An experimental analysis of behavioral factors in drug dependence

  • Travis Thompson
  • Roy Pickens
Part of the FASEB Monographs book series (FASEBM, volume 4)


Many biological scientists have viewed attempts to study the psychological or behavioral aspects of drug action as belonging near the questionable limits of scientific inquiry, if not floating well into the abyss of the objectively unknowable. Such scientific conservatism is not without reason, for as Sidman (62) noted, “A major factor contributing to the slowness of development of a science of Behavioral Pharmacology was the late recognition that behavior is a phenomenon amenable to study by the methods of Natural Science.” The solution lies in the unequivocal demonstration of a viable laboratory approach to the scientific investigation of the behavioral actions of drugs. However, “The use of experimental animals in the analysis of behavioral effects of drugs has been hampered by a paucity of objective, quantitative methods of study” (19). Though an early study by Skinner and Heron (65) pointed the way toward such an objective analysis, it wasn’t until the late 1950’s that this promise began to be realized. The new scientific domain, behavioral pharmacology, grew principally out of an amalgamation of the concepts of an operational analysis of behavior propounded by Skinner (63, 64) and the more firmly established concepts of experimental pharmacology.


Rhesus Monkey Drug Intake Behavioral Factor Lever Press Injection Dose 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Allman, L. Group drinking during stress: effect on alcohol intake and group processes. Int. J. Addict. 8: 475–488, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Allman, L. R., H. A. Taylor, and P. E. Nathan. Group drinking during stress: effects on drinking behavior, affect, and psychopathology. Am. J. Psychiat. 129: 669–678, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Altman, J. L., R. E. Meyer, S. M. Mirin and H. B. Mcnamee. Opiate antagonists and the modification of heroin self-administration behavior in man: an experimental study. American Psychiatric Association Meeting, May 1974.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anderson, W. W., and T. Thompson. Ethanol self-administration in water-satiated rats. Pharmacol., Biochem. Behav. 2: 447–454, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Balster, R. L., and C. R. Schuster. Fixed-interval schedule of cocaine reinforcement: effect of dose and infusion duration. Exp. Anal. Behav. 20: 119–129, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bigelow, G., and I. Liebson. Cost factors controlling alcoholic drinking. Psychol. Rec. 22: 305–314, 1972.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bigelow, G., I. Liebson and R. Griffiths. Alcoholic drinking: suppression by a brief time-out procedure. Behav. Res. Ther. 12: 107–115, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bigelow, G., I. Liebson and C. Lawrence. Prevention of alcohol abuse by reinforcement of incompatible behavior. Presented at the meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Miami, December 1973.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Boudin, H. Environmental intervention with young drug offenders. Environmental Approaches to Emotional Disturbances. Columbia, Mo.: Univ. Extension Div., Univ. of Missouri, 1973, p. 19–43.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cohen, M., I. Liebson and L. Faillace. Controlled drinking by chronic alcoholics over extended periods of free access. Psychol. Rep. 32: 1107–1110, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cohen, M., I. A. Liebson, L. A. Faillace and R. P. Allen. Moderate drinking by chronic alcoholics: a schedule-dependent phenomenon. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 153: 434–444, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cohen, M., I. A. Liebson, L. A. Faillace and W. Speers. Alcoholism: controlled drinking and incentives for abstinence. Psychol. Rep. 28: 575–580, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Crowder, W. F., S. G. Smith, W. M. Davis, J. T. Noel and W. R. Coussens. Effect of morphine dose size on the conditioned reinforcing potency of stimuli paired with morphine. Psychol. Rec. 22: 441–448, 1972.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Davis, W. M., and J. R. Nichols. A technique for self-injection of drugs in the study of reinforcement. J. Exp. Anal. Behav. 6: 233–235, 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Davis, W. M., and S. G. Smith. Alpha-methyltyrosine to prevent self-administration of morphine and amphetamine. Curr. Ther. Res. 14: 814–819, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Davis, W. M., and S. G. Smith. Blocking of morphine based reinforcement by alpha-methyltyrosine. Life Sci. 12: 185–191, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Davis, W. M., and S. G. Smith. Haloperidol effects on morphine self-administration: testing for pharmacological modification of the primary reinforcement mechanism. Psychol. Rec. 23: 215–221, 1973.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Davis, W. M., and S. G. Smith. Behavioral control exerted by an amphetamine based conditioned reinforcer. In: Drug Addiction, Vol. Ill: Neurobiology, Behavior and its Influences, edited by J. M. Singh and H. Lai. New York: Intercontinental Medical Book Corp., 1974.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dews, P. B. Differential sensitivity to pentobarbital of pecking performance in pigeons depending on the schedule of reward. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 113: 393–401, 1955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dews, P. B., and W. Morse. Behavioral pharmacology. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. 1: 145, 1961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dougherty, J. A., and R. Pickens. Development of temporal patterns of cocaine self-administration. Proceedings, 81st Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Montreal, 1973, p. 1003–1004.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dougherty, J. A., and R. Pickens. Fixed-interval schedules of intravenous cocaine presentation in rats. J. Exp. Anal. Behavior. 20: 111–118, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dougherty, J. A., and R. Pickens. Effects of phenobarbital and SKF 525A on cocaine self-administration in rats. In Drug Addiction, Vol. III: Neurobiology, Behavior and its Influences, edited by J. M. Singh and H. Lai. New York: Intercontinental Medical Book Corp., 1974.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Falk, J. L. Production of polydipsia in normal rats by an intermittent food schedule. Science 133: 195–196, 1961.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Falk, J. L. Studies on schedule-induced polydipsia. In: Thirst, edited by M. J. Weyner. New York: Macmillan, 1964, p. 95–116.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Findley, J. D., W. W. Robinson and L. Peregrino. Addiction to secobarbital and chlordiazepoxide in the rhesus monkey by means of a self-infusion preference procedure. Psychopharmacologia 26: 93–114, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Goldberg, S. R. Comparable behavior maintained under fixed-ratio and second-order schedules of food presentation, cocaine injection or d-amphetamine injection in the squirrel monkey. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 186: 18–30, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Goldberg, S. R., F. Hoffmeister, U. U. Schlichting and W. Wuttke. A comparison of pentobarbital and cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys: effects of dose and fixed-ratio parameter. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 179: 227–283, 1971.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gotestam, K. G. Intragastric self-administration of medazapam in rats. Psychopharmacologia 28: 87–94, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Grove, R., and C. R. Schuster. Effects of response-contingent shock and extinction on cocaine self-administration by monkeys. In press.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gunne, L. M., E. Anggard and L. E. Jonsson. Blockade of amphetamine effects in human subjects. Presented at the International Institute on the Prevention and Treatment of Drug Dependence. Lausanne: I. C. A. A., 1970.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hoffmeister, F., S. R. Goldberg, U. Schlichting and W. Wuttke. Self-administration of d-amphetamine, morphine and chlorpromazine by cocaine “dependent” rhesus monkeys. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmakol. 266: 359–360, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hunt, G. M., and N. H. Azrin. Community reinforcement approach to alcoholism. Presented at the Meeting of the American Psychological Association, 1972.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Iglauer, C., and J. Woods. Concurrent performances: reinforcement by different doses of cocaine in rhesus monkeys. J. Exp. Anal. Behav. 22: 179–196, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jarvik, M. E. Tobacco smoking in monkeys. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 142: 280, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Korman, M., I. J. Knoff and R. L. Lear. Alcohol as a discriminative stimulus: a preliminary report. Tex. Rep. Biol. Med. 20: 61–63, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lester, D. Self-maintenance of intoxication in the rats. Q. J. Stud. Alcohol 22: 223–231, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lierson, I. A., M. Cohen, L. A. Faillace and R. F. Ward. The token economy as a research method in alcoholism. Psychiatr. Q. 45: 574–581, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Meisch, R. A., and T. Thompson. Ethanol intake in the absence of concurrent food reinforcement. Psychopharmacologia 22: 72–79, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Meisch, R. A., and T. Thompson. Ethanol intake during schedule-induced polydipsia. Physiology and Behavior 8: 471–475, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Meisch, R. A., and T. Thompson. Ethanol reinforcement: effects of concentration during food deprivation. Finn. Found. Ale. Stud. 20: 71–75, 1972.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Meisch, R. A., and T. Thompson. Ethanol as a reinforcer: an operant analysis of ethanol dependence. In: Drug Addiction, Vol. Ill: Neurobiology and Influences on Behavior, edited by J. M. Singh and H. Lai. New York: Intercontinental Medical Book Corp., 1974.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Meisch, R. A., and T. Thompson. Ethanol as a reinforcer: effects of fixed-ratio size and food deprivation. Psychopharmacologia 28: 171–183, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Meisch, R. A., and T. Thompson. Rapid acquisition of ethanol as a reinforcer for rats. Psychopharmacologia 37: 311–321, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Meisch, R. A., J. E. Henningfield, and T. Thompson. Establishment of ethanol as a reinforcer for rhesus monkeys via the oral route: initial results. In: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Vol. 59, edited by M. M. Gross. New York: Plenum, 1975.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mello, N. Behavioral studies of alcoholism. In: The Biology of Alcoholism, edited by B. Kissin and H. Begleitter. New York: Plenum, 1972.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Mello, N. K., and J. H. Mendelson. Operant analysis of drinking patterns of chronic alcoholics. Nature 206: 43–46, 1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Nichols, J. R. A procedure which produces sustained opiate-directed behavior (morphine addiction) in the rat. Psychol. Rep. 13: 895–904, 1963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Peacock, L. J., and J. A. Watson. Radiation-induced aversion to alcohol. Science 143: 1462–1463, 1964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Pickens, R., G. Bigelow and R. Griffiths. An experimental approach to treating chronic alcoholism: a case study and one-year follow-up. Behav. Resh. Ter. 11: 321–325, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Pickens, R., W. C. Bloom and T. Thompson. Effects of reinforcement magnitude and session length on response rate of monkeys. Proceedings, 77th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, 1969, p. 809–810.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Pickens, R., R. A. Meisch and J. A. Dougherty. Chemical interactions in methamphetamine reinforcement. Psychol. Rep. 23: 1267–1270, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Pickens, R., and T: Thompson. Cocaine reinforcement behavior in rats: effects of reinforcement magnitude and fixed-ratio size. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 161: 122–129, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Pickens, R., and T. Thompson. Characteristics of stimulant drug reinforcement. In: Stimulus Properties of Drugs, edited by T. Thompson and R. Pickens. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1971.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Pickens, R., and T. Thompson. Simple schedules of drug self-administration in animals. In: Drug Addiction, Vol. T. Experimental Pharmacology, edited by J. M. Singh, L. H. Miller and H. Lai. New York: Futura, 1972, p. 107–120.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Pickens, R., T. Thompson and D. Muchow. Cannabis and phencyclidine self-administration by animals. In: Psychic Dependence, edited by L. Goldberg and F. Hoffmeister. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1973, p. 78–86.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Pickens, R., L. Gustafson, M. Cunningham and L. Heston. Barbiturate self-administration by human sedative abusers. Rep. Res. Lab. Dept. of Psychiatry, Univ. of Minnesota, No. PR-75–1, January, 1975.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Pozuelo, J., and F. W. Kerr. Suppression of craving and other signs of dependence in morphine-addicted monkeys by administration of alpha-methyl-paratyrosine. Mayo Clin. Proc. 47: 621–628, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Schuster, C. R., and T. Thompson. Self-administration of and behavioral dependence on drugs. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. 9: 483–502, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Schuster, C. R., and J. Woods. The conditioned reinforcing effects of stimuli associated with morphine reinforcement. Int. J. Addict. 3: 223–230, 1968.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Senter, R. J., and J. D. Sinclair. Self-maintenance of intoxication in the rat: a modified replication. Psychonomic Sci. 9: 291–292, 1967.