Superplasticity in Ceramics

  • Peter E. D. Morgan
  • A. H. Heuer
Part of the Sagamore Army Materials Research Conference Proceedings book series (SAMC, volume 15)


Superplasticity in metals has received a considerable amount of attention in recent years. However, the possibility that ceramic materials also may show anomalous deformational properties coincident with a phase transformation has been neglected. Examples will be given where ready deformation of ceramic bodies may occur with (1) simple allotropic phase transformation, (2) eutectic exsolution, (3) exsolution from solid solution, (4) exsolution by decomposition of mixed crystal systems, and (5) simple decomposition producing one or more solid-phase products and a gas phase; these will be related to the better known processes in metallic systems. It will be shown that the unifying feature of these phenomena in both metals and ceramics is achievement and retention of extremely fine crystal size during deformation.


Superplastic Deformation Diffusional Creep Ceramic System Superplastic Flow Pressure Sinter 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Underwood, E. E., “A Review of Superplasticity and Related Phenomena,” J. Inst. Met., 14 (1962), 914–19.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bochvar, A. A. and Sviderskaya, Z. A., Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Otd. Tekhn. Nauk, 9 (1945), 821.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sauveur, A., “What is Steel?-Another Answer,” Iron Age, 113 (1924), 581.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pearson, C. E., “The Viscous Properties of Extruded Eutectic Alloys of Lead-Tin and Bismuth-Tin,” J. Inst. Met., 54 (1934), 111.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Weiss, V. and Kot, R., “Superplasticity,” Report Battelle Memorial Inst. (1967), AD 817–836, Clearinghouse for Federal Information.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Backofen, W. A., Azzarto, F. J., Murty, G. S. and Zehr, S. W., “Deformation Processing of Anisotropic Metals,” Final Report No. N000 19–67-C-0089, Naval Air Systems Command.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Weiss, V., Kot, R. and Krause, G., “Investigation of Phenomenon of Superplasticity in Metals,” Final Report, BUNW, Contract No. NOw 66–0109-d (1966).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gifkins, R. C., “Grain Movements During Creep,” Nature, 169 (1952), 238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Alden, T. H., “The Origin of Superplasticity in the Sn-5% Bi Alloy,” Acta Met., 15 (1967), 469–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cline, H. E. and Alden, T. H., “Rate Sensitive Deformation in Tin-Lead Alloys,” Trans. AIME, 239 (1967), 710–14.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bell, R. L. and Langdon, T. G., “An Investigation of Grain Boundary Sliding During Creep,” J. Mat. Sci., 2 (1967), 313–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Stevens, R. N., “Grain Boundary Sliding in Metals,” Met Rev., 11 (1966), 129–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gifkins, R. C., “Structural Studies of the Creep of Lead,” J. Inst. Met.,82 (1953–54), 39.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mott, N. F., “Slip at Grain Boundaries and Grain Control in Metals,” Proc. Phys. Soc., 60 (1948), 391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gifkins, R. C., “Superplasticity During Creep,” J. Inst. Met., 95 (1967), 373–77.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Weinberg, F., “Grain Boundary Shear in Aluminum,” Trans. AIME, 212 (1958), 808.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Umeno, M. and Shinoda, G., “Deformation Behavior of Aluminum Macrocrystals in the Grain Boundary Region,” J. Mat. Sci., 3 (1968), 120–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lifshitz, I. M., “On the Theory of Diffusion-Viscous Flow of Polycrystalline Bodies,” Soviet Physics JETP, 17 (1963), 909.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gifkins, R. C., “Diffusional Creep Mechanisms,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 51 (1968), 69–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hensler, J. H. and Cullen, G. V., “Grain Shape Change During Creep in Magnesium Oxide,” J. Am. Cer. Soc., 50 (1967), 584–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Coble, R. L., “A Model for Boundary Diffusion Controlled Creep in Polycrystalline Materials,” J. App1..Phys., 34 (1963), 1679.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Alden, T. H., “The Origin of Superplasticity in the Sn-5% Bi Alloy,” General Electric Tech. Inf. Series, Contract No. 66-C-289 (1966).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Floreen, S., “Superplasticity in Pure Nickel,” Scripte Met., 1 (1967), 19–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Walter, J. L. and Cline, H. E., “Grain Boundary Sliding, Migration and Deformation in High Purity Aluminum,” Trans. AIME, 242 (1968), 1825–30.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Underwood, E. E., et al.,“Mechanism of Superplasticity in Al-78% Zn Alloys,” Lockheed-Georgia Co., N000 14 67C-0503 (1968) AD670–800.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mazdiyasni, K. S., Lynch, C. T. and Smith, J. S., “Preparation of Ultra High Purity Sub-Micron Refractory Oxides,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 48 (1965), 372–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hart, J. L. and Chaklader, A. C. D., “Superplasticity in Pure ZrO2,” Mat. Res.Bull., 2 (1967), 521–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Morrison, W. B., “Superplasticity of Low Alloy Steels,” to be published in Trans. Quarterly.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Morgan, P. E. D. and Schaeffer, N. C., “Chemically Activated Pressure Sintering of Oxides,” Report AFML-TR-66–356 (November 1966).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hausner, H. H., “Powder Metallurgical Products,” in Vacuum Metallurgy, R. F. Bunshah, ed. (1958).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chaklader, A. C. D. and Baker, V. T., “Reactive Hot Pressing: Fabrication and Densification and Non-Stabilized ZrO2,” Bull. Am. Ceram. Soc., 44 (1965), 258–59.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chaklader, A. C. D., “Deformation of Quartz Crystals at the Transformation Temperature,” Nature, 197 (1963), 791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Arias, A., “Mechanism by which Metal Additions Improve the Thermal Shock Resistance of Zirconia,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 49 (1966), 339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Keski, J. R., Private communication.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Newey, C. W. A. and Radford, K. C., “Plastic Deformation of Magnesium Aluminate Spinel,” presented at “Anisotropy in Single Crystal Refractory Compounds,” Conf., Dayton, Ohio (June 1967).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Morgan, P. E. D. and Scala, E., “The Formation of Fully Dense Oxides by the Decomposition Pressure Sintering of Hydroxides,” presented at the 67th Annual Meeting, Am. Ceram. Soc., Phila., Pa. (May 1965).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Morgan, P. E. D. and Scala, E., “High Density Oxides by Decomposition Pressure Sintering of Hydroxides,” Proc. Intl. Conf. on Sintering and Related Phenomena, Notre Dame, Indiana, June 1965, G. C. Kuczynski, ed., Gordon and Breach, New York (1967).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chaklader, A. C. D., “Theory of Reactive Hot Pressing,” presented at the 67th Annual Meeting, Am. Ceram. Soc., Phila., Pa. (May 3, 1965 ).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chaklader, A. C. D. and McKenzie, L. G., “Reactive Hot Pressing of Clays,” Bull. Am. Ceram. Soc., 43 (1964), 892–93.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Passmore, E. M., Duff, R. and Vasilos, T., “Mechanisms of Deformation in Polycrystalline Magnesium Oxide,” Report AFML-TR-65–122 (June 1965).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Vasilos, T., Private communication.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Glasson, D. R., “Reactivity of Lime and Related Oxides,” J. Appl. Chem., 13 (1963), 111–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rice, R. W., Private communication.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zehr, S. W. and Backofen, W. A., “Superplasticity in Lead-Tin Alloys,” Trans. ASM, 61 (1968), 300–13.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Spriggs, R. M., Private communication.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Niessen, P. and Winegard, W. C., “The Effect of Solute Distribution Coefficient on Grain Growth and Single Boundary Migration,” J. Inst. Met., 94 (1966), 31.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ke, T. S., “Experimental Evidence of the Viscous Behavior of Grain Boundaries in Metals,” Phys. Rev., 71 (1947), 533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    McLean, D., Grain Boundaries in Metals, Oxford University Press, London (1957).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Conrad, H., “The Role of Grain Boundaries in Creep and Stress Rupture,” in Mechanical Behavior of Materials at Elevated Temperatures, J. E. Dorn, ed., McGraw-Hill, New York (1961).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Rhodes, W. H. and Sellers, D. J., “Mechanism of Pressure Sintering MgO with LiF Additions,” presented at 69th Annual Meeting, Am. Ceram. Soc., New York (1967).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Richards, J. L., McCann, W. H. and Gilbert, S. L., “Diffusion in Polycrystalline Thin Film Copper-Nickel Couples,” to be published in J. Appl. Phys.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Harper, S., “Structural Processes in Creep,” Iron and Steel Inst., London (1961), 56.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hart, E. W., “A Theory for the Flow of Polycrystals,” Acta Met., 15 (1967), 1545–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Syracuse University Press Syracuse, New York 1970

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter E. D. Morgan
    • 1
  • A. H. Heuer
    • 2
  1. 1.The Franklin Institute Research LaboratoriesPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Case Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations