasma membranes of the host cells, Virology 46, 318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Renkonen, O., Luukkonen, A., Brotherus, J., and Kääriäinen, L., 1974, Composition and turnover of membrane lipids in Semliki Forest virus and in host cells, in “Control of Proliferation in Animal Cells” (B. Clarkson and R. Baserga, eds.), Cold Spring Harbor Monograph, Cold Spring Harbor, New York.Google Scholar
  134. Rosemond, H., and Sreevalsan, T., 1973, Viral RNAs associated with ribosomes in Sindbis virus-infected HeLa cells, J. Virol. 11, 399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Rubin, H., Baluda, M., and Hotchkin, J. E., 1955, The maturation of Western equine encephalomyelitis virus and its release from chick embryo cells in suspension, J. Exp. Med. 101, 205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Scheele, C. M., and Pfefferkorn, E. R., 1969a, The kinetics of incorporation of structural proteins into Sindbis virions, J. Virol. 3, 369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Scheele, C. M., and Pfefferkorn, E. R., 1969b, Inhibition of interjacent RNA (26 S) synthesis in cells infected by Sindbis virus, J. Virol. 4, 117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Scheele, C. M., and Pfefferkorn, E. R., 1970, Virus-specific proteins synthesized in cells infected with RNA+ temperature-sensitive mutants of Sindbis virus, J. Virol. 5, 329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Scherer, W. F., and Syverton, J. T., 1954, The viral range in vitro of a malignant human epithelial cell (strain HeLa, Gey). II. Studies with encephalitis viruses of the eastern, western, West Nile, St. Louis, and Japanese B types, Am. J. Pathol. 30, 1075.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Schlesinger, M. J., and Schlesinger, S., 1973, Large-molecular-weight precursors of Sindbis virus proteins, J. Virol. 11, 1013.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Schlesinger, M. J., Schlesinger, S., and Burge, B. W., 1972, Identification of a second glycoprotein in Sindbis virus, Virology 47, 539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Schlesinger, S., and Schlesinger, M. J., 1972, Formation of Sindbis virus proteins: identification of a precursor for one of the envelope proteins, J. Virol. 10, 925.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Schlesinger, S., Schlesinger, M. J., and Burge, B. W., 1972, Defective virus particles from Sindbis virus, Virology 48, 615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Schlesinger, R. W., 1971, Some speculations on the possible role of arthropods in the evolution of arboviruses, Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immun. 55, 241.Google Scholar
  145. Scholtissek, C., Kaluza, G., and Rott, R., 1972, Stability and precursor relationships of virus RNA, J. Gen. Virol. 17, 213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Schwöbel, W., and Ahl, R., 1972, Persistence of Sindbis virus in BHK-21 cell structures, A rchiv. Ges. Virus 38: 1.Google Scholar
  147. Sefton, B. M., Wickus, G. G., and Burge, B. W., 1973, Enzymatic iodination of Sindbis virus proteins, J. Virol. 11, 730.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Shapiro, D., Brandt, W. E., Cardiff, R. D., and Russell, P. K., 1971a, The proteins of Japanese encephalitis virus, Virology 44, 108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Shapiro, D., Cardiff, R. D., Brandt, W. E., and Russell, P. K., 1971b, Properties of dengue-2 and Japanese encephalitis virus slowly sedimenting hemagglutinins, Abstr. Annu. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol. 182.Google Scholar
  150. Shapiro, D., Trent, D., Brandt, W. E., and Russell, P. K., 1972a, Comparison of the virion polypeptides of group B arboviruses, Infect. Immun. 6, 206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Shapiro, D., Kos, K. A., Brandt, W. E., and Russell, P. K., 1972b, Membrane-bound proteins of Japanese encephalitis virus-infected, chick embryo cells, Virology 48, 360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Shapiro, D., Brandt, W. E., and Russell, P. K., 1972c, Change involving a viral membrane glycoprotein during morphogenesis of group B arboviruses, Virology 50, 906.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Shapiro, D., Kos, K. A., and Russell, P. K., 1973a, Japanese encephalitis virus glycoproteins, Virology 56, 88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Shapiro, D., Kos, K. A., and Russell, P. K., 1973b, Protein synthesis in Japanese encephalitis virus infected chick embryo cells, Virology 56, 95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Shenk, T. E., and Stollar, V., 1972, Viral RNA species in BHK-21 cells infected with Sindbis virus serially passaged at high multiplicity of infection, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 49, 60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Shenk, T. E., and Stollar, V., 1973, Defective-interfering particles of Sindbis virus. I. Isolation and some chemical and biological properties, Virology 53, 162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Simmons, D. T., and Strauss, J. H., Jr., 1972a, Replication of Sindbis virus. I. Relative size and genetic content of 26 S and 49 S RNA, J. Mol. Biol. 71, 599.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Simmons, D. T., and Strauss, J. H., Jr., 1972b, Replication of Sindbis virus. II. Multiple forms of double-stranded RNA isolated from infected cells, J. Mol. Biol. 71, 615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Simons, K., Keränen, S., and Kääriäinen, L., 1973, Identification of a precursor for one of the Semliki Forest virus membrane proteins, FEBS (Fed. Eur. Biochem. Soc.) Lett. 29: 87.Google Scholar
  160. Simpson, R. W., and Hauser, R. E., 1968, Basic structure of group A arbovirus strains Middelburg, Sindbis and Semliki Forest examined by negative staining, Virology 34, 358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Singh, B., Chang, I. C., and Hammon, W. McD., 1973, Semi-commercial-scale production of Japanese B encephalitis virus vaccines from tissue culture, Appl. Microbiol. 25, 945.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Singh, K. R. P., 1971, Propagation of arboviruses in Singh’s Aedes cell lines. I. Growth of arboviruses in Aedes albopictus and A. aegypti cell lines, Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 55, 127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Singh, K. R. P., and Paul, S. D., 1968a, Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti cell lines to infection by arbo-and other viruses, Ind. J. Med. Res. 56, 815.Google Scholar
  164. Singh, K. R. P., and Paul, S. D., 1968b, Multiplication of arboviruses in cell lines from Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti, Curr. Sci. (Banglore) 37, 65.Google Scholar
  165. Smith, T. J., Brandt, W. E., Swanson, J. L., McCown, J. M., and Buescher, E. L., 1970, Physical and biological properties of dengue-2 virus and associated antigens, J. Virol. 5, 524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Sonnabend, J. A., Martin, E. M., and Mécs, E., 1967, Viral specific RNAs in infected cells, Nature (Loud.) 213, 365.Google Scholar
  167. Sreevalsan, T., 1970, Association of viral ribonucleic acid with cellular membranes in chick embryo cells infected with Sindbis virus, J. Virol. 6, 438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Sreevalsan, T., and Allen, P. T., 1968, Replication of Western equine encephalomyelitis virus. II. Cytoplasmic structure involved in the synthesis and development of the virions, J. Virol. 2, 1038.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Sreevalsan, T., and Lockart, R. Z., Jr., 1964, Inhibition by puromycin of the initiation of synthesis of infectious RNA and virus by chicken embryo cells infected with Western equine encephalomyelitis virus, Virology 24, 91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Sreevalsan, T., and Lockart, R. Z., Ji., 1966, Heterogeneous RNA’s occurring during the replication of western equine encephalomyelitis virus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 55, 974.Google Scholar
  171. Sreevalsan, T., and Yin, F. H., 1969, Sindbis virus-induced viral ribonucleic acid polymerase, J. Virol. 3, 599.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Sreevalsan, T., Lockart, R. Z., Jr., Dodson, M. L., Jr., and Hartman, K. A., 1968, Replication of western equine encephalomyelitis virus. I. Some chemical and physical characteristics of viral ribonucleic acid, J. Virol. 2, 558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Stevens, T. M., 1970, Arbovirus replication in mosquito cell lines (Singh) grown in monolayer or suspension culture (34793), Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 134, 356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Stevens, T. M., and Schlesinger, R. W., 1965, Studies on the nature of dengue viruses. I. Correlation of particle density, infectivity, and RNA content of type 2 virus, Virology 27, 103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Stirn, T. B., and Henderson, J. R., 1969, Arbovirus plaguing in a clonal line (PS Y-15) of porcine kidney, Appl. Microbiol. 17, 246.Google Scholar
  176. Stinski, M. F., and Gruber, J., 1971, Distribution of arbovirus antigens in density gradients, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 136, 1347.Google Scholar
  177. Stollar, V., 1969, Studies on the nature of dengue viruses. IV. The structural proteins of type 2 dengue virus, Virology 39, 426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Stollar, V., and Shenk, T. E., 1973, Homologous viral interference in Aedes albopictus cultures chronically infected with Sindbis virus, J. Virol. 11, 592.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Stollar, V., Stevens, T. M., and Schlesinger, R. W., 1966, Studies on the nature of dengue viruses. II. Characterization of viral RNA and effects of inhibitors of RNA synthesis, Virology 30, 303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Stollar, V., Schlesinger, R. W., and Stevens, T. M., 1967, Studies on the nature of dengue viruses. III. RNA synthesis in cells infected with type 2 dengue virus, Virology 33, 650.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Strauss, J. H., Jr., Burge, B. W., Pfefferkorn, E. R., and Darnell, J. E., Jr., 1968, Identification of the membrane protein and “core” protein of Sindbis virus, Proc. Nat!. Acad. Sci. USA 59, 533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Strauss, J. H., Jr., Burge, B. W., and Darnell, J. E., Jr., 1969, Sindbis virus infection of chick and hamster cells: synthesis of virus-specific proteins, Virology 37, 367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Strauss, J. H., Jr., Burge, B. W., and Darnell, J. E., Jr., 1970, Carbohydrate content of the membrane protein of Sindbis virus, J. Mol. Biol. 47, 437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Suitor, E. C., 1969, Plaque formation by an arbovirus in a mosquito cell line, J. Gen. Virol. 5, 545.Google Scholar
  185. Takeda, H., Yamada, M., and Aoyama, Y., 1965, Demonstration of RNA synthesis caused by Japanese encephalitis virus infection in PS (Y-15) cells with the aid of chromomycin A3, Jap. J. Med. Sci. Biol. 18, 111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Takehara, M., 1971, Comparative studies on nucleic acid synthesis and virus-induced RNA polymerase activity in mammalian cells infected with certain arboviruses, Arch. Ges. Virus 34, 266.Google Scholar
  187. Takehara, M., 1972, Inhibition of nuclear protein synthesis in BHK-21 cells infected with arboviruses, Arch. Ges. Virus 39, 163.Google Scholar
  188. Takehara, M., and Hotta, S., 1961, Effect of enzymes on partially purified Japanese B encephalitis and related arboviruses, Science (Wash., D.C.) 134, 1878.Google Scholar
  189. Tan, K. B., Sambrook, J. F., and Bellett, A. J. D., 1969, Semliki Forest virus temperature-sensitive mutants: isolation and characterization, Virology 38, 427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Taylor, J., 1965, Studies on the mechanism of action of interferon. I. Interferon action and RNA synthesis in chick embryo fibroblasts infected with Semliki Forest virus, Virology 25, 340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Tremblay, G. Y., Daniels, M. J., and Schaechter, M., 1969, Isolation of a cell membrane-DNA nascent RNA complex from bacteria, J. Mol. Biol. 40, 65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Trent, D. W., 1973, Phospholipid composition of Saint Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus and host cell membranes, Abstr. Annu. Meet. Am. Soc. MicroBiol., 240.Google Scholar
  193. Trent, D. W., and Qureshi, A. A., 1971, Structural and nonstructural proteins of Saint Louis encephalitis virus, J. Virol. 7, 379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Trent, D. W., Swenson, C. C., and Qureshi, A. A., 1969, Synthesis of Saint Louis encephalitis virus ribonucleic acid in BHK-21/13 cells, J. Virol. 3, 385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Tsilinsky, Y. Y., Butshin, B. V., Klimenko, S. M., and Lvov, D. K., 1971, Variations of virion sizes in different clones of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus, Archiv. Ges. Virus 34, 301.Google Scholar
  196. Ventura, A. K., and Scherer, W. F., 1970, Different effects of deoxycholate, ether, chloroform, hydrocarbons, acid alcohols on Venezuelan encephalitis viral infection, hemagglutination and complement fixation, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 133, 711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Wachter, R. F., and Johnson, E. W., 1962, Lipid content of the equine encephalitis viruses, Fed. Proc. 21, 461.Google Scholar
  198. Waite, M. R. F., 1973, Protein synthesis directed by an RNA- temperature-sensitive mutant of Sindbis virus, J. Virol. 11, 198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Waite, M. R. F., and Pfefferkorn, E. R., 1968, Effect of altered osmotic pressure on the growth of Sindbis virus, J. Virol. 2, 759.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Waite, M. R. F., and Pfefferkorn, E. R., 1970a, Inhibition of Sindbis virus production by media of low ionic strength: intracellular events and requirements for reversal, J. Virol. 5, 60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Waite, M. R. F., and Pfefferkorn, E. R., 1970b, Phospholipid synthesis in Sindbis virus-infected cells, J. Virol. 6, 637.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Waite, M. R. F., Brown, D. T., and Pfefferkorn, E. R., 1972, Inhibition of Sindbis virus release by media of low ionic strength: an electron microscope study, J. Virol. 10, 537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Wecker, E., 1959, The extraction of infectious virus nucleic acid with hot phenol, Virology 7, 241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Wecker, E., and Richter, A., 1962, Conditions for the replication of infectious viral RNA, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 27, 137.Google Scholar
  205. Weiss, B., and Schlesinger, S., 1973, Defective interfering passages of Sindbis virus: chemical composition, biological activity and mode of interference, J. Virology 12, 862.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Westaway, E. G., 1973, Proteins specified by group B togaviruses in mammalian cells during productive infections, Virology 51, 454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Westaway, E. G., and Reedman, B. M., 1969, Proteins of the group B arbovirus Kunjin, J. Virol. 4, 688.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Wiebenga, N. H., 1961, The cultivation of dengue-1 (Hawaiian) virus in tissue culture. I. Carrier culture of human skin cells infected with dengue-1 virus, Am. J. Hyg. 73, 350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Wildy, P., ed., 1971, International Committee on Nomenclature of Viruses, Classification and nomenclature of viruses: First report 1966–1970, in “Monographs in Virology,” Vol. 5, pp. 52–54, Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  210. Yasuzumi, G., and Tsubo, I., 1965a, Analysis of the development of Japanese B encephalitis (JBE) virus. II. Electron microscopic studies of neurons infected with JBE virus, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 12, 304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Yasuzumi, G., and Tsubo, I., 1965b, Analysis of the development of Japanese B encephalitis virus. III. Electron microscopic studies on inclusion bodies appearing in neurons and microglial cells infected with JBE virus, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 12, 217.Google Scholar
  212. Yasuzumi, G., Tsubo, I., Sugihara, R., and Nakai, Y., 1964, Analysis of the development of Japanese B encephalitis virus. I. Electron microscope studies of microglia infected with JBE virus, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 11, 213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Yin, F. H., 1969, Temperature-sensitive behavior of the hemagglutinin in a temperature-sensitive mutant virion of Sindbis, J. Virol. 4, 547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Yoshinaka, Y., and Hotta, S., 1971, Infectivity of virus-specific RNA’s of a group A arbovirus, Chikungunya, Virology 45, 524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Yunker, C. E., 1971, Arthropod tissue culture in the study of arboviruses and rickettsiae: a review, in “Arthropod cell cultures and their application to the study of viruses” (E. Weiss, ed.), pp. 113–126, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  216. Zebovitz, E., Leong, J. K., and Doughty, S. C., 1972, Japanese encephalitis virus replication: a procedure for the selective isolation and characterization of viral RNA species, Arch. Ges. Virus 38, 319.Google Scholar
  217. Zebovitz, E., Doughty, S. C., and Scott, R. E., 1974, Involvement of the host cell nuclear envelope in the replication of Japanese encephalitis virus, Infect. Immun. in press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elmer R. Pfefferkorn
    • 1
  • Daniel Shapiro
    • 2
  1. 1.Microbiology DepartmentDartmouth Medical SchoolHanoverUSA
  2. 2.Department of MicrobiologyColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA

Personalised recommendations