Advertisement

Behavioral toxicology: A developing discipline

  • Nancy K. Mello
Part of the FASEB Monographs book series (FASEBM, volume 4)

Abstract

Exposure to toxic chemicals may adversely affect a number of organ systems and hepatic, cardiac, pulmonary and central nervous system function may be severely compromised. In some instances, the concomitant behavioral changes may be unremarkable, as in the case of asbestos exposure which may eventually result in the development of a rapidly fatal mesothelioma, as long as 25 to 30 years after initial contact (16). In contrast, other toxic agents such as lead and methylmercury may produce early and direct behavioral effects which range from interference with sensory and motor integration to profound intellectual deficits and emotional disturbances (3, 13).

Keywords

Toxic Chemical Asbestos Exposure Carbon Disulphide Viscose Rayon Motor Integration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Brodeur, P. Annals of industry; casualties of the work place. (I–V), New Yorker, October 29–November 26, 1973.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chalfant, J. C., and M. A. Scheffelin. Central processing dysfunction in children: A review of research. NINDS Monograph No. 9. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Govt. Printing Office, 1969.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Evans, H. L., V. G. Laties and B. Weiss. Behavioral effects of mercury and methylmercury. Federation Proc. 34: 1858, 1975.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Friedler, G., and J. Cochin. Growth retardation in offspring of female rats treated with morphine prior to conception. Science 175: 654, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Garland, H., and J. Pearce. Neurological complications of carbon monoxide poisoning. Q. J. Med. 36: 445, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine (6th Edition), edited by M. M. Wintrobe, R. O. Adams, I. L. Bennett, E. Braun-wala, K. Isselbacher, R. Petersdorf and G. W. Thorne. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1970.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jones, K. L., D. W. Smith, A. P. Streissguth and N. C. Myrian-Thopoulos. Outcome in offspring of chronic alcoholic women. Lancet 1: 1076, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kelleher, R. T., and W. H. Morse. Determinants of the specificity of behavioral effects of drugs. Ergeb. Physiol. Biol. Chem. Exp. Pharmakol. 60: 1, 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lieber, C. S., E. Rubin and L. M. Decarli. Chronic and acute effects of ethanol on hepatic metabolism of ethanol, lipids and drugs: Correlation with ultrastructural changes. In: Recent Advances in Studies of Alcoholism, edited by N. K. Mello and J. H. Mendelson. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Govt. Printing Office, Pub. No. (HSM) 71–9045, 1971, p. 3.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mancuso, T. F., and B. Z. Locke. Carbon disulphide as a cause of suicide: Epidemiological study of viscose rayon workers. J. Occup. Med. 14: 595, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mello, N. K. Behavioral Studies of Alcoholism. In: The Biology of Alcoholism: Vol. II, Physiology and Behavior, edited by B. Kissin and H. Begleiter. New York: Plenum, 1972, p. 219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mendelson, J. H. Biological concomitants of alcoholism. N. Engl. J. Med. 283: 24 and 71, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pollution: Its impact on mental health. DHEW Publication No. (HSM) 72–9135. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Govt. Printing Office, 1972.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schulte, J. H. Effects of mild carbon monoxide intoxication. Arch. Environ. Health 7: 524, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schuster, C. R., and M. W. Fischman. Amphetamine toxicity: Behavioral and neuropathological indexes. Federation Proc. 34: 1845, 1975.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sherrill, R. Asbestos, the saver of lives, has a deadly side. N. Y. Times Magazine Jan. 21, 1973.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Skinner, B. F. The Behavior of Organisms, An Experimental Analysis. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1938.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Spyker, J. M., S. B. Sparber and A. M. Goldberg. Subtle consequences of methylmercury exposure: Behavioral deviations in offspring of treated mothers. Science 177: 621, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Spyker, J. M. Assessing the impact of low level chemicals on development: Behavioral and latent effects. Federation Proc. 34: 1835, 1975.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Stebbins, W. C. Animal Psychophysics: The Design and Conduct of Sensory Experiments. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1970.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Warkany, J., and D. M. Hubbard. Adverse mercurial reactions in the form of acrodynia and related conditions. Am. J. Dis. Child. 81: 335, 1951.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Weiss, B., and V. G. Laties. Behavioral pharmacology and toxicology. Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. 9: 297, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Weiss, B., and V. G. Laties. Behavioral Toxicology. New York: Plenum, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Xintaras, C., B. L. Johnson, and I. Degroot. Behavioral Toxicology: Early Detection of Occupational Hazards. DHEW Publication No. 74–126. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Govt. Printing Office, 1974.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nancy K. Mello
    • 1
  1. 1.Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Center, McLean HospitalHarvard Medical SchoolBelmontUSA

Personalised recommendations