Nutrition and Plasma Proteins

  • J. S. Garrow


Because the plasma proteins are so much easier to sample than other body proteins much of the early work on the effects of protein nutrition centred on changes in plasma protein. This accessability was technically an advantage, but it also tended to distort the true picture of the nutritional role of the circulating and fixed tissue proteins respectively. Thus Whipple and his colleagues1 concluded that during protein depletion there was “raiding” of tissue proteins to maintain plasma protein, and that “the blood proteins in these experiments take priority over the organ and tissue proteins”. This conclusion is hardly justified in view of the techniques used to produce protein depletion: the dogs were fed a protein-free diet and plasma proteins were removed by plasma-pheresis. If thereafter plasma protein was made at the expense of tissue protein this is no more than a demonstration of homeostasis. Had it been feasible to remove progressively portions of liver no doubt this organ too would have been regenerated at the expense of other proteins which were not specifically depleted, and it would have been equally logical to conclude that liver protein had priority over other tissues in time of protein shortage. The true pricture is that protein depletion in an intact animal, however, it is produced, affects all the body proteins since they are in dynamic equilibrium2 although the extent and timing of protein loss varies greatly from one organ to another.3 It is convenient, therefore, to consider the effects of nutrition on plasma proteins from three aspects: first, the interrelationship of plasma and tissue protein stores in times of nutritional stress of various kinds; second, the diagnostic value of plasma protein concentrations in assessing nutritional status; and third, the dynamic changes in plasma protein metabolism which occur in response to changes in diet. Only studies in intact mammals especially man, will be considered, since elegant and ingenious studies on isolated perfused organs are described elsewhere.


Plasma Protein Body Protein Tissue Protein Malnourished Child Synthetic Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    G. H. Whipple, L. L. Miller and F. S. Robscheit-Robbins, J. exp. med., 85, 277 (1947).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. Schoenheimer, “The Dynamic State of Body Constituents”, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. (1942) p. 25.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    T. Addis, L. J. Poo and W. Lew, J. biol. chem. 115, 111 (1936).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    H. H. Mitchell, T. S. Hamilton, F. R. Steggarda and H. W. Bean, J. biol. chem. 158, 625 (1945).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    E. M. Widdowson, R. A. McCance and C. M. Spray, Clin. Sci., 10, 113 (1951).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. M. Forbes, A. R. Cooper and H. H. Mitchell, J. biol. chem., 203, 359 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    R. M. Forbes, H. H. Mitchell and A. R. Cooper, J. biol. chem., 223, 969 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. S. Garrow, “Distribution of protein synthesis in malnourished children”, M.D. Thesis, University of St. Andrews, (1957).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. Hoffenberg, E. Black and J. F. Brock, J. clin. Invest., 45, 143, (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    D. H. Calloway and H. Spector, Amer. J. clin. Nutr., 2, 405 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    E. G. Benedict, W. R. Miles, P. Roth and H. M. Smith, Publs. Carnegie Instn. No. 280 (1919).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. S. Garrow, R. Smith, E. E. Ward, “Electrolyte Metabolism in Severe Infantile Malnutrition”, (Pergamon Press, Oxford 1968).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. S. Garrow, K. Fletcher and D. Halliday, J. clin. Invest., 44, 417 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. C. Waterlow, J. Cravioto and J. M. L. Stephen, Advances in Protein Chemistry, 15, 131 (1960).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    D. Halliday, Brit. J. Nutr., 26, 147 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. Crumrine and B. A. Fryer, J. Amer. diet. Ass. 57, 509 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. S. Truswell, J. D. L. Hansen, C. Freeseman and T. F. Smidt, S. Afr. med. J., 37, 527 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Committee Report, Amer. J. clin. Nutr., 23, 807 (1970).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. C. Waterlow and N. S. Scrimshaw, Bull. W. H. O., 16, 458 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. Ashworth, Brit. J. Nutr., 23, 835 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    R. F. A. Dean, (ed. D. Gairdner) “Recent Advances in Pediatrics”, (J. A. Churchill, London 3rd ed., 1965) p. 234.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    J. S. Garrow, Arch. Latinamer, Nutr., 14, 145 (1966).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. D. L. Hansen, (ed. R. A. McCance and E. M. Widdowson) “Calorie deficiencies and protein deficiencies”, (Churchill, London 1968) p. 39.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    D. S. McLaren, Lancet, ii, 485 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    F. Monckeberg, (ed. R. A. McCance and E. M. Widdowson) “Calorie deficiencies and protein deficiencies” (Churchill, London, 1968) p. 91.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    C. Gopalan, (ed. R. A. McCance and E. M. Widdowson) “Calorie deficiencies and protein deficiencies” (Churchill, London, 1968) p. 50.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. S. Garrow and M. C. Pike, Brit. J. Nutr., 21, 155 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    A. E. M. McLean, Lancet ii, 1292 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    D. Pineda, (ed. R. A. McCance and E. M. Widdowson) “Calorie deficiencies and protein deficiencies” (Churchill, London, 1968) p. 75.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    J. Metcoff, Ann. Rev. med., 18, 377 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    R. G. Whitehead, (ed. R. A. McCance and E. M. Widdowson) “Calorie deficiencies and protein deficiencies” (Churchill, London, 1968) p. 115.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    L. J. Mata, J. J. Urrutia and B. Garcia “Nutrition and Infection”, Ciba Foundation Study Group, No. 31 (Churchill, London 1967).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    R. E. Brown and M. Katz, E. Afr. med. J., 42, 221 (1965).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    S. S. Najjar, M. Stephan and R. Y. Asfour, Arch. dis. childh., 44, 120 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    M. P. Keet and H. Thom, Arch. dis. childh., 44, 600 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    C. E. Watson and C. Freesemann, Arch. dis. childh., 45, 282 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    H. McFarlane, S. Reddy, A. Cooke, O. Longe, M. D. Onabamiro and J. E. Houba, Trop. Geogr. Med., 21, 61 (1970).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    J. C. Edozien and I. O. Udeozo, J. Trop. Pediatr., 6, 60 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    S. Baez, A. Mazur and E. Shorr, Amer. J. Physiol., 162, 198 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    A. V. Antia, H. McFarlane and J. F. Soothill, Arch. dis. childh., 43, 459 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    R. G. Whitehead, Arch. dis. childh., 42, 479 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    M. E. Lahey, M. Behar, F. Viteri and N. S. Scrimshaw, Pediatrics, 22, 72 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    C. Gopalan, V. Reddy and V. S. Mohan, J. Pediatr., 63, 646 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    H. H. Standstead, A. S. Shukry, A. S. Prasad, M. K. Gabr, A. E. Hifney, N. Mokhter and W. J. Darby, Amer. J. Clin. Nutr., 17, 15 (1965).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    I. MacDonald and P. J. Warren, Brit. J. Nutr., 15, 593 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    G. G. Graham, A. Cordano and J. M. Baertl, 6th Int. Cong. Nutr., Edinburgh. p. 523.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    H. McFarlane, M. I. Ogbeide, S. Reddy, K. J. Adcock, H. Adeshina, J. M. Gurney, A. Cooke, G. D. Taylor and J. A. Mordie, Lancet, i, 392, (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    J. C. Waterlow and G. Bras, Brit. Med. Bull., 13, 107 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    A. S. Truswell, J. D. L. Hansen, C. E. Watson and P. Wannenburg, Am. J. clin. Nutr., 22, 568 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    W. A. Coward and R. G. Whitehead, Br. J. Nutr., 27, 383 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    H. Flores, W. Sierralta and F. Monckeberg, J. Nutr., 100, 375 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    H. Flores, N. Pak, A. Maccioni and F. Monckeberg, Br. J. Nutr., 24, 1005 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    D. Gitlin, J. Cravioto, S. Frenk and E. L. Montano, R. Ramos-Galvan, J. clin. Invest., 37, 682 (1958).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    J. S. Garrow and J. C. Waterlow Clin. Sic., 18, 35 (1959).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    A. S. McFarlane, J. S. Garrow and J. C. Waterlow, “Radioisotopes in Tropical Medicine”, I.A.E.A., Vienna (1962).Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    D. Picou and J. C. Waterlow, Clin. Sci., 22, 459 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    S. Cohen and J. D. L. Hansen, Clin. Sci., 23, 351 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    C. M. E. Matthews, Phys. Med. Biol., 2, 36 (1957).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    A. S. McFarlane, A. Koj, J. clin. Invest., 49, 1903 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    W. P. T. James, A. M. Hay, J. clin. Invest., 47, 1958 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    J. S. Garrow, J. clin. Invest., 38, 1241 (1959).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    A. Neuberger and F. F. Richards, (ed. H. N. Munro, J. B. Allison), “Mammalian Protein Metabolism” (1964) p. 243.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    W. A. Walter, R. A. Ulstrom and J. T. Lowman, J. Pediatr., 78, 812 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    A. S. McFarlane, (ed. H. N. Munro and J. B. Allison) “Mammalian Protein Metabolism”, Vol. 1, (Academic Press, New York, 1964) p. 298.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    S. Jarnum, “Radioisotope techniques in the study of Protein Metabolism”, I.A.E.A. Vienna (1965).Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    J. C. Waterlow, J. S. Garrow and D. J. Millward, Clin. Sci., 36, 489 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    J. C. Waterlow, (ed. H. N. Munro) “Mammalian Protein Metabolism”, (Academic Press, New York 1969) Vol. 3, p. 325.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Symposium Report no. 45, “Radioisotopes techniques in the study of Protein Metabolism, I.A.E.A., Vienna (1965).Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    A. San Pietro and D. Rittenberg, J. Biol. Chem., 201, 457 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    J. C. Waterlow, Nutrition Reviews, 28, 115 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    P. Richards, A. Metcalfe-Gibson, E. E. Ward, O. Wrong, B. J. Houghton, Lancet, ii, 845 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    W. W. C. Read, D. S. McLaren, M. Tchalian and S. Nassar, J. clin. Invest., 48, 1143 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    W. W. C. Read, D. S. McLaren and M. Tchalian, Clin. Sci., 40, 375 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    J. C. Waterlow and J. M. L. Stephen, Clin. Sci., 33, 489 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    J. C. Waterlow, Clin. Sci., 33, 507 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    D. Picou and T. Taylor-Roberts, Clin. Sci., 36, 283 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    J. M. L. Stephen and J. C. Waterlow, Lancet, i, 118 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    A. S. McFarlane, Biochem. J., 87, 228 (1963).Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    R. Kirsh, L. Frith, E. Black and R. Hoffenberg, Nature, 217, 578 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    J. C. Waterlow and J. M. L. Stephen, Brit. J. Nutr., 20, 461 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    E. M. Widdowson and R. A. McCance, Brit. J. Nutr., 10, 363 (1956).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    H. Chan, Brit. J. Nutr., 22, 315 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    V. R. Young, M. A. Hussein and N. S. Scrimshaw, Nature, 218, 568 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    D. J. Millward, Clin. Sci., 39, 577 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    J. S. Garrow, Proc. Nutr. Soc., 28, 242 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Company Ltd 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. S. Garrow
    • 1
  1. 1.Clinical Research CentreHarrow, MiddlesexUK

Personalised recommendations