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Sidman, M. Behavioral Pharmacology. Psychopharmacologia 1: 1–19, 1959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Skinner, B. F. The Behavior of Organisms. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1938.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Skinner, B. F. Science and Human Behavior. New York: Macmillan, 1953.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Skinner, B. F., and W. T. Heron. Effects of caffeine and benzedrine upon conditioning and extinction. Psychol. Rec. 1: 340–346, 1937.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Spragg, S. D. S. Comparative Psychology Monographs. 15: No. 7, 1940.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Stolerman, I. P., and R. Kumar. Preferences for morphine in rats: validation of an experiment model of dependence. Psychopharmacologia 17: 137–150, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Stretch, R., G. J. Gerber and J. M. Woods. Factors affecting behavior maintained by response-contingent intravenous infusions of amphetamine in squirrel monkeys. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol 48: 581–589, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Thompson, T., G. Bigelow and R. Pickens. Environmental variables influencing drug self-administration. In: Stimulus Properties of Drugs, edited by T. Thompson and R. Pickens. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1971.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Thompson, T., R. Griffiths and R. Pickens. Behavioral variables influencing drug self-administration by animals: implications for controlling human drug abuse. In: Psychic Dependence, edited by L. Goldberg and F. Hoffmeister. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1973, p. 88–103.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Thompson, T., and W. Ostlund. Susceptibility to re-addiction as a function of the addiction and withdrawal environment. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 59: 388–392, 1965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Thompson, T., and R. Pickens. Drug self-administration and conditioning. In: Scientific Basis of Drug Dependence, edited by H. Steinberg. London: Churchill, 1969.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Thompson, T., and R. Pickens. Drugs as reinforcers: schedule considerations. In: Schedule Effects: Drugs, Drinking and Aggression, edited by R. Gilbert and J. D. Keehn, Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Thompson, T., and C. R. Schuster. Morphine self-administration, food-reinforced and avoidance behaviors in rhesus monkeys. Psychopharmacologia 5: 87–94, 1964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Thompson, T., and C. R. Schuster. Behavioral Pharmacology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1968.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Weeks, J. Experimental morphine addiction: method for automatic intravenous injection in unrestrained rats. Science 138: 143–144, 1962.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Wilson, M., and C. R. Schuster. Pharmacological modification of the self-adrninistration of cocaine and SPA in the rhesus monkey. NAS-NRC Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence, Indianapolis, Indiana, 1968.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Winger, G., and J. H. Woods. The reinforcing property of ethanol in the rhesus monkey: I. Initiation, maintenance and termination of intravenous ethanol-reinforced responding. Ann. N. V. Acad. Sci. 215: 162–175, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Woods, J. H., D. A. Downs and J. M. Carney. Behavioral functions of narcotic antagonists: response-drug contingencies. Federation Proc. 34: 1777–1784, 1975.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Woods, J. H., and C. R. Schuster. Reinforcement properties of morphine, cocaine, and SPA as a function of unit dose. Int. f. Addict. 3: 231–237, 1968.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Yanagita, T., S. Takahashi, K. Ishida and H. Finamoto. Voluntary inhalation of volatile anesthetics and organic solvents by monkeys, Japan. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 1: 13–16, 1970.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Yokel, R. A., and R. Pickens. Self-administration of optical isomers of amphetamine and methylamphetamine by rats. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 187: 27–33, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Yokel, R. A., and R. Pickens. Drug level of d-and J-amphetamine during intravenous self-administration. Psychopharmacologia 34: 255–264, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Yokel, R. A., and R. Pickens. Extinction following amphetamine and methyl-amphetamine self-administration by rats. In press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Travis Thompson
    • 1
  • Roy Pickens
    • 1
  1. 1.University of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations