Optimum Procedures for Determining Ultrafine-Grain Sizes
A review is given of microscopic and X-ray methods for estimating grain size in compacted or sintered ceramics. Particular emphasis is given to two aspects of grain-size analysis that are often neglected. The first is the definition of an “average” size and the type of average that each procedure yields. The second is the sampling error and how this can be minimized for a particular procedure.
It is shown that from microscopical measurements it is possible to determine three different average grain sizes. A theoretical and experimental study has also been made of an X-ray procedure that involves the measurement of the variance in diffracted intensity from different parts of the specimen.
KeywordsOptimum Procedure Sampling Error Test Figure Grain Shape Linear Absorption Coefficient
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