Catecholamines and drug—behavior interactions

  • L. S. Seiden
  • R. C. MacPhail
  • M. W. Oglesby
Part of the FASEB Monographs book series (FASEBM, volume 4)


The effects of several drugs on schedule-controlled operant behavior depend on the baseline rate of responding and on the nature of the environmental conditions that maintain the behavior. For example, the effects of amphetamine and alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (αMT) on operant performances depend to a large extent on the rate at which organisms respond under nondrug control conditions. A neurochemical mechanism for these rate-dependent effects has not been established. However, several lines of evidence suggest that catecholamines are functionally important in the maintenance of many types of behavior, including operant behavior. The fact that many drugs which exhibit drug-behavior interactions also produce characteristic effects on the metabolism of central nervous system catecholamines suggests that the performance of operant behavior per se modifies brain catecholamine metabolism and thereby the subsequent drug effect. Experiments measuring the depletion of catecholamines following synthesis inhibition with αMT, or changes in the specific activity of norepinephrine after tritium labeling, have shown that operant behavior alters the metabolism of catecholamines. Preliminary evidence is also presented from experiments designed to determine variables associated with the performance-induced changes in catecholamine metabolism. These variables include: rate of response; rate or density of reinforcement; and response-reinforcer contingencies. The results of these experiments suggest a neurochemical mechanism for the rate-dependent effects of amphetamine and αMT. A model is presented that may account for the general phenomenon of drug-behavior interactions in neurochemical terms. — Seiden, L. S., R. C. Makcphail and M. W. Oglesby. Catecholamines and drug-behavior interactions. Federation Proc. 34: 1823–1831, 1975.


Operant Behavior Spontaneous Motor Activity Interresponse Time Brain Catecholamine Water Reinforcement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.





fixed ratio


fixed interval


differential reinforcement of low rate.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ahlenius, S., and J. Engel. Naunyn-Schmeidebergs Arch. Exp. Pathol. Pharmakol. 270: 349, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Akiskal, H. S., and W. T. Mckinney. Science 182: 20, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anden, N. E., A. Carlsson and J. Hággendal. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. 9: 119, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anden, N. E., H. Corrodi, K. Fuxe, T. Hókfelt, C. Rydin and T. Svenson. Life Sci. 9: 513, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Andén, N. E., A. Rubenson, K. Fuxe and T. Hókfelt. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 19: 627, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barchas, J. D., and D. X. Freedman. Biochem. Pharmacol. 12: 1232, 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Blaschko, H., and T. L. Chrusciel. J. Physiol. London 151: 272, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bliss, E. L., J. Allion and J. Zwanziger. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 164: 122, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bliss, E. L., and J. Zwanziger. J. Psychmtr. Res. 4: 189, 1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bradley, W. G., D. Murchison and M. Day. Brain Res. 35: 185, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Breese, G. R., B. R. Cooper and R. D. Smith. In: Frontiers in Catecholamine Research: Third International Catecholamine Symposium, edited by E. Usdin and S. H. Synder. New York; Pergamon, 1973, p. 701.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brodie, B. B., E. Costa, A. Dlabac, N. H. Neff and H. H. Smookler J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 154: 493, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brown, R. M., and L. S. Seiden. Federation Proc. 30: 503, 1971.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Campbell, A. B. (Ph. D. Thesis.) Chicago: The University of Chicago, 1973.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Carlsson, A. In: Amphetamines and Related Compounds, edited by E. Costa and S. Garattini. New York: Raven, 1970, p. 289.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Carlsson, A., and M. Lindqvist. Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol. 20: 140, 1963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Carlsson, A., M. Lindqvist and T. Magnus Son. Nature London 180: 1200, 1957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Carlsson, A., E. Rosengren, A. Bertler and J. Nilsson. In: Psychotropic Drugs, edited by S. Garattini and V. Ghetti. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1957, p. 363.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cooper, J. R., F. E. Bloom and R. H. Roth. The Biochemical Basis of Neuropharmacology. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Corrodi, H., K. Fuxe and T. Hòkfelt. Life Sci. 7: 107, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dews, P. B. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 113: 339, 1955.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dews, P. B. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 122: 137, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dews, P. B. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. Exp. Pathol. Pharmakol. 248: 296, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dominic, J. A., and K. E. Moore. Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. Ther. 178: 166, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Evans, H. L. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 176: 244, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ferster, C. B., and B. F. Skinner. Schedules of Reinforcement. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fuxe, K., and L. C. F. Hanson. Psychopharmacologia. 11: 439, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Glowinski, J., and L. L. Iversen. J. Neurochem. 13: 655, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Goldstein, M., B. Anagnoste, E. Lauber and M. R. Mckeregan. Life Sci. 3: 763, 1964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gordon, R., S. Spector, A. Sjoerdsma and S. Udenfriend. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 153: 440, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hansson, E., R. M. Fleming and W. G. Clark. Int. J. Neuropharmacol. 3: 177, 1964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hanson, L. C. F. Psychopharmacologia 8: 100, 1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hertting, G., J. Axelrod and L. G. Whitby. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 134: 146, 1961.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hillarp, N. A., K. Fuxe and A. Dahlstròm. Pharmacol. Rev. 18: 727, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hoebel, B. G. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 33: 533, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Holzbauer, M., and M. Vogt. J. Neurochem. 1: 8, 1956.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hornykiewicz, O. Pharmacol. Rev. 18: 925, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hornykiewicz, O. Federation Proc. 32: 183, 1973.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hurwitz, D. A., S. M. Robinson and I. Barofsky. Neuropharmacology 10: 477, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Jönsson, L. E., E. Änggärd and L. M. Günne. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 12: 889, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kelleher, R. T., and W. H. Morse. Ergeh. Physiol. Biol. Chem. Exp. Pharmacol. 60: 1, 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kety, S. S., F. Javoy, A. M. Thierry, L. Julou and J. Glowinski. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 58: 1249, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kramer, T. J., and M. Rilling. Psychol. Bulletin 74: 225, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Laties. V. G., J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 183: 1, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Laties, V. G., and B. Weiss. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 152: 388, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Leibowitz, S. F. Res. Publ. Assoc. Res. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 50: 327, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lewy, A. J. (Ph. D. Thesis.) Chicago: The University of Chicago, 1973.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lewy, A. J., and L. S. Seiden. Science 175: 454, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Macphail, R. C. Proc. Am. Psychol. Assoc. 79: 755, 1971.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Macphail, R. C. (Ph. D. Thesis.) College Park: University of Maryland, 1973.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Marr, M. J. J. Exp. Anal. Behav. 13: 291, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Maynert, E. W., and R. Levi. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 143: 90, 1964.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Mckearney, J. W. J. Exp. Anal. Behav. 14: 167, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Mckim, W. A. Psychopharmacologia 32: 255, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Moore, K. E. Life Sci. 5: 55, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Moore, K. E., and E. W. Lariviere. Biochem. Pharmacol. 12: 1283, 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Moore, K. E., and R. H. Rech. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 19: 405, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Randrup, A., and I. Munkvad. In. Amphetamine and Related Compounds, edited by E. Costa and S. Garattini. New York: Raven, 1970, p. 695.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Rutledge, C. O. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 171: 188, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Scheel-Krüger, J.Eur. J. Pharmacol. 14: 47, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Schildkraut, J. J. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. 13: 427, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Schoenfeld, R., and L. S. Seiden. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 167: 319, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Seiden, L. S. Am. Psychol. 23: 887, 1968.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Seiden, L. S. In: Methods of Neurochemistry, edited by R. Fried. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1973, p. 59.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Seiden, L. S., R. M. Brown and A. J. Lewy. In: Chemical Modulation of Brain Function, edited by H. C. Sabelli. New York: Raven, 1973, p. 261.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Seiden, L. S., and A. B. Campbell. In: Neuropsychopharmacology of Monoamines and Their Regulatory Enzymes, edited by E. Usdin. New York: Raven, 1973.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Seiden, L. S., and A. Carlsson. Psychopharmacologia 4: 418, 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Seiden, L. S., and A. Carlsson. Psychopharamacologia 5: 178, 1964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Seiden, L. S., and L. C. F. Hanson. Psychopharmacologia 6: 239, 1964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Seiden, L. S., R. C. Macphail and J. Andresen. In preparation.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Seiden, L. S., and T. W. Martin. Physiol. Behav. 6: 453, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Seiden, L. S., and D. D. Peterson. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 159: 422, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Seiden, L. S., and D. D. Peterson. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 163: 84, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Shore, P. A., S. L. Silver and B. B. Brodie. Science 122: 284, 1955.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Sldman, M. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 65: 282, 1956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Simmonds, M. A. J. Physiol., London 203: 199, 1969.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Smith, C. B., and P. B. Dews. Psychopharmacologia 3: 55, 1962.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Snyder, S., and J. L. Meyerhoff. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 205: 310, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Spector, S., A. Sjoerdsma and S. Udenfriend. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 147: 86, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Stone, E. A. Psychosom. Med. 32: 51, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Sulser, F., and E. Sanders-Bush. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. 11: 209, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Thierry, A. M., F. Javoy, J. Glowinski and S. S. Kety. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 163: 163, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ungerstedt, U. Acta Physiol. Scand. Suppl. 367: 1, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Valzelli, L., E. Dolfini, M. Tansella and L. Garattini. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 20: 595, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Weiner, N. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. 10: 273, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Weiss, B., and V. G. Laties. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. 9: 297, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Weissman, A., B. K. Koe and S. S. Tenen. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 151: 339, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Zigmond, M. J., and E. M. Stricker. Science 177: 1211, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. S. Seiden
    • 1
    • 2
  • R. C. MacPhail
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. W. Oglesby
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacological and Physiological SciencesThe University of ChicagoChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryThe University of ChicagoChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations