Cyclical changes in the sexual skin of female rhesus: relationships to mating behavior and successful artificial insemination

  • J. A. Czaja
  • S. G. Eisele
  • R. W. Goy
Part of the FASEB Monographs book series (FASEBM, volume 6)


Estimating the time of ovulation or conception is an important aspect in much of the work on primate reproduction. Although there are increasingly successful and sophisticated techniques used in the laboratory to help predict ovulation, most are either expensive with respect to instrumentation or require expertise in physical examination of the animal. There are many situations, such as in the field, in group living cages, or in large scale breeding programs, where these techniques are less practical.


Menstrual Cycle Rhesus Monkey Artificial Insemination Conceptional Cycle Color Break 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Allen, E. The menstrual cycle in the monkey Macacus rhesus: Observations on normal animals, the effects of removal of the ovaries and the effects of injections of ovarian and placental extracts into the spayed animal. Carnegie Inst. Publ. Contrib. Embryol 19: 1–43, 1927.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bullock, D. W., C. A. Paris and R. W. Goy. Sexual behavior, swelling of the sex skin, and plasma progesterone in the pigtail macaque. J. Reprod. Fertility 31: 225–236, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Conaway, C. H., and D. S. Sade. The seasonal spermatogenic cycle in free-ranging rhesus monkeys. Folia Primatol 3: 1–12, 1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Corner, G. W. Ovulation and menstruation in Macacas rhesus. Carnegie Inst. Publ. Contrib. Embryol. 15: 73–101, 1923.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Goy, R. W., and J. Resko. Gonadal hormones and behavior of normal and pseudohermaphroditic nonhuman female primates. Recent Progr. Hormone Res. 28: 707–733, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Goy, R. W., K. Wallen and D. A. Goldfoot. Social factors affecting the development of mounting behavior in male rhesus monkeys. In: Reproductive Behavior, edited by W. Montagna and W. A. Sadler. New York: Plenum, 1974, p. 223–247.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Harlow, H. F. Sexual behavior in the rhesus monkey. In: Sex and Behavior, edited by F. A. Beach. New York: Wiley, 1965, p. 234–265.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hartman, C. G. Studies in the reproduction of the monkey macacus (Pithecus) rhesus, with special reference to menstruation and pregnancy. Carnegie Inst. Publ. Contrib. Embryol. 23: 1–161, 1932.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hotchkiss, J., L. E. Atkinson and E. Knobil. Time course of serum estrogen and luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations during the menstrual cycle of the rhesus monkey. Endocrinology 89: 177–183, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Koford, C. B. Population dynamics of rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago. In: Primate Behavior, edited by I. Devore. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1965, p. 160–174.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mastroianni, L., and W. A. Manson. Collection of monkey semen by electro-ejaculation. Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 112: 1025–1027, 1963.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Michael, R. P., J. Herbert and J. Welegalla. Ovarian hormones and the sexual behavior of the male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatto) under laboratory conditions. J. Endocrinol. 39: 309–310, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Plant, T. M., D. Zumpe, M. Sauls and R. P. Michael. An annual rhythm in the plasma testosterone of adult male rhesus monkeys maintained in the laboratory.J. Endocrinol. 62: 403–404, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Riesen, J. W., R. K. Meyer and R. C. Wolf. The effect of season on occurrence of ovulation in the rhesus monkey. Biol. Reprod. 5: 111–114, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Robinson, J. A., and W. E. Bridson. Sexual behavior and plasma androgen concentration in laboratory-housed rhesus males: Effects of age and season. Soc. Study Reprod., 7th Ann. Meeting, Ottawa, Canada, Abstract #75, 1974.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sade, D. S.Seasonal cycle in size of testes of free-ranging Macaca mulatta. Folia Primatol. 2: 171–180, 1964.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Scruton, D. M., and J. Herbert. The menstrual cycle and its effect on behaviour in the Talapoin monkey (Miopithecus talapoin). J. Zool. 162: 419–436, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Settlage, D. S. F., S. Swan and A. G. Hendrickx. Comparison of artificial insemination with natural mating technique in rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta.J. Reprod. Fertility 32: 129–132, 1973.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Valerio, D. A., A. J. Pallotta and K. D. Courtney. Experiences in large-scale breeding of simians for medical experimentation. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 162: 282–296, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Van Wagenen, G. Optimal mating time for pregnancy in the monkey. Endocrinology 37: 307–312, 1945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Young, W. C., and W. D. Orbison. Changes in selected features of behaviors in pairs of oppositely sexed chimpanzees during the sexual cycle and after ovariectomy. J. Comp. Psych. 37: 107–143, 1944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zuckerman, S. AND A. S. Parkes. Observations on secondary sexual characters in monkeys. J. Endocrinol. 1: 403–439, 1939.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. A. Czaja
    • 1
  • S. G. Eisele
    • 1
  • R. W. Goy
    • 1
  1. 1.Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center and Department of PsychologyUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations